Politics

These Mothers Were Sentenced To At Least 10 Years For Failing To Protect Their Children From A Violent Partner

For a BuzzFeed News investigation, here is a list of the cases we found and an explanation of the methodology we used to find them.

In families terrorized by a violent man, the victims are often the children as well as the mother. But a BuzzFeed News investigation has found that the law often treats the battered mother not as a victim but as a perpetrator, guilty of failing to protect her children from her violent partner.

The sentences for these women can be harsh. BuzzFeed News identified 28 such cases in 11 different states from 2004 through the present where the mother was sentenced to 10 years or more in prison. It also found another 45 cases where evidence of domestic violence against the woman could not be found.

Some prosecutors say that long sentences send a message to mothers that they have a solemn duty to protect their children, even if they must lay their life on the line. Many domestic violence advocates counter that such punishments are an injustice — “the ultimate blaming of the victim,” as one put it.

This post explains BuzzFeed News’ methodology for finding cases and provides a summary of each case. Here’s what’s in this post:

Overview of methodology

Nobody knows exactly how many people have been prosecuted under these laws. BuzzFeed News created its tally by focusing on 29 states that allow for severe punishment — sentences of at least 10 years in prison.

But only five of those states provided inmate data that broke out women who themselves committed abuse or other crimes against children from those who may have failed to stop their partners from committing the abuse. The other 24 states either lump together the different types of cases or refused requests for data entirely. To identify cases in those states, BuzzFeed News either combed through all child abuse cases or, in states where there were too many for that to be feasible, searched for news stories of women convicted under such laws then verified case details through court records, interviews with attorneys involved in the case, or both. Of course, the latter method isn’t comprehensive, so BuzzFeed News’ tally is conservative; the actual number of cases is likely higher.

Although the laws apply to both mothers and fathers, women are overwhelmingly the ones prosecuted. BuzzFeed found a total of 73 cases of mothers sentenced to at least a decade — 28 cases with evidence that the woman was battered and 45 without such evidence. By contrast BuzzFeed News found only four fathers who had been sentenced to 10 years or more. In none of those cases did BuzzFeed News find evidence that the man had been battered.

Because of limitations in the data, in many states it was not possible to compare all male and female cases. However, in the 10 states where a comprehensive gender comparison was feasible — Arkansas, Oklahoma, Ohio, Mississippi, Florida, Washington, West Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois, and North Dakota — there remained a large gender disparity: 31 mothers imprisoned under these laws for 10 years or more versus only three fathers.

If you know of any cases that do not appear in the list below — or if you have any other information to add — please contact BuzzFeed News reporter Alex Campbell at alex.campbell@buzzfeed.com. For a state-by-state list of laws, click here.

Mother: Bianca Arce (Maricopa County, Arizona)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to “Attempted child abuse,” under Arizona Rev. Stat. § 13-3623. She was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The allegedly abusive partner: Walter Munoz, whose trial for first-degree murder, and child abuse, is pending; he also has an aggravated domestic violence charge pending.

The victim(s): 2-year-old Juan Daniel Resendiz, who died from his injuries; Arce had two other children too.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: A probable cause document states that Munoz caused the injuries and Arce knowingly and intentionally placed and allowed the children to “remain in this endangered environment.” Arce’s presentence investigation also says that she knew about his abuse but did not stop it.

Evidence that there was domestic violence against the woman: According to the presentence investigation, “She was physically and verbally abused by the co-defendant once per week.” The presentence investigation also states that she moved into a domestic violence shelter in August 2010 to get away from Munoz, a month after she had moved in with him. According to an Arizona Republic story, she moved back in with him when she felt she had nowhere else to go, and after promises from Munoz that he had changed.

Other notes: The presentence investigation states that she also had some substance abuse issues.

Dawn Corral Arizona Department of Corrections

Mother: Dawn Corral (Maricopa County, Arizona)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to attempted child abuse under Arizona Rev. Stat. § 13-3623. She was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Juan Corral, convicted of sexual conduct with a minor under age 15 and sentenced to 32 years in prison.

The victim(s): Corral’s 9-year-old daughter.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Corral’s presentence investigation states: “[T]he defendant was present during the physical and sexual abuse of her nine-year-old daughter and allowed her husband to brutally inflict physical, sexual, and emotional harm on her. These abuses occurred over several months, with the defendant apparently failing to report this abuse.”

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Her presentence investigation states she has been married to Juan Corral for three years, “with weekly physical and verbal abuse toward her.”

Jennifer Paul Arizona Depatrment of Corrections

Mother: Jennifer Paul (Maricopa County, Arizona)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to attempted child abuse under Arizona Rev. Stat. § 13-3623, and was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The allegedly abusive partner: Benny Gibson, whose trial for child abuse is still pending.

The victim(s): 6-year-old J.G., who died of abusive head trauma.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her presentence investigation: “Defendant and her husband, co-defendant Benny Gibson, were not charged with the death because we could not determine which of them had killed the child, although circumstantial evidence based on prior abuse points to Mr. Gibson. The charges against Defendant stem from her failure to seek medical care and to prevent Mr. Gibson from having access to and physically abusing Jacob.” Later in the same report: “Defendant and her oldest daughter also report that Mr. Gibson routinely shook Jacob and banged his head into the walls of the apartment … Defendant witnessed these acts, continued to allow Mr. Gibson access to the child, and failed to report the abuse to the authorities even though the police and CPS attempted to intervene only two weeks prior to Jacob’s death … Under such circumstances, this plea offer may seem unduly lenient. However, various factors indicate that Mr. Gibson was the actual perpetrator of the abuse and that Defendant’s role was more passive.” A spokesman for the prosecutor’s office said: “Basically yes, this was a failure to protect case. She was also charged with not reporting Gibson’s abuse of the child.”

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Before her sentencing, the defense filed a report detailing mitigating circumstances: “Jennifer reports that he abused her while pregnant ‘once or twice.’” The report also says when she tried to step in, he would make all of their lives “more miserable.” The report then says she was a victim of domestic violence over the course of nine years with him.

Victoria Pedraza Arkansas Department of Corrections

Mother: Victoria Pedraza (Drew County, Arkansas)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to permitting the abuse of a minor under Arkansas Code Ann. § 5-27-221. She was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Daniel Pedraza, who was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her 2-year-old daughter Aubriana Coke, who died of multiple abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Court documents and interviews indicate that she was prosecuted based on her failure to protect Aubriana. Prosecutor Thomas Deen told BuzzFeed News he believed she didn’t lay a hand on her daughter.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Victoria gave extensive testimony saying that Daniel violently abused her. Prosecutors did not dispute this element of her testimony.

Danielle McCleary Florida Depatrment of Corrections

Mother: Danielle McCleary (Hillsborough County, Florida)

Charge and sentence: Pled guilty to neglect of a child causing great bodily harm, under Florida Stat. § 827.03. She was sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Kenneth G. Lopez, who pled guilty to aggravated child abuse and second-degree murder and was sentenced to 20 years in prison, and 20 years on probation.

The victim(s): Her 2-year-old daughter Gabrielle Randel, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Court documents indicate that she saw Lopez strike the child repeatedly and “stood by.” Her defense attorney said there was no evidence to suggest she had a hand in the abuse.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Her defense attorney said she was physically and mentally abused. He said that various people said they had seen bruises and scars on her and that police reports were filed against Lopez for domestic violence when they both lived in Illinois. According to her appellate brief, it was alleged at her sentencing hearing that while Lopez was hurting her children, she tried to intervene but “he grabbed her by the neck and threw her on the bed.” He also threatened to kill her. A doctor also testified to her being a victim of spousal abuse. The state’s appellate brief does not dispute any of these facts.

Shawn Freire Georgia Department of Corrections

Mother: Shawn Freire (Douglas County, Georgia)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to cruelty to children in the first degree under Georgia Code Ann. § 16-5-70. She received a 20-year sentence.

The abusive partner: Daniel Brian Appleby, who pled guilty to murder in 2008 and is serving a life sentence.

The victim(s): Her baby son Caleb Freire, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The indictment against her is one count, and it alleges that she “willfully deprived her son Caleb Freire of necessary sustenance to the extent that the child’s health and well being was jeopardized in that the accused did not seek medical care for her child after the child was severely beaten by her boyfriend, Brian Appleby, and that she knowingly declined and refused to seek necessary medical care, knowing that her child was injured, so as to prevent authorities from discovering that her child had been beaten and injured by Brian Appleby, further the accused did take steps to conceal the child’s injuries from others in an effort to avoid legal consequences.” Her guilty plea is based on the indictment. Her arrest warrant uses similar failure-to-protect language.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: In Appleby’s case file, the prosecution filed a “Notice of Intent To Use Evidence in Aggravation at Sentencing.” It says: “Further, the State will offer as evidence in aggravation of sentence, evidence of the defendant’s physically abusive demeanor and conduct toward Shawn Freire during their relationship.”

