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Notes For Unsolved: Ancient Aliens

Research notes for Supernatural Season 2 Episode 3

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**Research compiled for Ryan & Shane on January 23, 2017 by Adriana Gomez.


Erich von Däniken - author of Chariots of the Gods and Arrival of the Gods; Website; Twitter
Giorgio A. Tsoukalos - host of In Search of Ancient Aliens; Twitter
David Childress - regular on Ancient Aliens; Twitter
Kathleen Marden - UFO researcher and best-selling author; Website; LinkedIn

YouGov Survey

  • According to a 2015 survey conducted by, about 54% of Americans believe in extraterrestrial intelligent life.
  • In Germany, 56% of its people believe in aliens, while in the UK, 52% of people are believers.
  • In all three countries, it was found that men are more likely to believe in aliens, and people over 65 are less likely to believe.

The Dogon and Sirius B

Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Who They Are:

The Dogon are a tribal group in West Africa, south of the Timbuktu in Republic of Mali. Based on oral history, the Dogon possibly came from the west bank of the Niger River, sometime between the 10th and 13th centuries.

The History:
  • In the 1930s and 1940s, French anthropologists Marcel Griaule and Germain Dieterlen studied the Dogon’s mythology and traditions. It was found that they knew a surprising amount of modern astronomy.
  • According to their studies, the Dogon believed: the planets orbit the Sun, the Earth and other planets rotate on their axis, Saturn has a ring, Jupiter has four moons, and that the star Sirius, has an invisible sibling planet with a 50-year orbit.
  • It would not require advanced technology to know how the planets orbit. To know about Saturn’s ring and Jupiter’s moon would require remarkable eyesight and an extremely clear sky.

The Mystery:

The Dogon’s knowledge of Sirius B is astonishing. Scientists were able to discern this information about Sirius B with the use of quantum mechanics and relativity, and advanced telescopes.

Mainstream Science Theories:
  • Robert Burnham, who wrote Burnham’s Celestial Handbook, believes that the Dogon possibly had extraordinary eyesight. With a 10-inch reflecting telescope and clear skies, Sirius B can be seen. However, with that technology, the Dogon would also have been able to see Uranus, Neptune, and make other cosmic observations.
  • Belgian anthropologist Walter van Beek visited the Dogon in 1991, hoping to support Marcel Griaule and Germain Dieterlen’s findings. However, the Dogon did not report any legend of Sirius B.

Alien Theory:

  • Another theory, is that Sirius B may have been brighter in the past. However, there is not much evidence to support that theory. The Dogon would have to have known that Sirius B would become a white dwarf.
  • Another theory is that the Dogon were not visited by aliens, but by a technological civilization who imparted their knowledge, which the Dogon’s adopted as a part of their mythology.
  • In 1976, author Robert Temple theorized that the Dogon were visited by the Nommo who are ancestral spirits from the star Sirius A. It was the Nommo who told the Dogons about Sirius B.
  • The Dogon believed that the Nommo were demi-gods, descendents of the creator of the universe, Amma.
  • The Nommo were originally one being, split into four pairs of twins.
  • When one of the Nommos rebelled against Amma, another was killed to restore balance. Part of the Nommo’s remains were scattered across the universe and other remains Amma used to create the ancestors of the human race. This Nommo was eventually resurrected.
  • In the final stage of the creation of the universe, Amma sent all of the Nommo, with a bounty of resources to sustain human life, to earth.
  • Temple believes that the Dogon’s mythology is evidence of memory passed down by oral history, of an amphibious extraterrestrial race that visited from the Sirius star system.
  • Some believe the Dogon were visited by Aryan gods, who are also described in Mesopotamian cultures. It is thought that when Europeans settled in Africa, they were interpreted as the return of these gods. Because the Aztecs similarly interpreted the arrival of Cortes as the return of the god Quetzalcoatl, they may have been visited by the same aliens.
  • Sources: [1] [2] [3]

Nasca Lines

*You can spell it as either “Nasca” or “Nazca” but just stick with one!

