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How Much Do You Know About Basic Psychology?

Do you know your Freud from your Pavlov?

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Rafael Ben-ari / Getty Images
  1. 1. Phineas Gage became a famous figure in neuroscience because:

    GreenFlames09 / Creative Commons / Flickr: greenflames09
    Correct
    Incorrect
    He performed revolutionary field work in the 19th century on personality disorders
    Correct
    Incorrect
    He was the first living split-brained patient able to be studied
    Correct
    Incorrect
    We learned from him that the parietal lobe may be involved with emotional control
    Correct
    Incorrect
    We learned from him that the frontal lobe may be involved with planning and reasoning
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    Phineas Gage survived an accident in which a large iron rod drove completely through his head, destroying part of his frontal lobe. After the accident, his personality and behaviors went through some severe changes — including his abilities to plan and reason.

  2. 2.

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Functionalism
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Gestalt Psychology
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Structuralism
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Psychodynamic Theory
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Behaviorism
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    Structuralism was the first organized school of thought in psychology. It began with the work of Wilhelm Wundt and sought to identify the basic elements of consciousness — AKA the state of being aware.

  3. 3. Ivan Pavlov was looking at salivation in dogs in response to being fed when he noticed that his dogs would begin to salivate at the sound of him entering the room. The sound of footsteps are an example of:

    Anita Peeples / unsplash.com
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Conditioned stimulus
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Acquired stimulus
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Unconditioned stimulus
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Unnatural stimulus
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    The footsteps in this case are a conditioned stimulus. Because Pavlov’s dogs began associating the sound of footsteps with receiving food, eventually, the sound alone was enough to elicit the reflexive response of salivation. Pavlov went on to study this response in his famous classical conditioning experiments, where he conditioned his dogs to salivate at the sound of a neutral stimulus.

  4. 4.

    Correct
    Incorrect
    You lose your Christmas bonus after showing up late to work every day
    Correct
    Incorrect
    You're not allowed to see your friends because you broke curfew
    Correct
    Incorrect
    You fail an exam you didn't study for
    Correct
    Incorrect
    You get kicked off your basketball team after failing the drug test
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    In operant conditioning, a positive punishment is one where an action or response leads to an undesired consequence, like a failing grade, which makes it more likely that you will study next time. A negative punishment, on the other hand, is when an action leads to a pleasant object or event being removed, like losing a bonus or getting kicked off a team.

  5. 5. Which need is missing from Maslow’s Hierarchy?

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Esteem needs
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Mastery needs
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Intellectual needs
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Harmony needs
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Existential needs
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs — a five tier model of what needs drive human motivation — includes physiological needs (food, water, air), safety needs (shelter, protection), belongingness needs (love, sense of belonging), esteem needs (mastery, feeling appreciated by others), and self-actualization needs (being all that you are capable of becoming).

  6. 6.

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Unfulfillment, Fulfillment, Regression, Actualization
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Electra complex and oedipus complex
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Oral, anal, digital, genital
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    Freud’s psychosexual stages were oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital, developmental stages based on erogenous zones. According to Freud’s theory, each zone demands some form of sexual gratification, unless a person will develop a ~fixation~.

  7. 7. What is something the frontal lobe is NOT critically involved in?

    Henry Vandyke Carter / Henry Gray / Public Domain
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Planning
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Memory search
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Comprehending language
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Motor control
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Speech control
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Reasoning
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Emotions
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    Comprehending language is a job of the temporal lobe.

  8. 8. Which of the following is not a defense mechanism according to Freud?

    Max Halberstadt / Public Domain
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Repression
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Denial
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Intellectualization
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Projection
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Reaction Formation
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Selective Memory
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Undoing
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Rationalization
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    According to Freud, the ego uses unconscious processes called defense mechanisms to prevent unacceptable thoughts and urges from reaching conscious awareness. Selective memory is not one of those defense mechanisms.

  9. 9.

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Carl Rogers
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Karen Horney
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Carl Jung
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Alfred Adler
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    Carl Jung’s work emphasized basic personality types found in all cultures and folklore — including introversion and extraversion.

  10. 10. You are a research participant in a psychology study about happiness. After you read a story about how a dog saved his family from a fire, you are asked about your feelings and mental processes as you were reading. This is an example of:

    Bridget Coila / Creative Commons / Flickr: bibbit
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Insight illumination
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Inductive recall
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Introspection
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Interactionism
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    Introspection — the technique of observing your mental events as, or immediately after, they occur — was the primary research tool of structuralism.

  11. 11. Roughly how many separate things can the average person store in short-term memory at once?

    Correct
    Incorrect
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    The average person can store roughly seven separate pieces of information in their short-term memory at once, plus or minus two.

  12. 12. According to Paul Ekman, which of the following is one of the six universal expressions?

    Ayo Ogunseinde / unsplash.com
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Excitement
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Disgust
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Suspicion
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Joy
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    In a series of studies, Paul Ekman found there were universal facial expressions that indicated anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise.

  13. 13. What are the four stages the human body goes through during sexual activity, according to Masters and Johnson?

    Claudie Ossard Productions / imgur.com
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Attraction, desire, excitement, performance
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Excitement, desire, performance, attraction
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Excitement, orgasm, plateau, resolution
    Correct
    Incorrect
    Exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, denouement
    Correct!
    Wrong!

    The body passes through an excitement stage, a plateau stage, an orgasm stage, and a resolution stage during sexual activity.

All questions were adapted or sourced from MIT Open Courseware Introduction to Psychology under Creative Commons.

 
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