Other notes: Freire wrote two letters to the court, long after her case had been closed. In the first one, she discloses that she has schizophrenia and depression. The second, written in much more scattered handwriting, says that she saw Daniel spanking the baby with a belt, and that the belt hit the baby’s head, and that she saw Daniel “pop” the baby. She also says that she bumped Caleb’s head into the corner three times while he was on timeout, and that she “knocked Caleb down” because she was mad at Brian for potentially cheating on her. No filings have been made on either case since those letters were written.

Esther Primack Georgia Department of Corrections

Mother: Esther Primack (Bulloch County, Georgia)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to cruelty to children in the second degree, under Georgia Code Ann. § 16-5-70. She was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Daniel Jerome Swan. He pled guilty to cruelty to children and aggravated battery; he received a 30-year sentence, though 20 of those years are suspended, meaning he is in prison for 10.

The victim(s): Her 4-year-old daughter, who broke her leg after Swan threw her.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: In the transcript of her guilty plea, the assistant prosecutor says that she is charged with a crime because she caused her child “cruel physical or mental pain by failing to seek medical care for said child.”

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: A defense motion states that she had “on many occasions been severely beaten and exposed to domestic violence by the co-defendant in this case Daniel J. Swan.” It was established in court that child services in New York State noticed that Primack had a bruise on her lip, and her daughter had a bruise on her cheek. Primack told the judge during her guilty plea that “I didn’t want (my children) to get taken away.” The judge replied: “Why did you stay with Mr. Swan then?” Primack responds: “I really don’t know why. I shouldn’t have, because he was very abusive … I just want to get help for it.” The judge, when deciding on Swan’s sentence, said he would impose a no-contact order for Swan with Primack, at the request of Primack’s lawyer.

Mother: Rachel Goodman (Marion County, Indiana)

Charge and sentence: She was charged with neglect of a dependent causing death under Indiana Code § 35-46-1-4. She pled guilty and was sentenced to 16 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Tayuan Chism, who was convicted of murder and sentenced to 55 years in prison.

Victim(s): Her 14-month-old daughter Lilliana, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: There is one count to the indictment, and it says that Goodman “stood by and allowed Tayuan Chism to beat Lilliana and/or failed to obtain prompt medical attention for Lilliana” resulting in her death. According to a state probable cause document, a third-party witness saw Chism whipping the girl with a belt, and a second witness heard the whipping and then came into the room and grabbed the child from his arms.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: According to the probable cause document, Chism admitted that he had beaten Rachel Goodman the day before, “because she would not leave him alone and would not shut up.” Goodman stated that the beating gave her a black eye and “several bruises to her neck area.” According to news articles, Goodman was pregnant at the time.

Mother: Charity Bailey (Marion County, Indiana)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to neglect of a dependent causing death under Indiana Code § 35-46-1-4 and was sentenced to 35 years in prison. She was also convicted of three counts of neglect, for which she got about two years for each count.

The abusive partner: Lawrence Green, who was convicted of murder and sentenced to 64 years, 11 months in prison.

Victim(s): Her 3-year-old daughter, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The main neglect count, for which she got 35 years, said she “stood by” and did not stop Green from hurting her daughter, and also didn’t seek medical care. The other, smaller neglect counts are for the filthiness of her residence.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: According to judges’ appellate opinion, in March 2007 Bailey called the police to say that Green had slapped and choked her.

Other notes: She had multiple interactions with the state’s Department of Child Services, though the appeal does not say that this was because of any physical abuse she committed. Also, after the 2007 police report, DCS tried to get her to stay away from Green, but she went back to him, becoming “evasive” about where she was living. She grew up with extensive family problems and used drugs.

Cecilia Vasquez New Mexico Department of Corrections

Mother: Cecilia Vasquez (Doña Ana County, New Mexico)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of negligently permitting child abuse under New Mexico Stat. § 30-60-1 and was sentenced to 18 years in prison. She was also convicted of tampering with evidence in connection to the crime, for which she got an additional three-year sentence, to serve concurrently with the first charge.

The abusive partner: Freddie Ordoñez, who pled guilty to child abuse and tampering with evidence, and got a 36-year sentence.

Victim(s): Their 15-month-old son Uriah, who died from his injuries. (They also had a 2-year-old daughter.)

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The judges’ appellate decision states that her convictions “stem from the death of her son following physical abuse by the boy’s father.” It says that she left her children in the care of Ordoñez while she went off to work, and he called her to say her son wasn’t doing well. The appeal said he admitted to her that he became frustrated with her son and threw him in the bathtub, and also picked him up by the neck. According to the appeal, she wanted to call 911 but he wouldn’t let her.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: From the appeal: “Defendant also informed police that Ordoñez was physically abusive toward her on a regular basis.” Also, she argued in her appeal that the court should have mitigated her sentence because of evidence of battered-spouse syndrome. (The appeals court, in denying this, did not call into question evidence of domestic violence/battering.)

Other notes: The indictment states that her tampering with evidence charge is because she “did hide or place children’s clothing, household goods and miscellaneous items with the intent to prevent the apprehension, prosecution or conviction of herself or Freddie Ordoñez.”

Miranda Kuykendall New Mexico Department of Corrections

Mother: Miranda Kuykendall (Lea County, New Mexico)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to negligent child abuse under New Mexico Stat. § 30-60-1 and was sentenced to 12 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Christopher Elliott, who pled guilty to child abuse and got a life sentence.

Victim(s): 21-month-old Braxtin Kuykendall, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her attorney said that she did not abuse her children. Audio from her sentencing hearing — the closing statements from the prosecution and defense, as well as the judge’s comments — also indicates that her crime was inaction.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Her attorney said that she was physically abused. Audio from the sentencing hearing confirms that the judge considered the “situation” she was in with Elliott as part of why he lessened her sentence from a possible 21 years down to 12. The judge did say that “direct” testimony about the abuse was not brought up at her trial, but expert witness testimony discussed the problems women who are abused face. The judge also noted that Kuykendall and Elliott were in the same facility when police interviewed them, saying, “I didn’t hear enough to know exactly what was going on in this case. But I do know that men that are abusive can be very manipulative, and allowing Chris Elliott the chance to try to manipulate her in the interview setting was very unfortunate.” A local news article from the time stated, “When he was angry, Elliott was known to hit Kuykendall, kick doors, and throw items at walls.”

Michelle Mooty Ohio Department of Corrections

Mother: Michelle Mooty (Montgomery County, Ohio)

Charge and sentence: She was tried and convicted of permitting child abuse under Ohio Rev. Code § 2903.15, complicity to commit felonious assault (aiding and abetting) under O.R.C. § 2903.11, and child endangerment under O.R.C. § 2919.22. She was sentenced to six years for permitting child abuse, four years for complicity to commit assault, and two years for endangerment, for a total of 12 years.

The abusive partner: Joe Curtis Watson, who was convicted of murder and sentenced to 15 years to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her 2-year-old son Levi, who died of abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The judges’ appellate opinion: “The state alleged that Michelle D. Mooty’s boyfriend, Joe Watson, beat Mooty’s two year old son, Levi, to death after a lengthy ordeal of terrible abuse. The State presented evidence of Mooty’s culpability, arising from Mooty’s actions in giving Watson frequent access to Levi, even though she was increasingly aware of the abuse and had available alternative means and support to avoid it.” The appellate decision also said that the charge of complicity to commit assault stemmed from her seeing the injuries on her child but still allowing Watson access to the boy.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: The appeal details testimony from a child services worker, who received a referral to check on her days before Levi’s death because of a domestic violence incident. The caseworker interviewed Mooty at the time — she reluctantly admitted that Watson had “put his hands around her neck, and head-butted her,” though she downplayed it. She was asked not to leave Levi with Watson, but she did anyway. This evidence of domestic violence was then used against her in court.

Alicia Mackey Oklahoma Department of Corrections

Mother: Alisha Faith Mackey (Muskogee County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse. Note: Until recently, enabling child abuse was a crime under 10 Oklahoma Stat. § 7115(B); the crime was recodified, and is now under 21 Oklahoma Stat. § 843.5(B). She was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Jimmy Don Mackey, who pled guilty to rape of a child under 14, and was sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her son, who Jimmy Don Mackey raped around age 11 or 12.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The charge and the conviction, as well as the narrative presented at her trial, all point to this being a failure-to-protect case.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: The prosecutor, in his opening statement, says: “You’ll hear evidence that [Jimmy] wasn’t just abusing [her son] sexually, he was abusing her, too, physically emotionally, and things of that nature. She made the decision to stay.” Her son testified in court that “sometimes they’d get into a fight, and then he’d beat her.”

