The Berlin Wall ideologically and physically divided the city of Berlin for almost three decades.
At the end of World War Two, Germany was divided into four occupation zones, each controlled by a different Allied power. Although Berlin was located in the Soviet zone, it was also split between the four powers. The Berlin Wall was built overnight on August 12, 1961, by the communist government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Its main purpose was to prevent East Germans from leaving for the West, and its construction cemented the divide between democratic West Germany and the socialist GDR. The Berlin Wall fell on November 9, 1989, symbolizing the end of communism in Europe.