He performed revolutionary field work in the 19th century on personality disordersHe was the first living split-brained patient able to be studiedWe learned from him that the parietal lobe may be involved with emotional controlWe learned from him that the frontal lobe may be involved with planning and reasoning
Phineas Gage survived an accident in which a large iron rod drove completely through his head, destroying part of his frontal lobe. After the accident, his personality and behaviors went through some severe changes — including his abilities to plan and reason.
FunctionalismGestalt PsychologyStructuralismPsychodynamic TheoryBehaviorism
Structuralism was the first organized school of thought in psychology. It began with the work of Wilhelm Wundt and sought to identify the basic elements of consciousness — AKA the state of being aware.
Conditioned stimulusAcquired stimulusUnconditioned stimulusUnnatural stimulus
The footsteps in this case are a conditioned stimulus. Because Pavlov’s dogs began associating the sound of footsteps with receiving food, eventually, the sound alone was enough to elicit the reflexive response of salivation. Pavlov went on to study this response in his famous classical conditioning experiments, where he conditioned his dogs to salivate at the sound of a neutral stimulus.
You lose your Christmas bonus after showing up late to work every dayYou're not allowed to see your friends because you broke curfewYou fail an exam you didn't study forYou get kicked off your basketball team after failing the drug test
In operant conditioning, a positive punishment is one where an action or response leads to an undesired consequence, like a failing grade, which makes it more likely that you will study next time. A negative punishment, on the other hand, is when an action leads to a pleasant object or event being removed, like losing a bonus or getting kicked off a team.
Esteem needsMastery needsIntellectual needsHarmony needsExistential needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs — a five tier model of what needs drive human motivation — includes physiological needs (food, water, air), safety needs (shelter, protection), belongingness needs (love, sense of belonging), esteem needs (mastery, feeling appreciated by others), and self-actualization needs (being all that you are capable of becoming).
Unfulfillment, Fulfillment, Regression, ActualizationElectra complex and oedipus complexOral, anal, phallic, latency, genitalOral, anal, digital, genital
Freud’s psychosexual stages were oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital, developmental stages based on erogenous zones. According to Freud’s theory, each zone demands some form of sexual gratification, unless a person will develop a ~fixation~.
PlanningMemory searchComprehending languageMotor controlSpeech controlReasoningEmotions
Comprehending language is a job of the temporal lobe.
RepressionDenialIntellectualizationProjectionReaction FormationSelective MemoryUndoingRationalization
According to Freud, the ego uses unconscious processes called defense mechanisms to prevent unacceptable thoughts and urges from reaching conscious awareness. Selective memory is not one of those defense mechanisms.
Carl RogersKaren HorneyCarl JungAlfred Adler
Carl Jung’s work emphasized basic personality types found in all cultures and folklore — including introversion and extraversion.
Insight illuminationInductive recallIntrospectionInteractionism
Introspection — the technique of observing your mental events as, or immediately after, they occur — was the primary research tool of structuralism.
The average person can store roughly seven separate pieces of information in their short-term memory at once, plus or minus two.
In a series of studies, Paul Ekman found there were universal facial expressions that indicated anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise.
Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolutionAttraction, desire, excitement, performanceExcitement, desire, performance, attractionExcitement, orgasm, plateau, resolutionExposition, rising action, climax, falling action, denouement
The body passes through an excitement stage, a plateau stage, an orgasm stage, and a resolution stage during sexual activity.
How Much Do You Know About Basic Psychology?
So, you kind of bombed. You won't be passing any Intro to Psych classes any time soon. But hey! You can always study up next time.
Congrats, you passed! (But barely.) Looks like you remember a thing or two from Psych class.
You totally aced it, you psych genius! If only this counted toward your GPA.
All questions were adapted or sourced from MIT Open Courseware Introduction to Psychology under Creative Commons.