Wendy Scroggins Oklahoma Department of Corrections

Mother: Wendy Scroggins (Oklahoma County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of four counts of enabling child abuse — two for enabling child sexual abuse, two for enabling child physical abuse. She was sentenced to a total of 75 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Kerry Joe Smith, who pled guilty to first-degree murder and sexual abuse of a child and was sentenced to life without parole.

The victim(s): Her daughter, who died of abusive injuries. Both her daughter and her son were determined to have been sexually abused.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her plea to enabling abuse says she “allowed her live-in boyfriend, Kerry Joe Smith, to repeatedly sexually abuse” her children.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: A detective testified at Scroggins’ sentencing hearing, saying that Scroggins “acknowledged that there was domestic abuse,” and that “when Mr. Smith would offer to take care of the children, she would let him do that because that meant he left her alone.”

Tonaldo Hall Oklahoma Department of Corrections

Mother: Tondalo Hall (Oklahoma County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to four counts of enabling child abuse and was sentenced to a total of 30 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Robert Braxton Jr., who pled guilty to child abuse in the middle of his jury trial. His sentence was suspended except for the two years of time served.

The victim(s): Her 20-month-old child, who had 12 rib fractures “that were consistent with being squeezed with a compression force,” plus a femur fracture. Her 2 ½-month-old child had seven rib fractures, a femur fracture, and a toe fracture. (She had a 5-year-old too.)

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her guilty plea statement of facts: “I caused injury to my two children … by permitting Robert Braxton, Jr., my children’s father, to hurt them seriously … and then by being afraid to immediately seek medical treatment for my children.” His guilty plea statement of facts: While changing his daughter’s diaper, “I became frustrated with the situation and I used too much force against her which was strong enough to have broken her toe, leg, and ribs. These acts were not deliberate but I knew I was using too much force and pressure for a baby.”

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: During Braxton’s trial, the prosecutor asked Hall if there was anything other than abuse she witnessed that gave her reason to know her children were in danger. Hall said that Braxton “put his hands around my throat and choked me.” The judge put a halt to this line of questioning because it didn’t pertain to Braxton’s child abuse crime. At Hall’s sentencing, the judge said, “Was she scared of him? Probably. But, again, even weighing that factor into the equation, I’m of the opinion she was less than candid.”

Other notes: At her sentencing hearing, the prosecutor said she didn’t disclose enough when on the stand testifying against Braxton. “I believe that she is continuing to minimize what she saw, what she knew was going on with her children.” Prosecutors also said that she didn’t tell anyone about the injuries because she didn’t want DHS to take her children away.

Cyrstal Berry Oklahoma Department of Corrections

Mother: Crystal Berry (Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to enabling child abuse, and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Robert Hurd, who pled guilty to sexual abuse of a child and got life without parole.

The victim(s): Her 8-year-old daughter.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The probable cause affidavit filed with the case states that Berry knew Hurd was a sex offender, and he had told her he was sexually attracted to her children, and she allowed him to look after her daughters (with somebody else there as well, a woman who she was apparently also in a relationship with). She said that she found out he had asked her daughter for “head,” and she didn’t report this because she was afraid.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Berry told police that Hurd said, “Bitch, if you turn me in, I’ll kill you.” She also said that Hurd was physically abusive to her throughout their relationship. Berry’s daughter told police that Hurd threatened to kill Berry if the daughter ever said what happened.

Atelia Hunt South Carolina Department of Corrections

Mother: Atelia Hunt (Marlboro County, South Carolina)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to homicide by child abuse, under South Carolina Code Ann. § 16-3-85. She was also charged with “unlawful conduct toward a child,” under South Carolina Code Ann. § 63-5-70. She received a 20-year sentence.

The abusive partner: Michael Huckabee, who was found guilty at trial of homicide by child abuse and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her 3-year-old daughter, who had multiple abusive injuries including cigarette burns and burn marks on her vaginal cavity.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The prosecutor, at her sentencing hearing, said that she “she allowed this (abuse) to happen.” Her defense attorney confirmed that her crime was failing to stop Huckabee from abusing her child, not for committing the abuse herself.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Her defense attorney said at the sentencing hearing that Huckabee was “very abusive” to both Hunt and her daughter. “The reason why she allowed [the abuse] to happen is because of fear, Your Honor, of Mr. Huckabee.” Over email he told BuzzFeed News that she was a victim of violence at the hands of Huckabee.

Other notes: At Huckabee’s trial his attorneys tried to pin the abuse on Hunt, but jurors convicted him.

Penselyn Loyola Clarksville Police Department

Mother: Penselynn Loyola (Montgomery County, Tennessee)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted in a bench trial to 15 years in prison for “aggravated neglect” under Tennessee Code Ann. § 39-15-402.

The abusive partner: Otis Loyola Sr., who was convicted in the same bench trial of both aggravated neglect and aggravated abuse, and was sentenced to 15 years for the neglect and 20 years for the abuse, though they are to run concurrently.

The victim(s): Her 5-week-old son, who suffered multiple severe abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: She was found not guilty of abuse, and he was convicted of abuse. Her defense attorney also said this was a failure-to-protect case. According to a news article, her 8-year-old daughter testified that “my daddy hit him,” and that she witnessed the abuse and “did mostly nothing.” During her sentencing hearing, the prosecution argued that it was clear she was neglectful because, “If you believe her, she allowed her child to be abused and she did nothing. Mr. Loyola was not home during the day. She had neighbors she could have gone to. She told us during the trial she used the phone, she talked to relatives, they went shopping. She didn’t tell anyone about the events occurring in her home to her son.”

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Her defense attorney said she was physically abused. At her sentencing hearing, Loyola read a letter to the court saying, “My husband took full control of me and my life. He physically and mentally abused me. Made me solely dependant on him.”

Other notes: Otis testified that Pennselynn hurt the baby, not him. The judge did not agree.

Neena Costanza Tennessee Department of Corrections

Mother: Neena Costanza (Davidson County, Tennessee)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to aggravated child neglect under Tennessee Code Ann. § 39-15-402 and reckless homicide, and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The allegedly abusive partner: Jacob Scott Hughes, whose trial for murder is still pending.

The victim(s): Her 16-month-old daughter Eloise, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: At Costanza’s sentencing hearing, the prosecutor said that, over a period of time, the child suffered numerous injuries when her daughter was with Hughes but that she continued to leave her with him. The prosecutor also said that on the day of the fatal injury, Hughes texted Costanza a picture of a bruise on the baby’s cheek but that Costanza took no action.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: A domestic assault case was filed against Hughes a month before the child’s death. Costanza had called police because Hughes was threatening to kill himself; when police arrived, Costanza had a split lip and blood all over her face. She reluctantly admitted that he had struck her in the face. Police also found a bruise on the baby. In court, the prosecutor said that Costanza failed to use this opportunity to report the abuse Hughes was perpetrating on the child.

Brittany Stinnett Tennessee Department of Corrections

Mother: Brittany Stinnett (Knox County, Tennessee)

Charge and sentence: She was charged with aggravated child neglect under Tennessee Code Ann. § 39-15-402, and felony murder based on that neglect. She pled to an amended charge of “facilitation of child abuse,” which is a degree of felony lower than aggravated child neglect. The felony murder charge was dismissed. She was sentenced to 18 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Danny Jay Branam Jr., who was convicted of felony murder and sentenced to life with the possibility of parole after 30 years.

The victim(s): Her 1-year-old daughter Brooklyn Stinnett, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Court documents indicate that the prosecution’s theory was that Branam committed the abuse, not Stinnett. She pled to “knowing that [Branam] intended to commit Agg. Child Abuse, but without the intent required for criminal responsibility … for that offense,” knowingly furnishing Branam with “substantial assistance” in the commission of his crime. “It was never alleged that she actually physically harmed her own child,” said Stinnett’s attorney, John Boucher.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Boucher told BuzzFeed News she suffered “daily and ongoing” abuse, both physical and emotional. “Mr. Branam was a very violent and controlling individual. He would isolate both Ms. Stinnett and the children from friends and family. End result is Ms. Stinnett indicated that she was willing to continue to absorb the abuse, because she believed if she did, he wouldn’t harm the children. In terms many can understand, she believed she could take a punch and deal with it.” BuzzFeed News left messages with the Knox County prosecutor, but they were not returned.