Sources [1] [2] [3] [4]

What They Are:
  • In southern Peru, near Nasca, are geometric designs that form the shape of a monkey, hummingbird, and spider. They can only be seen aerially.
  • It is believed they were created by Nasca people between 1 A.D. and 700 A.D.
  • This region of land contains: roughly 70 designs of plants and animals, 300 geometric figures (such as triangles and trapezoids), and over 800 straight lines.
  • Some designs are up to 1,200 feet long, which is nearly the size of the Empire State Building.
  • Some straight lines are nearly 30 miles long.
  • The Lines are formed by negative imaging-the removal of rocks and earth. Since the region of land is extremely dry with little change in weather, the lines have survived for 500 to 2,000 years.

The Mystery:

It is unsure why or how they were made. Because the lines are not detectable from the ground, it was not until the 1930s when air travel became popular that the lines were discovered.

Mainstream Science Theories:
  • On June 22, 1941, professor Paul Kosok was on site when the sun was setting one day before winter solstice. The sunset aligned with one of the geometric lines, causing him to describe the site as “the largest astronomy book in the world.”
  • Maria Reich, a German archeologist known as the Lady of the Lines, studied the Nasca lines for nearly 40 years and fought for their preservation. She theorized that the lines were astronomical and also used as a calendar.
  • In John Reinhard’s book, The Nasca Lines: A New Perspective on their Origin and Meanings, he theorizes that the lines were meant as gathering sites for rituals to bring rain and good crops. Reinhard concluded that the hummingbird symbolized fertility, the monkey is related to water since it’s found in the tropics, and the spider is direct symbol of rain.
  • Others believe it was used as a spiritual walkways-religious paths for the devoted to travel.

Alien Theories:
  • There are those who strongly such as author Erich von Däniken who speculate that the lines served as runways for extraterrestrials. The whole area served as an alien airport. He also believes that the Palpa mountains within the same area were flattened artificially as part of the airport. The symbols were used for marking landing areas for UFOs. Alien conspiracists believe that this is substantiated by the fact that the Nasca people would not be able to see their work in progress unless they were able to fly over it.
  • In Jacques Bergier’s work Mysteries of the Earth, he believes that the figures and lines were made by local Nasca people under instruction by a higher race. Bergier believes spiral forms resemble the spiral nebula. He also argues that the nonhuman figures are extraterrestrial. Bergier argues that the work was completed by a hovering craft monitoring the progress of work for years or decades until it was complete. The Intelligences then left after the work was done.


Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Who He Was:

  • Akhenaten was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled from 1353 BC-1336 BC. During his rule, Akhenaten altered much of Egypt’s culture. After his death, he was deemed a heretic.
  • His father was Tutankhamun of the famous cursed tomb, and he was the husband of Nefertiti, whose renderings are known for their beauty.
  • Five years into his reign, the pharaoh also changed his name from Amenhotep to Akhenaten.
  • Akhenaten began commissioning temples dedicated dedicated the sun-god Aten, meaning “the sun disc.” Under his rule, he altered Egyptian religion to one of the earliest forms of monotheism - the worship of one god. He sent workmen to chisel out the names of other gods in many temples throughout Egypt.
  • Depictions of the pharaoh are also drastically different from the typical rigidity of ancient Egyptian art. Sculptures of Akhenaten portray him with the curvature of a woman and a sagging belly. His face has high cheekbones with an elongated nose with large lips and chin. Reliefs of him and his family are more natural in portrayal as well. Their children appear to be squirming and curious.
  • Following his death, Egyptians returned to their old religion and abandoned his capital, Akhetaten.

The Mystery:

Why would he try to radically alter Egyptian religion? Why was he depicted in such a style do disparate from typical ancient Egyptian art? What do his physical features mean?

Mainstream Science and History:
  • This new artistic style may have been an attempt to enforce the new religion and Akhenaten’s role as intermediary between the Egyptians and the sun god.
  • It is possible that Akhenaten wanted to create a “fresh start” and break from the past with a new religion combined with different styles of art and architecture. It may also have been a strategy to find out which officials in his circle were loyal or in opposition.
  • His unique physical features may have been due to Marfan’s disease which can cause elongated fingers and long faces.
  • Akhenaten’s elongated skull may have been due to the condition craniosynostosis, a condition in which head growth is interfered due the fibrous joints fusing too early.
  • Sources:

Alien Theories:
  • Alien conspiracists believe the portrayals of Akhenaten are evidence that he was an extraterrestrial. His long face, slanted eyes, and elongated head, and androgynous figure, are proof of his alien identity.
  • Akhenaten’s elongated skull, is also believed to be evidence of a larger brain and possibly superior intelligence.
  • It is also claimed that Akhenaten’s DNA was exposed to mutagens, which serves as evidence that he had undergone genetic manipulation.
  • Some speculate that the “sun disk” Akhenaten worshipped was really a UFO in the sky.

