Newborns (up to 3 months old)Infants (four to 11 months)Toddlers (1-2 years)Preschool kids (3-5 years)School-age kids (6-13 years)Tweens and teens (13-17 years)
Newborns (up to 3 months old)
The National Sleep Foundation says that newborns typically need the most sleep (about 14-17 hours per day!). Here's the rest of the breakdown: Infants need 12-15 hours, toddlers need 11-14 hours, preschoolers need 10-13, school-age kids 9-11, and teens and tweens, 8-10 hours.
Go to sleep and wake up around the same time every dayExercise right before bed to tire yourself outAvoid caffeine late in the dayAvoid nicotine late in day
Exercise right before bed to tire yourself out
Exercising 20-30 minutes per day is recommended for getting better sleep, but no later than a few hours before bed. For many people, exercising too close to bedtime can be overstimulating and make it tough to sleep. All the rest of the tips are accurate (and you can find more at the National Sleep Foundation).
Right after they eat lunchRight after they wake up1-3 p.m.11 p.m.-1 a.m.
According to the National Sleep Foundation, the period of time between 1 and 3 p.m. is when most people experience the strongest sleep drive. And the other time most people feel sleepiest is 2-4 a.m. These can vary depending on when you're a "morning person" or "evening person."
Melatonin uptakesCircadian rhythmsBrain's sleep center neuronsAll of the above
Circadian rhythms regulate when you feel alert or sleepy — they're what make you want to take that nap between 1 and 3.
2/3, men1/3, the elderly1/2, women2/3, people who get migraines
About 67% of adults talk in their sleep at least once every three months. And it turns out that the behavior is more common among men.
The blue light tells your visual cortex to keep your eyes openThe blue light suppresses the release of melatonin, a sleep-inducing hormoneThe blue light causes your brain's anxiety center to get activatedAll of the above
These electronics emit a blue light that suppresses the release of melatonin, a sleep-inducing hormone.
Basically, the blue light these devices emit suppresses melatonin, which in turn reduces the amount of REM sleep you get in a night. You can learn more about electronics before bed and blue light from the National Sleep Foundation.
The period of time between falling asleep and being fully asleepThe phase of deepest and most restorative sleepThe phase when your body becomes immobile and you dreamNone of the above
The phase when your body becomes immobile and you dream
According to the National Sleep Foundation, sleep happens in cycles that repeat themselves about every 90 minutes. The first stage, which is called N1, includes falling asleep and light sleep. N2 is the onset of sleep when your breathing becomes regular, you detach from your surroundings, and your body temperature drops. N3 is the deepest and more restorative phase of sleep when growth hormone is released, blood pressure drops, and your breathing slows. REM starts about 90 minutes after falling asleep and recurs throughout the night. During this phase, your eyes dart back and forth, your brain is engaged, and you dream.
Be longer and deeperBe shorter and lighterBring fewer dreamsBe interrupted by snoring
Be shorter and lighter
According to the National Institutes of Health, after age 60, people's sleep at night is shorter, lighter, and interrupted by waking up several times.
The National Sleep Foundation says that us humans are the only ones in the animal kingdom who willingly delay sleep.
1-10 minutes10-20 minutes20-30 minutes30-40 minutes
If you're falling asleep quicker than 10 minutes in, or taking more than 20 minutes to drift off, it could mean you're sleep deprived or have sleep onset insomnia, respectively.
Hypnic jerksParasomniasCerebral jumpsHypnotic jerksNone of the above
Sleep starts are also known as hypnic jerks. They occur when you're drifting off to sleep and are simply involuntary muscle twitches in your arms, legs, or other parts of your body. It's not clear why they happen, although there are some theories, like the idea that as you fall asleep your brain misunderstands your muscles relaxing as a signal that you're falling and responds by tensing your muscles to protect you during impact.
A small 2000 study found that subjects who were awake for 17-19 hours performed tasks involving reaction time, vigilance, hand-eye coordination, and more about as well as (or worse than) people with a BAC of .05 after drinking alcohol.