Other notes: The child’s pediatrician reported to Tennessee’s Department of Children’s Services one instance of a bruised buttock as suspected abuse, possibly by Stinnett; it was deemed unsubstantiated.

Kimberly Biggerstaff Tennessee Department of Corrections

Mother: Kimberly Biggerstaff (Sevier County, Tennessee)

Charge and sentence: She was charged with aggravated abuse or aggravated neglect under Tennessee Code Ann. § 39-15-402, and felony murder. She pled to “facilitation” of child abuse or neglect (a lower class of felony than abuse or neglect), and received a 20-year sentence, which was later reduced to 17 years.

The abusive partner: Rico Benitez, who pled guilty to second-degree murder and was sentenced to 15 years.

The victim(s): Kayleigh Biggerstaff, her young daughter, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Though Biggerstaff was charged with “abuse or neglect,” court documents indicate that the state’s case was ultimately that Benitez inflicted the injuries, and Biggerstaff did not protect her child. The prosecution’s witness list filed with the court details what those witnesses will likely say — it points to Benitez committing the abuse.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: The prosecution’s witness list includes several people who say they saw Benitez physically abusing Biggerstaff. That includes Benitez’s sister, who said she saw him “assault” Biggerstaff because the child was crying. A defense motion says that Biggerstaff was “under the duress and control” of Benitez, who “severely” abused her both mentally and physically.

Other notes: According to the prosecution’s witness list, Benitez’s sister alleged that Biggerstaff “was abusive and would take out her anger on the victim.” However Biggerstaff’s lawyer countered in a court motion that the interview provided to the defense “does not reveal that this witness said that Kimberly Biggerstaff was abusive to the victim.” There is no indication in the case file that the prosecution contested this point, and soon after that she pled guilty to facilitating Benitez’s crime.

Arlena Lindley Dallas County Sheriff's Office

Mother: Arlena Lindley (Dallas County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and was sentenced to 45 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Alonzo Turner, who pled guilty to murder and was sentenced to life with the possibility of parole.

The victim(s): Her 3-year-old son Titches, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her indictment states that she failed to protect her child, and that she failed to seek medical care. Various prosecutor statements at her sentencing hearing also point to failure to protect.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Prosecutors charged Turner with assaulting Lindley on the day of her son’s death. Lindley testified that Turner physically abused her, and she detailed abuse in an interview with BuzzFeed News. A third-party witness testified that she knew Turner had been violent.

Alesha Dean Dallas County Sheriff's Office

Mother: Alesha Dean (Dallas County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and was sentenced to 25 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Franzwa Miller, who was convicted of capital murder and sentenced to life without parole.

The victim(s): Her 4-month-old daughter Lea, who died from abusive injuries including multiple skull fractures.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her judicial confession states that she failed to seek medical attention for Lea and failed to protect her from Miller.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Dean testified at Miller’s trial that she suffered ongoing physical abuse. Also at Miller’s trial, a man who lived with her at the time of the abuse testified that he saw Miller drag her by the hair into the bedroom, where he beat her. The man had told police that Miller had turned her into a “walking zombie.”

Other notes: Dean admitted to the court that on one occasion, she shook her child so that she would stop crying. This was about a month before the child’s death, and a fatal or serious shaking injury would typically cause symptoms very quickly, according to the doctor who testified at Miller’s trial. The witness who lived in the home for the two weeks before to the death said the baby would cry a lot — “you know, normal infant behavior.” That witness also said he never saw Dean abusing the baby.

Mother: Rose Mary Gaines (El Paso County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was charged with injury by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04, and capital murder. Her murder charge was dropped, and she was convicted of injury to a child by omission, and sentenced to life in prison with the possibility of parole.

The abusive partner: James Johnson, who was found guilty of murder and sentenced to life in prison with the possibility of parole.

The victim(s): Her infant son, Aayunn, who died after suffering abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Appellate judges, in their decision on his case, describe her case as failure-to-protect. Also, she was convicted under an indictment that states she failed to “provide care, protection and control” to her son.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: A prosecution document in the case against Johnson states: “On or between January 1, 2001 and June 2, 2003 the Defendant on numerous occasions committed the offense of assault against Rose Mary Gaines by striking her about the body with his hand, foot and other objects.”

Other notes: Prior this case, she was convicted of child abuse. But when Johnson’s case came to trial, she testified that she had lied to protect Johnson.

Shara Christine Scott Harris County Sheriff's Office

Mother: Shara Christine Scott (Harris County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Marco Anthony Gutierrez, who was convicted of murder and sentenced to life.

The victim(s): Her 23-month-old daughter, Dakoda.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The charging document says she failed to protect and “failed to seek prompt medical attention.” The prosecutor’s office told BuzzFeed News that Scott initially took responsibility for some of the injuries but “later admitted that Marco Gutierrez was the culprit of those injuries and she had lied about it because she didn’t want Mr. Gutierrez to get in trouble for causing the injuries.”

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Her lawyer said she suffered domestic violence. The prosecutor’s office said that “[i]t was her allegation in the sentencing hearing that Mr. Gutierrez had been abusive with her,” but pointed out there had been no “reports to law enforcement or to anyone else” about the abuse. A news article from the time of the arrest stated that Gutierrez admitted to hurting the child as a result of “violent arguments with Scott.”

Iris Liliana Rodriguez Midland County Sheriff's Office

Mother: Iris Liliana Rodriguez (Midland County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to two counts of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Joseph Mark Charles, who pled guilty to injury to a child, and indecency with a child, and received 35 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her two children.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The indictment states that she failed to provide “adequate and necessary protection” for her children.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: The prosecutor in her case told BuzzFeed News there was some “mutual combat” between Charles and Rodriguez, but that Charles committed more of the violence. A news article from the time stated that Rodriguez told authorities that she was scared of Charles, and that he had “beaten her in the past.”

Ryka Telan Hopper Tarrant County Sheriff's Office

Mother: Ryka Telan Hopper (Tarrant County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted at a jury trial of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04. She was sentenced to 40 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Adam Palmer, who was convicted of injury to a child and sentenced to 50 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her 3-year-old daughter, who suffered abusive injuries and went into a coma and then a vegetative state.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The appellate judges’ decision notes that her case was for failure-to-protect and failure to seek medical care. Trial transcripts from her case also make it clear that the prosecution viewed her crime as failure-to-protect.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: The appeal notes that Hopper moved her children back in with her mother after Palmer gave her a black eye — this appears to be a reference to her mother’s trial testimony, saying she had a big black eye after a date and didn’t want to admit what happened. Hopper told investigators that she didn’t take her daughter to the hospital because she was afraid that Palmer would “do something” to her. At trial, she described being kept hostage by him on “more than one occasion.” Prosecutors called into question her credibility, saying she was prone to lying. They were particularly skeptical of her claim that she was scared of Palmer. However they also pointed to the fact that she had gotten a cast for her own arm after Palmer injured it, in contrast to her failure to seek help for her daughter. A detective also told the court that Palmer had assaulted “a few” other women in previous relationships.

Other notes: One witness testified at trial that Hopper spanked her children on the butt with a belt “pretty hard” but nothing stronger than that. Other witnesses in her case describe her as being tender with her children.

Elizabeth Arlleno Williamson County Sheriff's Office

Mother: Elizabeth Arellano (Williamson County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and was sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Sergio Barcenas, convicted of murder and sentenced to life.

The victim(s): Her 16-month-old son Christopher Barcenas, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The complaint against her says that she failed to seek medical care for her child.

Evidence of domestic violence against the woman: Barcenas was convicted of family violence assault, with Arellano as the victim, a little more than 18 months before the child abuse charge. A prosecution document filed with Barcenas’ case says that he hit her “on several occasions, including in the presence of the children and while Elizabeth was holding a child.”

Mother: Tracy Parks (Greene County, Arkansas)

Charge and sentence: She was sentenced to 20 years in prison for permitting child abuse, in violation of Arkansas Code Ann. § 5-27-221.

The abusive partner: Jason Parks, who is serving at least 40 years in prison for rape and second-degree sexual assault.

The victim(s): Her daughter.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The appellate decision in her case outlines how Jason Parks was convicted of raping her daughter, and Tracy Parks failed to protect the child.

Mother: Denisse Serrano (Saline County, Arkansas)

Charge and sentence: She was sentenced to 40 years in prison on two counts of permitting child abuse, under Arkansas Code Ann. § 5-27-221.

The abusive partner: Jeffery Garcia, serving at least 40 years in prison for rape and second-degree sexual assault.

The victim(s): Her three children.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Appellate judges outline how she failed to protect at least two of her three children from Garcia’s abuse.

