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    52 Things I Learned From Data Visualizations That Are Both Mind-Blowing and Beautiful

    Here's what it would look like if only people under 45 voted in the 2020 US presidential election.

    While you can scour lines of text or read through tables to learn new things, sometimes, being able to visualize the data — in an aesthetic way, ofc — can be just as effective.

    Warner Bros. Domestic Television Distribution / Via giphy.com

    So here are 52 things I learned in one day while browsing through various data visualizations:

    1. Netscape was the most popular web browser in 1994, before Internet Explorer took over in 1998, followed by Chrome in 2012. Chrome is still the most popular web browser as of 2019.

    [OC] Most Popular Web Browsers between 1995 and 2019 from dataisbeautiful

    Shoutout (and throwback!) to Firefox getting close to overtaking Internet Explorer, though. 

    It's also interesting to note that this data looks at web browsers used on both desktop and mobile — so browsers that are default on mobile devices (like Chrome on Android devices) are more popular compared to browsers like Firefox.

    2. The cost of one Coca-Cola bottle in the US will buy you 20 Coca-Cola bottles in Iran — but it's not enough to buy one Coca-Cola bottle in Australia.

    [OC] In the United States, the cost of 1 Coca Cola Bottle will buy you 20 bottles in Iran - Comparing the cheapest and most expensive commodity prices around the world in relation to the US. from dataisbeautiful

    If ya like this, you'll be interested in The Economist's Big Mac Index. Created in 1986, the index is a survey created to measure purchasing power parity in different countries. (PPP is a popular metric that's used to compare currency in different countries by comparing the price of the same goods in each country.)

    The Big Mac Index compares the price of one McDonald's Big Mac in different countries. As of April 2021, a Big Mac costs £3.29 in Britain and US$5.66 in the US. That implies the exchange rate is 0.58, but the actual exchange rate is currently 0.74. So, according to the Big Mac Index, this suggests the British pound is 21.6% undervalued.

    3. Donald Trump’s most-liked Tweet since his presidency is his Tweet announcing his COVID-19 diagnosis, with 1.8 million likes. His second most-liked Tweet doesn't even crack 1 million likes.

    Donald Trump's tweet announcing his COVID-19 diagnosis is, by far, his most liked tweet since becoming US president [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    4. Texas has the highest speed limit of any state at 85 mph. Specifically, you can drive 85 mph down Texas State Highway 130 (SH 130), between SH 45 and 1-10. The 41-mile toll road between Austin and San Antonio was built to alleviate the traffic on I-35 — especially after truck traffic increased due to NAFTA in the late '90s.

    [OC] Max speed limits by state from dataisbeautiful

    Enacted in 1973, the National Maximum Speed Law required states to agree to a universal 55 mph speed limit (which was increased to 65 mph in the late '80s) if they wanted to receive federal funding for highway repair. The law was repealed in 1995, and states are now allowed to enforce their own speed limits.

    5. Of the eight planets in our solar system, Venus has the longest day, which lasts 5,832 hours. On the other hand, Jupiter has the shortest day, lasting 10 hours.

    Relative rotation rates and axial tilts of (the only) mapped planets and dwarf planets, at 10hours/sec [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    So one day on Venus lasts 243 days on Earth, while one year on Venus lasts 225 days on Earth.

    6. If only people under 45 voted in the 2020 US presidential election, Biden would have won 32 states and Washington, D.C.

    [OC] The 2020 election if only people under 45 voted. from dataisbeautiful

    Map creator u/BLAZENIOSZ added that they forgot to color Alaska and Hawaii, both of which would have been blue.

    7. Of these 14 chip brands, Cheetos has the highest percentage of air per bag. According to this study, the average bag of chips is 43% air.

    [OC] Percent of Air Per Bag of Chips from dataisbeautiful

    To be fair, the "air" in snack bags is a taste-preserving nitrogen to prevent the chips from turning stale or getting squashed. Plus, food for thought, the shape of Cheetos may skew their air percentage relative to flatter chips.

    8. The search terms 'death,' 'Google classroom,' 'unemployment,' 'mask,' and 'TikTok' dominated Google search in 2020, amongst others.

    [OC] Google Year in Search 2020 Top Search Terms from dataisbeautiful

    9. Turns out, the male equivalent of Karen is Terry!

    I analysed 70 years of baby names in the US to decide what to call a male Karen. It's Terry. [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    10. The three current youngest world leaders are Sebastian Kurz, the 34-year-old chancellor of Austria; Sanna Marin, the 35-year-old prime minister of Finland; and Kim Jong-Un, the 38-year-old supreme leader of North Korea.