Tiwanaku (Puma Punku)

Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

What It Is:
  • Tiwanaku is an ancient city in Bolivia, located near the southern point of Lake Titicaca. It was a flourishing city between 400 AD and 900 AD.
  • They did not have a writing system.
  • The city was one of the highest above sea level, roughly 13,000 feet.
  • The Incas considered the site the birthplace of mankind.
  • The city had an impressive drainage system for rainwater and ashlars stones carved with extraordinary accuracy.
  • Puma Punku is an unfinished platform that seemed to serve as a site for ritualistic practices.

The Mystery:

What did the Tiwanaku people use to carve their stones? It is unknown how they managed to move massive monolithic stones, some of which weigh up to 450 tons, to their city that is 13,000 feet above sea level.

Mainstream Science:
  • It is theorized that the monolithic stones were pulled along logs.
  • At this site, roughly 200 elongated skulls were uncovered, which may be the heads of shamans.
  • From birth, their heads were bound because the shape was thought to amplify their ability to communicate with deities.
  • According to the World Heritage Convention, the people of Tiwanaku developed advanced methods for carving stone materials.

Alien Theories:
  • Extraterrestrial enthusiasts suggest they were moved by an anti-gravity method.
  • The temple of Puma Punku contains precisely carved andesite. It is unknown what tools the Tiwanaku used to achieve this level of this exactness.
  • The “H” blocks interlock in a detailed and sophisticated manner that does not require mortar. (images)
  • Holes are drilled at equi-distance on the blocks.
  • It is suggested that their stone carving techniques were accomplished by advanced technology, possibly power tools.
  • Near Tiwanaku’s Gate of the Sun, is a wall decorated with heads that some believe could be aliens.
  • At the site of Tiwanaku is a calendar that some believe dates millions of years back, and made by visitors from outer space. (images)

Antikythera Mechanism


Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

What It Is:
  • It is comprised of three flat pieces that are nearly 2,000 years old.
  • It was found in the Antikythera wreck by deep sea diver Elias Stadiatos in 1900.
  • It contained roughly 30 gears like the inside of a clock, and markings similar to a protractor.
  • Dials followed the timing of athletic events and counted the days by three different calendars.
  • It possibly even had a model of the moon that would rotate to reflect its waxing and waning.
  • In 1959, Derek de Solla Price, a polymath physicist and science historian at Yale University, posited that the Antikythera mechanism was the world’s first computer because it could calculate the timing of astronomical events.
  • X-rays from the 1970s and 1990s revealed that it was probably a mechanism for following the planets, the sun, and the moon with accuracy.
  • Mike Edmunds of Cardiff University in Wales and his team released CT scans of the Antikythera mechanism in 2006 which revealed: (1) Pieces of wood were found on the fragments. It is believed that the mechanism was stored in a wood case, about the size of a shoebox, with a circular face and rotating hands. (2) The tool could be rotated forward or backwards by a handle or knob protruding from the side. (3) The rotating hands followed the celestial time of planets that were visible with plain eyesight—Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Two other hands followed the sun and moon. The hands would tell the viewer on what date a star would rise and set. (4) Two dials were also on the back of the machine. One displayed the date of the lunar and solar eclipse, the other worked like a calendar.
  • New imaging technology revealed a 3,500-word text that are not instructions but more like a description of what is displayed by the machine, like an art museum’s description.
  • Alexander Jones from the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World in New York believes that some inscriptions detail the celestial hands contained colored balls to indicate the planet or star it followed. The handle for the Sun had a gold ball, and the handle for Mars had a red ball.

The Mystery:

Though it dates from antiquity, there is no other sophisticated tool like this from its time. Tools with this level of sophistication do not appear until at least a thousand years later. According to the Washington Post, clocks with gears such as this machine did not appear in Europe until the 14th century. It is unknown how the celestial hands moved, especially since to the naked eye the planets and stars appear to move back and forth. It is also unknown where this machine came from.