Mother: Patricia Wojtala (Pueblo County, Colorado)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of child abuse resulting in serious bodily injury, in violation of Colorado Rev. Stat. § 18-6-401, which makes it illegal to permit a child to be put in a dangerous situation. She was sentenced to 12 years in prison.

The abusive partner: James Dall, who was sentenced to 25 years to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her child.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The arrest affidavit for Wojtala states that Dall caused anal injuries to her child and that Dall admitted to putting a tampon in the child’s rectum. It also states that Wojtala “never admitted to hurting [REDACTED], but knew of the injuries and never sought medical attention and knew about [REDACTED] being locked in [REDACTED] room and Jim putting tampons in [REDACTED] rectum.”

Mother: Isela Reyes-Talamentes (Denver County, Colorado)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty under Colorado Rev. Stat. § 18-6-401 and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The abusive partner: John Vigil, who was sentenced to 26 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her son Elijah, who died from his injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: During her sentencing hearing, the prosecutor stated that her son “died a very slow, painful, and tortured death while his own mother literally sat by and did absolutely nothing to help him. The Defendant sat by idly as her son suffered.” The prosecutor also told BuzzFeed News that there was no evidence she abused her son.

Other notes: At her sentencing hearing, a witness who had known her for 10 years said that “[t]he only explanation I have is that I believe that she was being abused, and, like I said, Your Honor, she’s never told me that, but that’s the only explanation I have for her being in the situation that she’s in right now.”

Mother: Crystal Eccleston (Denver County, Colorado)

Charge and sentence: She was charged with child abuse resulting in death, under Colorado Rev. Stat. § 18-6-401. She was convicted and sentenced to 14 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Travis Anderson, who was sentenced to at least 40 years in prison.

The victim(s): Their 20-day-old son Sean Paul Anderson, who died of “multiple serious injuries consistent with non-accidental trauma.”

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Statement from Denver District Attorney: “The charges alleged that last December, Anderson brutally beat his infant son, Sean Anderson and that the child’s mother, Crystal Eccleston, contributed to the baby’s death through her failure to seek care for the child.”

Mother: Rose Key (Adams County, Colorado)

Charge and sentence: She was charged with child abuse resulting in death, under Colorado Rev. Stat. § 18-6-401. She was convicted and sentenced to 16 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Donald Scarlett, sentenced to at least 42 years in prison on abuse charges including reckless manslaughter.

The victim(s): Her 1-year-old son Michael Ryan Harris, who died of abusive injuries, including a skull fracture.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The child services Child Fatality Summary posted in full on this blog post notes that it was Scarlett who committed the abuse and Key who failed to protect. In the state’s probable cause affidavit, the police officer notes that Key admitted seeing Scarlett abuse her child, and that Key heard a loud noise from the bedroom, and heard her son let out a scream. But the affidavit notes she was afraid to check on her son, and she didn’t seek medical help.

Other notes: The Child Fatality Summary notes that Colorado’s child welfare agency was called to investigate the family nine months’ prior to Michael’s death. The document notes that “domestic violence” is one of the reasons for the referral, but does not specify who is perpetrating the domestic violence.

Mother: Sheila Adorno (Clayton County, Georgia)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of two counts of cruelty to children, under Georgia Code Ann. § 16-5-70. She was sentenced to 20 years for each count (it’s unclear if they’re consecutive or concurrent).

The abusive partner: Mercedes Ramirez, convicted of four counts of child molestation, and sentenced to 20 years on each count (unclear if they’re consecutive or concurrent).

The victim(s): Her two children.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Appellate judges, in an opinion on their joint appeal, indicated that Ramirez molested the children. Adorno failed to intervene. She was also accused of admonishing one of her children not to tell anyone about the abuse.

Mother: Dusty James (Elkhart County, Indiana)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of two counts of child neglect under Indiana Code § 35-46-1-4. She was sentenced to an aggregate sentence of 55 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Chad Strong, convicted of murder and sentenced to 65 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her 3-year-old daughter, who died of blunt force to the abdominal area. Her 1-year-old son survived but had broken bones.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The judges who wrote James’ appellate decision state that the charge against her stemmed from “her role in allowing her boyfriend, Chad Strong, to abuse her two small children, leading to the death of her daughter and severe injuries to her son.”

Mother: Dawn Kobel (Humboldt County, Iowa)

Charge and sentence: She was sentenced to multiple acts of child endangerment under Iowa Code § 726.6 and sentenced to 52 years in prison.

The abusive partner: David Hanse, found guilty of multiple acts of child endangerment and sentenced to 77 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her two daughters, who were sexually abused.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her appeal details the case, which involves multiple sexually abusive acts committed by Hanse on her children and others. In the appellate ruling on her case, the judges state, “The record substantially supports a finding that Kobel knew Hanse was abusing [the child] … Kobel continued to leave both children in the care of Hanse, a man who not only abused K.M. but allowed sexual offenders into the home.”

Mother: Danielle Lucas (Hardin County, Kentucky)

Charge and sentence: She was found guilty of criminal abuse — under Kentucky Rev. Stat. Ann. 508.100, which includes language against someone who “permits” abuse — and reckless homicide, and sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Antwan Hayes, found guilty of second-degree manslaughter and criminal abuse and sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her son, who died from septic shock and from multiple abdominal injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The judges who made the appellate decision in her case say that after Hayes beat the child, Lucas asked the child if he wanted to go to the hospital. The child said no, so she tucked him into bed. The judges also note that the reckless homicide charge was because she “failed to seek medical attention” for her child. The appeal decision also states that Hayes admitted he beat the child that day.

Mother: Diana Dawes (Madison County, Kentucky)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of criminal abuse under Kentucky Rev. Stat. Ann. § 508.100, and manslaughter. She was sentenced to 25 years in prison.

The abusive partner: William Dawes, convicted of criminal abuse and sentenced to 35 years in prison.

The victim(s): Their infant daughter, who died from blunt force trauma.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: News articles about the case indicated it was William Dawes who did the abuse and Diana Dawes who did not report the abuse. Diana Dawes’ attorney said that she was convicted for failing to protect.

Mother: Kristen Jorris (Allen County, Ohio)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of involuntary manslaughter and permitting child abuse under Ohio Rev. Code § 2903.15, and sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Daniel Stiles, convicted of murder and sentenced to 57 years to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her two children, one of whom died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The prosecutor in the case told BuzzFeed News there was no indication that she beat the children herself: “They did drugs. And he did whatever he wanted to her kids … He killed one and damn near killed the other.” A news article indicated Stiles admitted to punching the child in the stomach.

Mother: Danielle Flannery (Erie County, Ohio)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of permitting child abuse under Ohio Rev. Code § 2903.15 and sentenced to 11 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Michael Milner, who was found guilty of aggravated murder and sentenced to life without parole.

The victim(s): Her young son Owen, who died of abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her sentencing transcript indicates that the case against her centered on her knowledge of prior potential abuse, not in committing abuse.

Mother: Elizabeth Crafton (Ottawa County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was charged with child abuse, but found not guilty, and instead found guilty of enabling child abuse. (Until recently, enabling child abuse was a crime under 10 Oklahoma Stat. § 7115(B); the crime was recodified, and is now under 21 Oklahoma Stat. § 843.5(B).) She was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Christopher Good, found guilty of child abuse. A jury recommended he be sentenced to 11 years, according to the district attorney in the case, but he committed suicide before he could be formally sentenced.

The victim(s): Her baby daughter, who suffered from multiple bruises and possible cigarette burns.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her presentence investigation documents confirm that she was found not guilty of child abuse but guilty of enabling child abuse. The investigation notes she “clearly failed to protect her baby and took no action to stop or prevent the physical abuse from continuing.”

Other notes: Her attorney said that there was some evidence of domestic violence in the home, but he argued against its inclusion, because he thought it would harm her case. Evidence of domestic violence did not appear in court documents reviewed by BuzzFeed News.

Mother: Traci Switch (Oklahoma County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 65 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Greg Sayerwinnie, convicted of child abuse and sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her 13-month-old daughter Lucretia Switch, who died after suffering internal injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The judges who wrote the appellate decision for her case say that “Sayerwinnie was accused of killing Switch’s thirteen-month-old daughter and Switch was accused of permitting child abuse.”

Mother: Cassie Ragan (Pittsburg County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to enabling child abuse and was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Nathan Lee Edwards, who pled guilty to child abuse and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her infant child, who suffered numerous injuries including subdural hematomas and bilateral retinal hemorrhages.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The docket on her case confirms that her charge was enabling child abuse. On his, it confirms his charge was “engaging in child abuse.” Their guilty pleas show their sentences.

