Mary AnningRobert BallardJohn HammondIndiana Jones
In 1811, Mary Anning thought she had found the skeleton of a crocodile, but it was actually an ancient fish-lizard that lived 200 million years ago. After teaching herself about geology, paleontology, biology and even scientific illustration, she discovered hundreds of fossils along the cliffs of the English channel.
Ernest RutherfordNiels BohrJ. Robert OppenheimerLise Meitner
As a Jewish woman trying to study physics in Germany, Lise Meitner had everything working against her. She was excluded from classrooms and laboratories, and she was forced to work in a basement before she eventually fled Nazi-controlled Germany. Despite all that, she led the team that discovered nuclear fission, paving the way for nuclear energy.
Enrico FermiMarie CurieWerner HeisenbergJames Chadwick
Marie Curie investigated radioactive elements, and her discoveries led to a total reevaluation of the structure of the atom. She also discovered two chemical elements and was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel prize.
James WatsonCraig VenterRosalind FranklinMario Capecchi
While Rosalind Franklin was studying DNA, Maurice Wilkins–her lab colleague–reviewed her work and wrote his conclusions. Francis Crick published the discoveries in the scientific magazine Nature, and both scientists were awarded the Nobel prize in 1962. Sadly, Franklin passed away in 1958 before her contributions were widely recognized.
Chen-Ning YangTsung-Dao LeeChien-Shiung WuGu Jing-Wei
Chien-Shiung Wu contradicted a fundamental law of physics when she discovered that elementary particles know the difference between right and left (a huge oversimplification, but it's kind of the easiest way to explain it). Thanks to this discovery, two of her colleagues were awarded the Nobel prize, but Wu was not included in the nomination.
Carl LinnaeusGail R. MartinAlexander FlemingE. O. Wilson
Gail R. Martin
Stem cells are a type of cell that can replicate on any kind of tissue, and they're about to revolutionize medicine forever. Gail Martin was the first person to isolate and grow the cells in vitro. In a few years, when we are able to print human organs, you have her to thank.
Louis PasteurJonas SalkDavid BaltimoreFrançoise Barré-Sinoussi
During the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, scientists were shocked because they didn't know what was causing the outbreak. Françoise Barré identified the human immunodeficiency virus as the origin of the disease and her discovery was essential for the development of newer and better treatments.
Jocelyn BellCarl SaganNeil DeGrasse TysonStephen Hawking
A neutron star is similar to the nucleus of an atom ... except that it's the size of Mount Everest and has the mass of three Suns. These super dense stars rotate at three times the speed of sound and emit intermittent light, radio waves, and very powerful electromagnetic radiation. Jocelyn Bell discovered these celestial bodies when she was only 24.
Charles Francis RichterInge LehmannAlfred WegenerSocrates
Before Inge Lehmann, seismologists believed that the Earth contained only molten rock. In 1936, Inge discovered that at the center of the molten outer core was a solid inner core. Lehmann died at the age of 104, making her the longest living female scientist in history.
James WatsonCharles DarwinGregor MendelMary-Claire King
Among other things, Mary-Claire King is famous for her work in the field of genetics, and she was the first to prove that humans share 99% of their genome with chimpanzees. Her investigations into cancer has led to the detection and treatment of the disease in millions of patients.
Ada LovelaceTim-Berners LeeSteve WozniakMark Zuckerberg
Lord Byron's daughter was the first programmer ever ... way back in the 19th century! Without her, you wouldn't be taking this quiz right now.
This post was translated from Spanish.