Mainstream Science Theories:
  • Professor Paul Iverson from Case Western University in Cleveland believes it came from northwest Greece because it contains month names that were used in Corinth.
  • It may have also come from Rhodes since a dial that followed athletic events contains the festival Halieia, held near the island. This could mean it was made in Rhodes in the studio of ancient philosopher Posidonius, who allegedly made a similar tracking device in the first century BC.
  • Records of tools celestial tracking may date as far back as 205 BC.
  • Celestial events were regarded as predictors of war and famine in ancient Greece. This mechanism may have been used for predictions as well as the timing of cultural events.

Alien Theories:
  • Erich von Däniken believes it was left by aliens.
  • Others believe it was impossible for the ancient greeks to create gears with precise interlocking teeth that are “more intricate than a Swiss watch.” Such detailed manufacturing could not have been achieved simply by hand.
  • The advanced calculations of the machine could only have been done by extraterrestrials with powerful astronomical knowledge.
  • Some reason that the mechanism was actually used by travelling ancient aliens.
  • Extraterrestrial enthusiasts ask why how this one piece of technology from ancient Greece could be so advanced and unmatched for centuries?

Crystal Skulls

Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

What They Are:
  • There are roughly a dozen crystal skulls that are all believed to originate from Mexico and Central America and possibly carved tens of thousands of years ago.
  • In Mesoamerican artwork, specifically the Aztecs, skulls were played an important role.
  • Archeology professor Michael Smith believes that skulls were meant for the Aztecs to summon the gods since skulls were a symbol for many of their deities.

The History:
  • The first life-size skull was initially documented in Paris in 1881 in Eugène Boban’s shop. Eugène Boban was an antiquarian, known for his fascination with Mesoamerican art.
  • He tried to sell the piece to Mexico’s national museum, claiming it was an Aztec artifact but the museum deemed it a fake and refused to purchase the skull.
  • He then went to New York City, where he was able to auction it to Tiffany & Co. for $950. Tiffany & Co. then sold it to the British Museum.
  • Later in 1866, Boban’s inventory suddenly lists another skull that is claimed to be Aztec.
  • In 1934 Sydney Burney purchased a skull similar to the on Boban sold to Tiffany & Co, but the a separate mandible. There is also no information regarding where it came from.

The Mystery:

We do not know where they came from.

Mainstream Science/History:
  • The late 1800s was a time when little was known about Mesoamerican art, there were no scientific archeological digs happening in Mexico, and the market of selling fake relics began to grow.
  • It is worth noting that no skull has been discovered at an archeological site. Their findings have not been documented.
  • They do not reflect the Mesoamerican portrayal of skulls. Aztec and Toltec skulls were often displayed on walls, alters, or belts, and appear more naturalistic than the crystal skulls. The Mixtec would not create skulls, but skull-like faces. The Maya, would carve skull reliefs into limestone, and often in profile.
  • The British museum has openly states that because of the markings on their crystal skull, it had to have been made with a jeweler’s wheel which is a tool the Aztecs would only learn about after the arrival of the Europeans. The markings do not match other rock crystal objects of that time.
  • Upon close examination, the British Museum and Smithsonian Institution established that markings on the skulls could only have been done with modern tools. The British Museum and Smithsonian Institution also agree that the skulls were created in the 1800s to simply be a crowd-pleaser at museums.

Alien Theories:
  • Some believe they could be relics from a time before the Spanish conquest, that the Incas were visited by aliens.
  • In his book Mysteries of the Crystal Skulls Revealed, Joshua Shapiro believes the skulls have healing powers and may enhance the psychic abilities of those in its presence.
  • Shapiro writes that he believes the skulls are “a form of computer which are able to record energy and vibration that occur around them… The skull will pictorially replay all events or images of the people who have come into contact with them (i.e. they contain the history of our world).”
  • It is unknown for sure who made the skulls or when. We still do not have the technology to properly determine the age of the skulls.
  • Some believe that these skulls came from another galaxy.
  • There are those that also believe once all thirteen skulls are gathered, powerful knowledge will be revealed.