Mother: Susan Gail Young (Rogers County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 13 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Benjamin Cole, convicted of first degree murder and sentenced to death.

The victim(s): Her 9-month-old daughter, who died from bleeding caused by a fractured spine.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The charge against Young was enabling child abuse. The probable cause affidavit notes that Cole admitted he caused the injuries that killed the child, and it noted that Young told authorities Cole had abused the child in the past, particularly when he was drinking.

Mother: Gabrielle Jane Silcott (Custer County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Jason Paul Ferguson, who was found guilty of child abuse and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her 22-month-old daughter.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her lawyer, Johnny Lombardi, said that the prosecution’s theory was that she allowed the abuse to happen. Her court docket notes the enabling child abuse charge, and the 15-year prison sentence; his court docket notes the child abuse charge and life sentence. His appeal notes that he was convicted of physically abusing the girl.

Mother: Latrice Russell (Oklahoma County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to enabling child abuse and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Will Lambert, who pled guilty to murder and was sentenced to life without parole.

The victim(s): Her 6-month-old daughter Rachel Lambert, who died from the abuse.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Russell’s guilty plea statement of facts says that she “allowed Will Lambert to care for Rachel Lambert, our 6 month old daughter, when I reasonably should have known that our baby would be at risk of being physically abused by Will Lambert her father.”

Other notes: She says in a letter to a judge that she “did not know” she was “on the cusp” of becoming a battered woman.

Mother: Tye Shafer (Oklahoma County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was found guilty of “permitting child abuse murder,” a permitting-child-abuse element of Oklahoma’s murder laws, and enabling child abuse, and child neglect. She was sentenced to life on the “permitting child abuse murder” charge. The neglect charge rendered a seven-year sentence.

The abusive partner: Eddie Valdez, convicted of murder and child abuse and sentenced to life without parole.

The victim(s): Her 3-year-old son Eli Johnson, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The appellate brief on Shafer’s behalf notes that the case centered on prior abusive incidents that Shafer knew about, not abuse that she committed.

Mother: Elizabeth Nicole Guerrero (Oklahoma County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to enabling child abuse and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Herman Bailon, who pled guilty to murder and was sentenced to life without parole.

The victim(s): Her 2-year-old daughter Lilliana, who died from abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The charge against Guerrero was enabling child abuse. The probable cause affidavit states that Bailon admitted to hurting her daughter because he was frustrated with her, and that Guerrero left her children in his care knowing that he had injured her daughter on previous occasions.

Other notes: The state, in several filings, said that it found a “pattern of similar conduct” from Guerrero: She would meet “an illegal alien male,” get into an abusive relationship with him, leave the man at her residence while she went to find “some minimal employment,” then find “a new illegal alien male” and start “a sexual relationship with him while the first man is with the children.” The state did not, in these filings, detail what abuse Guerrero herself suffered (if any) at the hands of Bailon. Also, she had her parental rights terminated for two children in Minnesota, because she had failed to protect her children from abuse. At that time she was given a “safety plan” by child services about how to leave an abusive relationship. In this case, the prosecution states that when she learned that Bailon had left bruises on the child, she didn’t tell him to stop hitting the child, “but instead instructed him to stop leaving bruises that are visible.”

Mother: Paula Najar (Tulsa County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of child neglect and enabling child abuse, and sentenced to 23 years in prison.

The abusive partner: David Bridgeman, convicted of murder and sentenced to life without parole.

The victim(s): 21-month-old Adriana Hernandez (also spelled Adrianna in court documents), who died after suffering brain injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The indictment states that the neglect charge was for “failing to obtain medical care and/or treatment for Adrianna Hernandez when she was suffering from injury and in need of such medical care and/or treatment.” The charge of enabling child abuse was for “willfully or maliciously permitting” Bridgeman to have continued contact with the child.

Mother: Stephanie Avery (Comanche County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Charles Hennessee, who pled guilty to child abuse for deliberately submerging the child in scalding water, and was sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her 4-year-old child, who suffered second degree-burns on his buttocks and feet.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The charging document says that she enabled the abuse by “knowingly authorizing or allowing” Charles Hennessee to care for her child when she knew or reasonably should have known doing so was placing her child at risk. The guilty plea summary of facts makes similar points.

Mother: Laura Tustin (Comanche County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Jeremy Tustin, sentenced to 10 years in prison for child abuse.

The victim(s): Her 3-month-old child, who suffered “numerous serious and critical physical injuries in varying stages of healing,” according to court documents.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The charging document against her states that she authorized/allowed Jeremy Tustin to care for her child when she knew or reasonably should have known that this would place the child at risk.

Mother: Ashlee Christian (Beckham County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Jamal Torrence, convicted of child abuse and sentenced to 12 years in prison.

The victim(s): Their 2-month-old son, who suffered trauma from seizures and had multiple bruises.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The probable cause affidavit indicates that Torrence told police he shook the child and was sure he had caused the child’s injuries. It also states that Christian knew Torrence could get frustrated with the child. The affidavit indicates he was charged with abuse and she was charged with enabling abuse, and both his and her online case dockets indicate they pled guilty to their charges.

Mother: Roxann Barnard (Rogers County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 30 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Steven Lockler, convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to life in prison without parole.

The victim(s): Her 4-year-old son, who died of blunt force trauma to the abdomen.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The state’s probable cause affidavit indicates that Lockler told police that he punched the child in the stomach with a closed fist, because he was angry. Her court docket indicates that the charge was enabling child abuse.

Mother: Jamie Maye (Stephens County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to one count of enabling child abuse, and two counts of child neglect. For each count she was given 10 years in prison, with the sentences to run concurrently.

The abusive partner: John Thomas Maye, convicted of child abuse and child neglect and sentenced to a total of 40 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her 8-year-old son, who had a black eye. Court records indicate that police believed he had been abused on an ongoing basis.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The state’s probable cause document indicates that John Maye had been physically abusing the child and that she knew about it. It also says that she told police “that the home was without food and that the children had not been eating.” The officer found the home had toilets that weren’t working and were filled with feces; the beds had no mattresses; and the house was filthy. “This officer believes that Mrs. Maye has seen (the child) physically abused by John Thomas Maye on a continual basis and has done nothing to prevent it and contributed to the neglect of other children in the home.”

Other notes: Police learned of this case when Maye contacted an officer and said she was afraid of her husband and needed to get away — though BuzzFeed News was unable to find further evidence of domestic violence against her. She told police that John Maye had given her 8-year-old a black eye, and that he had been physically abusive for at least six months.

Mother: Windi Ann Johnson (Oklahoma County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The allegedly abusive partner: Cory McGalliard, who pled guilty to neglect and was sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her son, who suffered head trauma.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her guilty plea statement of facts says, “I allowed Cory McGalliard to take care of my son … I should have known Cory McGalliard to be a danger to (him) because of his prior allegations of child abuse.” It makes no mention of her committing any abuse.

Mother: Tamara Matthews (Tulsa County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Gregory O’Neal, convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison without parole.

The victim(s): Her infant daughter, who died after suffering a skull fracture and other injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Their court case information confirms their charges — in her case, enabling child abuse. Matthews’ lawyer, Scott B. Goode, also told BuzzFeed News that hers was a failure-to-protect case.

Mother: Brandi Lynn Holder (also known as Brandi Turner) (Greenville County, South Carolina)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of homicide by child abuse under South Carolina Code Ann. § 16-3-85 and sentenced to 25 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Mark Martucci, convicted of homicide by child abuse and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her 2 ½-year-old son Bo, who died after suffering abusive injuries including blunt force trauma to the abdomen.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The judges who wrote the opinion in her appeal state, “The State’s primary theory in this case was that Holder had allowed Martucci to abuse Bo in the months prior to his death. Holder’s culpability for homicide by child abuse arose from her complicity in the abuse, which culminated in the death of Bo on July 17, 2002 from severe internal injuries that had been inflicted in the day or days prior to his death. ”

Other notes: The appeal also mentions, however, that she admitted that she struck her son in the face. However this was not a part of the fatal injuries.

Mother: Ella Marie Rose Amish (Putnam County, Tennessee)

Charge and sentence: She was charged with aggravated child neglect or endangerment under Tennessee Code Ann. § 39-15-402, and aggravated “assault by failure to protect child,” under § 39-13-102. She pled down to facilitation of aggravated child neglect (with the assault-by-failure-to-protect charge dropped), and was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Richard Holman, charged with aggravated rape of a child and aggravated child abuse, and sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her baby, listed in court documents as “John Doe.”

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The charging documents and the guilty plea indicate that he abused the child and she failed to protect.