    [OC] World Leaders by Age from dataisbeautiful

    The top three current oldest world leaders are 94-year-old Queen Elizabeth II of the UK, 88-year-old Governor General Colville Young of Belize, and 88-year-old President Paul Biya of Cameroon. 

    For anyone curious about the US, Biden, who is 78, doesn't crack the top 10.

    11. Between 2018 and 2020, certain top Google searches have trended simultaneously in every state, such as 'Fortnite,' 'Billie Eilish,' 'Baby Yoda,' 'Prince Harry,' 'Tiger King,' and 'George Floyd.'

    [OC] Trending Google Searches by State Between 2018 and 2020 from dataisbeautiful

    Others include 'Joker,' 'The Mandalorian,' 'Jojo Rabbit,' 'Elon Musk,' and 'Bubba Wallace.'

    'Coronavirus' and 'pandemic' didn't even pull that off.

    12. While this isn't a huge surprise, the exact inflation percentage of US college tuition from 1980 to 2020 is over five times the percentage of overall US inflation.

    US College Tuition & Fees vs. Overall Inflation [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Other things to consider: The Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFEL), where private lenders offered parents/students federally guaranteed student loans, began in 1965 and ended in 2010. Some argue that loans normalize increasingly high college tuitions which in turn increased the demand for loans.

    13. Based off this survey, 'creepy crawlies' is the sexual fetish with the least reported sexual interest but is not the most taboo.

    [oc] How taboo and popular are sexual fetishes? A survey of 2044 respondents. from dataisbeautiful

    The survey was conducted by the plot creator, u/AellaGirl, who received responses via Twitter and Tumblr.

    14. The biggest one hit wonder on Spotify is Norman Greenbaum with "Spirit in the Sky." As of April 2021, "Spirit In The Sky" has 283,552,742 listens on Spotify. "Marcy," Greenbaum's second most-played song, has 332,424 listens.

    What's the biggest one hit wonder on Spotify? [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    His third most-played song ("Skyline") has 157,464 listens.

    Chart creator u/cremepat noted that while most one-hit wonder analyses look at how long an artist spend on music charts, they wanted to analyze one-hit wonders based on current listening data — that's why they used Spotify listens.

    15. A whopping 0% of restaurants featured in Season 2 of the US version of Gordon Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmares are still open.

    [OC] What percent Gordon Ramsay’s Kitchen Nightmares are still open? from dataisbeautiful

    Not Giuseppi's...

    16. You may have heard that the Mercator projection distorts land sizes. More specifically, it inflates the size of land the farther they are from the equator. However, the Mercator projection is used for navigation, so even though the sizes are (purposely) distorted, the longitude lines are all parallel.

    Animating the Mercator projection to the true size of each country in relation to all the others. [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Map projections generally distort land sizes since they have to flatten the globe's surface. 

    In case the visual alone isn't enough — Russia has an area of 6.6 million miles squared, Canada has an area of 3.8 million miles squared, China has an area of 3.7 million miles squared, the United States has an area of 3.6 million miles squared, and Brazil has an area of 3.2 million miles squared.

    17. Unsurprisingly, the top 10 richest people in the world got richer during the pandemic.

    [OC] Net worth comparison of the top 10 richest person in the world in March 2020 and January 2021 from dataisbeautiful

    Graph creator u/Sandyrandy54 explained that they chose March 13, 2020 as the start date because it was when the stock market crashed, putting each person at their lowest net worth.

    If you don't recognize some of these names, here's a cheat sheet: Elon Musk is currently the founder, CEO, and CTO of SpaceX, CEO of Tesla, founder of The Boring Company, and co-founder of Neuralink and OpenAI; Jeff Bezos is the founder and previous CEO of Amazon; 

    Bernard Arnault is the chairman and chief executive of LVMH Moët Hennessy — Louis Vuitton SE (the largest luxury-goods company in the world); Bill Gates is the co-founder of Microsoft; Mark Zuckerberg is the co-founder, CEO, and chairman of Facebook; 

    Zhong Shanshan is the founder and chairman of Nongfu Spring (China's largest bottled water producer) and majority owner of Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise; Larry Ellison is the co-founder, executive chairman, and CTO of Oracle;

    Warren Buffet is the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway; and Larry Page and Sergey Brin are the co-founders of Google.

    18. Jack Dorsey, the co-founder and CEO of Twitter, gave the highest COVID-19 donation relative to his net worth (21.74%).

