Jack Moore received a "Purple Heart" badge on Dec 26 because they suffered bravely in the comments section. Someone was wrong on the Internet, but they would not let that stand, no matter what the danger. They have served BuzzFeed valiantly.
Jack Moore received a "Collection" badge on Sep 15 because they posted something that people are adding to. That's harder than it sounds - usually people are just like, "meh," (which, and I get that we're now waaaaaaay off topic, is a really annoying thing to say under almost any circumstances).
Jack Moore received a "Fact Checker" badge on Sep 15 because they verified or disputed a fact and backed up their claim with some kind of written or visual proof. If we didn't have someone to check the facts, none of the facts would get checked - and then where would we be?!