Mother: Priscilla Plaza (Bexar County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04, and sentenced to 18 years in prison.

The allegedly abusive partner: Ruben Zavala Jr., convicted of injury by omission and sentenced to 67 years in prison.

The victim(s): Nicholas Plaza, who disappeared when he was 5 years old after suffering numerous abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The indictment says that she “failed to seek and provide proper medical care” for her child, and “failed to protect” him. Prosecutors would later write of this case: “Zavala would often take his anger toward Priscilla out on Nicholas. Zavala would force-feed the boy and sometimes make him throw up. It was Zavala who pointed out Nicholas’ injuries to others and Zavala who admitted that he rolled over onto the boy, injuring his leg. Zavala gave Nicholas repeated baths and would often close the bathroom door so that the two of them were alone. Later, Priscilla said that Nicholas had told her that Zavala was sexually abusing him.”

Mother: Ruthy Chabolla (Dallas County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and sentenced to 30 years in prison.

The abusive partner: David Coronado, sentenced to life for injuring a child.

The victim(s): Her 5-month-old son, who suffered life-threatening spine and head injuries. He survived but the injuries left him paralyzed, blind, and deaf.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The prosecutor in the case confirmed that the case against Chabolla was failure-to-protect.

Other notes: The prosecutor said that Chabolla told her that Coronado once shoved her against a door. But other than that she disclosed no domestic violence.

Mother: Catalina Garcia (Dallas County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and was sentenced to 30 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Christopher Garcia, convicted of injury to a child and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her 3-year-old son Josia “Jojo” Garcia, who died after suffering injuries to his head and genitals.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The probable cause affidavit states that “the suspect failed to prevent the continual assault of the complainant which resulted in his serious bodily injury and death. The suspect also failed to obtain medical attention.”

Mother: Sharon Worthy (Denton County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Curtis Copeland, convicted of capital murder and sentenced to life without parole.

The victim(s): Her 3-year-old son Jesse Fisher, who died of abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The indictment against her says that she was guilty of omission by “failing to provide protection” for Jesse, by “failing to remove (him) from the presence of Curtis Copeland when she knew that Curtis Copeland was a threat to the health and safety of (him), and the defendant had a statutory or legal duty to act.”

Mother: Melissa Wright (Harris County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She pled guity of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and sentenced to 30 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Randy Earl Carter, convicted of felony murder (by injuring a child) and sentenced to 45 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her 3-year-old son Alexander Wright, who died after suffering abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The indictment charged her with committing the abuse, allowing Randy Carter to commit it, and not calling the police afterward. She pled guilty to injury to a child by omission. The guilty plea notes that the paragraphs of the indictment accusing her of committing the abuse were struck from the indictment.

Mother: Abigail Young (Harris County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Lucas Coe, convicted of aggravated sexual assault of a child and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her 4-year-old daughter Emma Thompson, who died after suffering abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The judges wrote in their appellate decision on her case: “The State charged appellant with intentional and knowing injury to a child by omission resulting in serious bodily injury to Emma by failing to provide adequate medical attention, adequate care, adequate protection, and adequate adult supervision. At the close of evidence, the jury was instructed on the lesser-included offense of reckless injury to a child based upon appellant’s failure to provide adequate medical attention, care, and protection. The jury found appellant guilty of recklessly causing serious bodily injury to a child younger than fifteen years of age.”

Mother: Merilyn Parks (Harris County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04, and sentenced to 16 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Kerry Parks, convicted of injury to a child and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Her 11-year-old son, who suffered multiple bodily injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The complaint says that Merilyn Parks failed to protect the child and failed to seek adequate medical care. It also indicates that Kerry Parks beat the child with a leather belt, and applied “chemicals” to the injuries.

Mother: Anita Washington (Harris County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Terrence McNeil, found guilty of felony murder and injury to a child and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): 19-month-old Alicia Griffin, who died after suffering multiple head and abdominal injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The indictment, which she pled guilty to, said she failed to provide and seek medical care.

Other notes: She had a child services file in Alaska, where she had previously lived, for child neglect and for being responsible for a child suffering from failure to thrive.

Mother: Maciel Sandoval (Harris County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and felony murder (based on that injury by omission to a child). She was sentenced to life in prison.

The abusive partner: Elida “Judith” Herrera, found guilty of murder and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Sandoval’s 4-year-old daughter, who died after suffering numerous injuries to her torso and brain.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The judges in their opinion on her appellate case declared, “[T]he evidence was sufficient to prove appellant committed the offense of injury to a child by failure to protect the complainant, and was sufficient to prove appellant was a party to felony murder based on her disregard of her legal duty to act.”

Mother: Mistie Martin (Tarrant County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of injury to a child under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Quincy Ray Sloan, convicted of injury to a child and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Their infant daughter, who suffered numerous abusive injuries that led a doctor to say that she would likely be “significantly and permanently neurologically impaired.”

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The arrest affidavit states that Sloan admitted he bounced the infant on his knee “and bounced her too hard and broke her leg.” In addition, the affidavit says that the child had skull fractures, a healed rib fracture, a healed femur fracture, and other injuries. The affidavit also describes neglect — namely “severe and chronic failure to thrive.” The charges against Martin are for failing to seek medical treatment for the broken limb, and for failing to seek medical treatment “knowing the victim was not being provided sufficient nutrition and was loosing [sic] a significant amount of weight.”

Mother: Pavielle Simpson (Tarrant County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She was found guilty of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04, and sentenced to 13 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Jason Farrington, who pled guilty to injury to a child and was sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): Their 1-month-old son, who suffered a skull fracture.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Simpson’s appeal notes that she was “charged with knowingly, by omission, causing serious bodily injury to (her son) by failing to protect him from Farrington.”

Mother: Debora DaSilva (Williamson County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: She pled guilty to injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04, and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Timothy Moncebaiz, who was found guilty of injury to a child and sentenced to 50 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her multiple children.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The probable cause affidavit and the charge indicate it is failure-to-protect. DaSilva’s sentencing hearing said she “failed to seek medical attention” for her child.

Other notes: The probable cause affidavit mentions that one of her children suffered from “failure to thrive,” but it is not part of the charge against her.

Mother: Ashly Eli (Kittitas County, Washington)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of one count of criminal mistreatment in the first degree under Washington Rev. Code § 9A.42.020 and one count of criminal mistreatment in the second degree under Washington Rev. Code § 9A.42.030, and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Reuben Mulamba, convicted of assaulting a child and sentenced to more than 30 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her two children, one of whom suffered “life-threatening injuries,” according to Eli’s guilty plea.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Her guilty plea summary of facts states: “I, Ashly Eli discovered injuries on my children and did not immediately take them to the hospital … Not taking my children to the hospital, after my then boyfriend inflicted serious injuries on them, was a crime against each because, by withholding the basic necessity of medical care from them, I caused substantial bodily harm to (my son) and caused further bodily injury to (my daughter) that created a high probability of death.”

Mother: Amber Messenger (Harrison County, West Virginia)

Charge and sentence: She was convicted of neglect of a dependent resulting in death under West Virginia Code § 61-8D-4a, and sentenced to 3-15 years in prison. (Under West Virginia’s sentencing laws, a sentence of 3-15 years means an inmate would be eligible for parole after 3 years.)

The abusive partner: William Echard, convicted of death of a child by a parent and sentenced to more than 40 years in prison.

The victim(s): Her daughter Emily Echard, who died after suffering brain injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: The count in the indictment that Messenger pled to, for neglect of a child, says that Messenger committed the crime by “failing to immediately obtain medical treatment for [her daughter] … after witnessing William Echard violently shake (her),” and that her failure “to immediately obtain medical treatment for (her daughter) caused the death of (her daughter).” All other counts in the indictment against her were dismissed.

Abel Wolf (Bryan County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: He was convicted of enabling child abuse under what is now known as 21 Oklahoma Stat. § 843.5(B). He was sentenced to life in prison.

The abusive partner: Denise Wolf, convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison.

The victim(s): 12-year-old Cheyenne Wolf, who died after suffering abusive injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: His presentence investigation outlines his failure-to-protect crime.

Other notes: He said in court that he was “too weak” to stop Denise. He pled guilty to assault and battery in 2009.

Ronald Bliss (Cleveland County, Oklahoma)

Charge and sentence: He was convicted of enabling child abuse and sentenced to 13 years in prison.

The allegedly abusive partner: An unknown “step-mother.”

The victim(s): His 13-year-old son and 7-year-old daughter, who suffered abusive injuries. The son had a gash on his scalp; he told police it was from the stepmother hitting him over the head with a broom handle.