    [OC] Top 10 Highest Covid-19 donations with the percentage of their net worth from dataisbeautiful

    If you're interested in tracking Jack Dorsey, he put all of his donations in a public Google Sheet to be transparent, and you can find it here.

    Also important to note — this graph looks at personal donations. However, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provided $100 million in funding for frontline workers, prevention measures, and treatment effort worldwide; helped fund factories for coronavirus vaccine candidates; and pledged $1.6 billion to GAVI (a global partnership that aims to increase access to immunization in lower-income countries).

    19. At their peak in January 2005, Blockbuster Video had 5,734 store locations across the US. In August 2020, they listed the last Blockbuster Video store on AirBNB for private sleepovers.

    [OC] Blockbuster Video US store locations between 1986 and 2019 from dataisbeautiful

    The last Blockbuster Video store is located in Bend, Oregon. Here's the AirBNB listing

    A movie, The Last Blockbuster, was also released in 2020 to "look back at the era of video rentals and the story of how one small town video store managed to outlast a corporate giant." (Catch the trailer here!)

    20. Star Wars: The Last Jedi has the greatest ratings difference between Rotten Tomatoes critic and audience ratings. Critics rated it much higher than the audience.

    Movies with the greatest difference between Rotten Tomatoes critic and audience ratings [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    As of April 2021, Star Wars: The Last Jedi has a 90% Tomatometer rating ("the percentage of professional critic reviews that are positive for a given film or television show") on Rotten Tomatoes, and a 42% Audience Score.

    21. Lee Jordan has the least amount of screen time in the Harry Potter movies. But not to worry, Dobby had screen time proportionate to how many times he was mentioned in the books.

    Harry Potter Characters: Screen time vs. Mentions In The Books [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Graph creator u/chartr said that Dobby had 11 minutes of screen time in the movies and was mentioned 469 in the books, so he's represented in the cluster of dots to the left of Molly Weasley.

    22. The majority of 16- to 24-year-olds in the UK said that their main sources of sex education are lessons at school and friends.

    Main source of sex education for men and women [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Chart creator u/theimpossiblesalad explained, "The Natsal surveys are some of the largest surveys of sexual behavior in the world. Since 1990, the surveys take place in Britain once every 10 years. The respondents are selected randomly and thus the results are broadly representative of the British general population. 

    For the chart above, I used data from the Natsal-3 survey, conducted between 2010 and 2012. The younger respondents (16-24 yo) were peripubescent between 1998 and 2008, when the internet was not a part of their everyday lives. 

    As such, just 4% of men and 2% of women list the internet as their main source of sexual education. This will be further explored on the Natsal-4 survey which was previously planned for May 2020 and is now scheduled for the upcoming summer."

    23. If 'I Didn't Vote' ran as a candidate in the 2020 US presidential election, they would have received 195 Electoral College votes, and no candidate would have received enough to win the presidency.

    [OC] What if "I didn't vote" ran as a US presidential candidate in the 2020 election? from dataisbeautiful

    Graphic creator u/Prunestand noted the historically high 63.8% national voter turnout — from 79.6% voter turnout in Minnesota to 48.7% voter turnout in New York. They also pointed out that "the non-voting bloc would mainly win in the Southern non-swing states."

    (Note: This data used then-current ballot counting, prior to certified results.)

    24. Music revenue in the US peaked in 1999, the same year that Napster was founded. According to Pitchfork, "In 2000, per-unit sales of CDs, cassettes, and vinyl averaged $18.52. By 2014, measuring CDs, vinyl, and downloads, that number fell to $11.97."

    Recorded Music Industry Revenues [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    In August 2000, attorney generals in 41 states filed an anti-trust lawsuit in federal court claiming that five major U.S. distributors and retailers conspired to inflate the price of CDs. They ultimately settled for $143 million.

    25. In the US, the most common birthday between 2000 and 2014 is September 12. The least common birthday is December 25.

    It's my birthday! What are the most common birthdays in the United States? [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    The second, third, and fourth least common birthdays are January 1, December 24, and July 4.

    26. PalmOS was the most popular mobile operating system in 2000, followed by Symbian in 2003, and Android in 2010. Android is still the most popular OS as of 2020.

    [OC] Most Popular Mobile Operating Systems 2000 - 2020, thanks for the valuable feedback of my last post! from dataisbeautiful

    In January 2020, Android dominated 85.4% of mobile operating systems, while iOS accounted for 14.6% of mobile OS.

    27. The speed of light in a vacuum is 299,792,458 meters per second. Here's how you can visualize light traveling through space:

    Light Speed – fast, but slow [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    In more familiar units, the speed of light is approximately 107,925,284 kph or 670,616,629 mph.