Evidence it’s failure to protect: According to the probable cause affidavit against him, Bliss’ 13-year-old child disclosed “long term physical abuse at the hands of his step-mother.” The stepmother confessed to the injuries and said she told Bliss about it, specifically when she hit the child “repeatedly over the head with the broom handle.” The probable cause affidavit states that he “failed to seek medical attention” for injuries the 7-year-old suffered.

Mauricio Cisneros-Ramirez (Bexar County, Texas)

Charge and sentence: He was convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04 and sentenced to 15 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Belinda Lopez, convicted of injury to a child and sentenced to 25 years in prison.

The victim(s): His 2-year-old daughter, who suffered serious injuries.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: They were both charged with committing the abuse and failing to protect. Her guilty plea, though, was to committing the abuse, and his was only to failing to protect the child from her — the remaining counts in his indictment were dropped.

Kareem Jones (Duval County, Florida)

Charge and sentence: He was convicted of aggravated child neglect under Florida Stat. § 827.03 and sentenced to 10 years in prison.

The abusive partner: Cherale Jones, convicted of aggravated child abuse and aggravated child neglect. She was sentenced to 15 years for the abuse and 10 years for the neglect.

The victim(s): Their 8-month-old son, who was suffocated and nearly died. He survived, but “needs constant care,” according to the state’s attorney’s office.

Evidence that the crime was failure to protect the child: Statement from the state’s attorney’s office: “The child was suffocated with a pillow and then revived. Cherale admitted to the abuse and claimed she did it because she was under stress. Kareem was present during the crime. He admitted he should have taken the child to the hospital. The child was not taken to the hospital until the next day, at least 12 hours after the incident. The child survived the incident but needs constant care.”

To find as many cases as possible from 2004 to the present, BuzzFeed News requested inmate data from corrections departments in 29 states where the maximum sentence is at least 10 years in prison.

In most states, the legal language that allows prosecutors to charge a parent with failing to protect a child is part of a broader law against child abuse, neglect, or endangerment. For that reason, most of the states provided data that did not separate out failure-to-protect cases from cases in which a parent may have actively abused or committed other crimes against the child. Only five states — Arkansas, Illinois, Ohio, Oklahoma, and North Dakota — provided data that separated out those inmates who merely allowed abuse to happen.

Six states refused to provide any data, and the remaining 18 states gave data that lumped together inmates who failed to protect their children from abuse with those who committed other crimes against children.

Alaska: On Sept. 5, the Alaska Department of Corrections provided a list of inmates convicted of endangering the welfare of a child, under Alaska Stat. § 11.51.100.

Arizona: On May 19, the Arizona Department of Corrections provided a list of inmates convicted of child abuse under Arizona Rev. Stat. § 13-3623.

Arkansas: On March 7, the Arkansas Department of Correction provided a list of inmates convicted of permitting the abuse of a minor under Arkansas Code Ann. § 5-27-221.

Colorado: On April 25, the Colorado Department of Corrections provided a list of inmates convicted of child abuse under Colorado Rev. Stat. § 18-6-401.

Connecticut: On May 8, the Connecticut Department of Correction provided a list of inmates convicted under Connecticut Gen. Stat. § 53-21.

District of Columbia: On May 2, the District of Columbia Department of Corrections sent a list of inmates convicted of cruelty to children under District of Columbia Code § 22-1101.

Florida: On April 29, BuzzFeed News acquired the Florida Department of Corrections’ entire inmate database, in order to find inmates convicted of neglect under Florida Stat. § 827.03.

Georgia: BuzzFeed News used the Georgia Department of Corrections’ offender lookup website, which is searchable by crime, to find inmates convicted of cruelty to children under Georgia Code Ann. § 16-5-70.

Idaho: BuzzFeed News requested a list of inmates convicted of injury to children under Idaho Code Ann. § 18-1501, but a public information officer denied this request in a May 27 email: “In our data, we don’t classify offenders by statute. So we are not able to get this information for you.”

Illinois: On April 23, the Illinois Department of Corrections sent a list of inmates convicted of permitting sexual abuse of a child, under 720 Illinois Comp. Stat. § 150/5.1.

Indiana: On April 24, the Indiana Department of Correction sent a list of inmates convicted of neglect of a dependant under Indiana Code § 35-46-1-4.

Iowa: On April 30, the Iowa Department of Corrections sent a list of inmates convicted of child endangerment under Iowa Code § 726.6.

Kentucky: On April 30, the Kentucky Department of Corrections sent a list of inmates convicted of criminal abuse under Kentucky Rev. Stat. § 508.100.

Louisiana: The Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Corrections did not respond to repeated requests for a list of inmates convicted of cruelty to juveniles under Louisiana Rev. Stat. § 14:93.

Mississippi: On May 7, the Mississippi Department of Corrections sent a list of inmates convicted under Mississippi Code Ann. § 97-5-39, which includes the crime of neglect of a child.

Missouri: On April 29, the Missouri Department of Corrections sent a list of inmates convicted of child endangerment under Missouri Rev. Stat. § 568.045, and inmates convicted of child neglect under Missouri Rev. Stat. § 568.060.

Nebraska: On April 22, BuzzFeed News downloaded a data set of all inmates from the Nebraska Department of Correctional Services’ website, to search for inmates convicted of child abuse under Nebraska Rev. Stat. § 28-707.

Nevada: The Nevada Department of Corrections declined to provide inmate data, and did not respond to a public records request.

New Mexico: On May 19, the New Mexico Corrections Department sent a list of inmates convicted under New Mexico Stat. § 30-6-1.

North Dakota: On June 19, the North Dakota Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation sent a list of inmates who allowed abuse to be inflicted under North Dakota Cent. Code § 14-09-22.

Ohio: On March 10, the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction sent a list of inmates convicted of permitting child abuse under Ohio Rev. Code § 2903.15.

Oklahoma: On April 14, the Oklahoma Department of Corrections sent a list of inmates convicted of enabling child abuse, which is also known as permitting child abuse and is a crime currently under 21 Oklahoma Stat. § 843.5. A data analysis specialist at the department noted that he “tried to get as many entries as possible that were related to enabling/permitting child abuse,” but said that “we are at the mercy of the person entering the sentence information and [that information] can be entered in many different ways or not at all.”

South Carolina: BuzzFeed News used the South Carolina Department of Corrections’ online database to find inmates convicted of homicide by child abuse under South Carolina Code Ann. § 16-3-85.

Tennessee: The Tennessee Department of Correction provided its entire inmate database, current through the first quarter of this year, which BuzzFeed News used to find inmates convicted under Tennessee Code Ann. § 39-15-401 or § 39-15-402.

Texas: BuzzFeed News used the Texas Department of Criminal Justice’s online database to find inmates convicted of injury to a child by omission under Texas Penal Code § 22.04.

Utah: The Utah Department of Corrections denied BuzzFeed News’ request for inmate data. BuzzFeed won an appeal with the State Records Committee, but inmate records have not yet been handed over.

Virginia: The Virginia Department of Corrections denied BuzzFeed News’ request for inmate data.

Washington: On May 30, the Washington Department of Corrections sent a list of inmates convicted of criminal mistreatment under Washington Rev. Code § 9A.42.020, § 9A.42.030, and § 9A.42.035.

West Virginia: On May 19, the West Virginia Division of Corrections sent a list of inmates convicted of the following crimes: murder of a child by a parent, guardian, or custodian under West Virginia Code § 61-8D-2; death of a child by a parent, guardian, or custodian or other person by child abuse under § 61-8D-2a; child abuse resulting in injury/child abuse or neglect creating risk of injury under § 61-8D-3; child neglect resulting in injury under § 61-8D-4; and child neglect resulting in death under § 61-8D-4a.

Wisconsin: The Wisconsin Department of Corrections rejected BuzzFeed News’ requests for inmate data.

Here is a downloadable spreadsheet of every case that BuzzFeed News found:

Note: The column header “dept_corrections_id” refers to the person’s ID number in a given state’s prison system. “prison_term” refers to the inmate’s sentence. “domestic_violence_evidence” refers to whether BuzzFeed News found evidence that the inmate suffered physical violence at the hands of the person who abused the child. “date_sentenced” is when the inmate was sentenced; in the handful of cases where a sentencing date was not identified, the date the inmate was accepted into the state’s prison system is noted under “incarceration_start.”





































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Alex Campbell is an investigative reporter for BuzzFeed News and is based in New York. His secure PGP fingerprint is 0712 96AD 2FED CEF9 AFA7 9280 0397 E646 0A39 2C8A
Contact Alex Campbell at alex.campbell@buzzfeed.com.