    28. For a week in the middle of spring, this is how the population of Manhattan changes, hour-by-hour.

    The City is Alive: The Population of Manhattan, Hour-by-Hour [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Does Times Square surprise anyone?

    29. While women are more selective than men on Tinder, they still get more matches.

    [OC] Despite being far more selective, women still match more frequently than men on Tinder from dataisbeautiful

    To be fair, 75% of Tinder users identify as men, while only 25% identify as women, according to Statista.

    30. When this person's child asks, "Wanna know something," they are most likely going to talk about Minecraft.

    [OC] What I'm about to learn about after my kid says, "Wanna know somefing?" Data collected over the course of 7 days. from dataisbeautiful

    Is this representative of your kid, too?

    31. Leonardo DiCaprio has apparently never dated a woman older than 25.

    Leonardo DiCaprio Refuses to Date a Woman His Age [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    As of April 2020, Leo is 46 years old. Camila Morrone, the model and actress who is currently dating him, was born in 1997 and is 23 years old.

    32. The majority of the money in the US Senate's $2 trillion coronavirus aid package goes to individuals, then large corporations.

    [OC] Where the money goes in the US Senate's $2T coronavirus stimulus bill from dataisbeautiful

    Graph creator u/SevenandForty said they gathered a majority of their sources from this NPR article and the actual text of the bill. They also added a breakdown of allocations of public health funds.

    33. The most out-of-state residents in California were born in New York. The most out-of-state residents in Texas were born in California, and the most in Florida were born in New York.

    [OC] Source of the most residents born out-of-state, 2017 from dataisbeautiful

    Map creator u/demivus shared some interesting facts, "Technically, DC exports the most residents to Maryland, more than Pennsylvania, but I didn't include it. There are only 1.3 native-born Nevadans for every Californian living in Nevada. 

    Likewise, there are only 1.7 native-born New Hampshirites for every Massachusettsan living in New Hampshire. As expected, many states have several foreign countries whose native-born people outnumber those of the leading American state."

    34. Duracell AA batteries last the longest of these 11 AA batteries tested in identical flashlights.

    11 different brands of AA batteries, tested in identical flashlights. [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    These results were gathered from this NBC article, in which the authors tested the batteries at home by leaving them in a flashlight until they died — so this isn't necessarily conclusive data, but take it for what you will.

    35. Surprising to none, the demographics of the 2020 US Congress do not reflect the demographics of the US population.

    How representative are the representatives? The demographics of the U.S. Congress, broken down by party [OC]. from dataisbeautiful

    Graph creator u/eccekevin pointed out that the most underrepresented category in Congress is the Unaffiliated/No Religion/Atheists/Agnostics group (which constitutes 25% of Americans). 

    They also note that "voters are going to be less ethnically diverse because they do not include non-citizen immigrants," and "older white voters tend to vote a lot, hence Congress is a bit more demographically representative of the voter pool than it is to the general population."

    36. These are how many votes Kanye West received in the 2020 US presidential election in each of the 12 states where he qualified for ballot access. (Although, he was voted for in other states by write-in.)

    States Kanye West Received Votes In [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Map creator u/Dremarious added, "Kanye West ran as an independent in the 2020 presidential campaign and tallied in close to 60,000 votes across the 12 states where he appeared on the ballot. 

    Tennessee tallied the highest with over 10,000 votes (0.3% of total votes), but Kanye achieved his highest percentage of votes (0.4%) in three states: Idaho, Utah, and Oklahoma. One vote was not tallied in Wisconsin and that was his own vote for himself."

    37. The Hawaiian islands are actually the peaks of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, a mostly undersea mountain range. As such, Mauna Kea, a volcano on the Big Island of Hawai'i, is the highest point in the state of Hawai'i and tallest mountain on Earth. It originates beneath the Pacific Ocean, and rises over 33,500 feet from base to peak.

    Hawaiian chain from MapPorn

    Lōihi, in the bottom right of the map, is the youngest volcano in the Hawaiian Ridge. It's an active submarine volcano that's still growing and is the only volcano in the chain in the submarine pre-shield stage (which means it has infrequent, small-volume eruptions).

    38. Japan has the least amount of people killed by police forces, while Honduras has the most.

    [OC] People Killed by Police Forces (Annual rate per 10 million people) from dataisbeautiful

    The rate of Black Americans killed by police forces (at an annual rate of 10 million people) is twice that of people in the US overall.

    39. The lyrics of Daft Punk's "Around the World" is comprised of 33% "around," 33% "the," and 33% "world."

    Lyrical Composition of Daft Punk's 'Around the World' [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Absolutely mind blowing.

    40. While heart disease is the leading cause of death according to the CDC, Google trends suggest that people worry most about dying from cancer. In 2019, the CDC reported 659,041 deaths due to heart disease, and 599,601 due to cancer in the US. For comparison, that same year, they reported 19,141 deaths due to homicide in the US.

    Cause of Death - Reality vs. Google vs. Media [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    If you looked at causes of deaths represented in media headlines, you may be led to believe there's an incredibly high risk of death by homicide or terrorism.

    41. This animation simulates how currents carry things that float on the surface of the Pacific Ocean — namely showing how litter ends up accumulating in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, which is a collection of "marine debris" (aka litter) in the North Pacific Ocean. The trash vortex spans from North America's west coast (the Eastern Garbage Patch between Hawaii and California) to Japan (the Western Garbage Patch between Hawaii and Japan).

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Creator u/bradyrx explained, "These are results from a simulation of the Model for Prediction Across Scales. We released 1,000,000 virtual particles throughout the global ocean, from the surface to deep, to better understand fluid pathways in the ocean. This is showing the fate of surface 'drifters' in the North Pacific, which collect in the famous 1.6 million square kilometer garbage patch."

    42. In November 2010, nigahiga was the most subscribed to YouTube channel. In November 2019, T-Series was the most subscribed to YouTube channel.

    YouTube's Top 100 Most Subscribed 2010 vs 2019 [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Although, in 2019, PewDiePie was the most subscribed to channel made by a YouTuber.

    43. As of 2015, young adults in the US are more likely to live with their parents than a spouse.

    In America, young adults are now more likely to live with parents than spouses [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    44. At their peak in March 2001, Toys “R” Us had 1,077 store locations across the US. The toy company was founded in 1948. They closed between 2018-2019 in Europe. There were two locations left in the US until financial losses from the COVID-19 pandemic caused them to close in 2021.

    [OC] Toys "R" Us Stores across the US from 1957 to 2020 from dataisbeautiful

    45. As of July 2017, Uber overtook Yellow Taxis in the number of monthly trips given in New York City.

    [OC] How Uber took over New York City from dataisbeautiful

    Uber still overtook New York taxis in spite of #DeleteUber causing 200,000 people to delete their Uber accounts in 2017.

    46. Texaco Star Theatre was the most popular TV series in 1951, and The Big Bang Theory was the most popular TV series in 2019.

    [OC] Most Popular Television Series 1951 - 2019 from dataisbeautiful

    Other most popular shows throughout the decades include I Love Lucy, The Beverly Hillbillies, Happy Days, Laverne & Shirley, 60 Minutes, The Cosby Show, Cheers, ER, CSI, American Idol, and NCIS.

    47. This is a visualization of what the values of the unit circle represent:

    The Unit Circle [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    All trig teachers should show this to their classes.

    48. Searches for “International Men’s Day” annually peak on International Women’s Day.

    Searches for International Men's Day peak every International Women's Day [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    49. This shows the vegetation intensity (or the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) across Africa throughout the year. This is caused by the Intertropical Convergence Zone, a region near the equator where the trade winds of the Northern and Southern hemispheres come together. It affects rainfall in many countries near the equator, causing wet and dry seasons (instead of cold and warm seasons).

    Vegetation intensity throughout the year for Africa [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    50. The top three US fast food chains with the most store locations are Subway (with 23,494 locations), Starbucks (with 15,350 locations), and McDonald's (with 13,651 locations).

    [OC] Store Locations of the 10 Biggest US Fast Food Chains from dataisbeautiful

    51. Approximately 80% of the 50 largest public companies are connected through at least one shared board member.

    ~80% of the 50 largest public companies are connected to one another through 1 or more shared board member(s) [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    Graph creator u/qwerty2020 clarified that of roughly 1,100 board member positions across the 50 companies, around 1,000 are occupied by a unique person.

    You can find an interactive version of this visualization here.

    52. And finally, this shows how herd immunity works dependent on what percentage of the population is vaccinated. The red represents infection, the yellow represents vaccinated people, and the blue represents unvaccinated people.

    How Herd Immunity Works [OC] from dataisbeautiful

    The creator of this u/theotheredmund explained that this was created using simulated data with percentages that were "calibrated with the effectiveness of real herd immunity in diseases based on research from Epidemiological Reviews, as cited by PBS."

    So have you learned anything new? Have any cool info to add? Let us know in the comments below!

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