The Pyramids of Giza

Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

What They Are / History:
  • Giza’s pyramids were constructed between 2550 and 2490 BC, under the pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.
  • They were tombs were intended to emulate and honor the gods as the pharaoh passed into the afterlife and became a god himself.
  • Pharaoh Khufu’s was the first and largest pyramid, built around 2550 BC. It is around 481 feet tall. It is constructed of roughly 2.3 million stones that each weighed between 2.5 to 15 tons. The Great pyramid was a tomb that was built to mimic light. It was originally smooth and covered in white limestone to reflect that the pharaoh was the sun god. The angles of the base of the pyramid are described as nearly perfectly 90 degrees. This suggests that the architect and builders had a strong understanding of mathematics. Each side of the pyramid measure 756 feet. The area of each side is 5.5 acres. Every base angle measures 51 degrees.
  • The second pyramid was built for Khufu’s son, Pharaoh Khafre, around 2520 BC. The Sphinx was also built as part of Khafre’s tomb complex.
  • The smallest pyramid was built for Pharaoh Menkaure around 2490 BC.
  • We know that the builders were probably situated in a temporary city nearby the construction sites. What has been found near the site reveals that the community of workers were well organized and had a plentiful amount of resources.
  • It is likely that the pyramids were nation-wide projects. Workers, resources for food were contributed from communities throughout Egypt.

The Mystery:
  • The Great Pyramid is incredibly close to magnetic north. We do not know what method they used for this alignment.
  • We do not know how the pyramids were constructed. It is still debated.
  • The Egyptians did not have wheels, pulleys, and they did not have work animals. So how did they transport stones that weighed at least 2.5 tons?
  • It is thought that the Egyptians used a ramp to move stones into place on the pyramids but the ramp structure itself would have been massive and no evidence of this construction has been found.

Mainstream Science:
  • In 2014, it was theorized that the Egyptians would place the stones on sleds and pour water in front of the sleds, to reduce the likelihood of friction and a buildup of sand in front of the sled. In the 19th century, tomb art was discovered that seems to support this theory. It shows water being poured in front of a team of people hauling a block.
  • Others believe oil was used to lubricate a pathway for the stones to travel. Once at the site of the pyramid, ramps were used to place the blocks in their proper position.
  • The pyramids have lasted so long because of the work of preservation over the past couple hundreds of years.
  • In order to finish the Great Pyramid in 23 years, it was calculated that workers would have to set a block every 2.5 minutes, every day of the week.

Alien Theory:
  • It is claimed that on summer solstice, the sun sets in the direct center of two of the pyramids.
  • Some believe it was impossible for the Egyptians to build the pyramids to replicate the pattern of Orion’s belt.
  • It is argued that the location of the stars matched the alignment of the pyramids in 10,500 BC, when there were no “civilized” humans.
  • (However, keep in that humans actually settled and took up farming around that time.)
  • Allegedly, the perimeter of the Great Pyramid divided by twice the height results in the number Pi, up to its fifteenth digit.
  • The pyramids align with Orion’s belt, which is seen as evidence of aliens having built the pyramids.
  • Alien theorists are suspicious of how well preserved the pyramids are, compared to others that were built centuries later.
  • Former presidential candidate Ben Carson theorized that the pyramids were built by the biblical figure Joseph, in order to store grain.

Ancient Artwork Interpreted as Evidence of Ancient Aliens

Sego Canyon Utah Petroglyphs

  • It thought that artists from the Barrier Canyon culture are responsible for this art. They were nomads from over 6,000 years ago.
  • Their lack of arms, eyes, and human legs, lead people to believe they are drawing of aliens.
  • Sources: [1] [2] [3]

Tassili N'ajjer Cave Paintings
  • Containing over 15,000 drawaings, it is located in the Sahara desert and believed to have been drawn around 8,000 BC.
  • It is believed that the natives of the area drew their extraterrestrial visitors.
  • Some believe one of the many paintings depicts women being led to a spacecraft.
  • Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Wandjina Petroglyphs
  • Located in the Grampians National Park in Australia, these cave paintings may date as far back as 5,000 years.
  • Some interpret these figures as helmeted people wearing spacesuits.
  • Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Mayan King Pacal
  • The Mayan Temple of the Inscriptions was commissioned by King Pacal in the seventh century.
  • Mainstream science believes this particular carving shows Pacal’s resurrection in the afterlife.
  • UFO believers are convinced this is actually proof of spaceships. His nose appears to be attached to an oxygen source while he adjusts controls.
  • Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Hieroglyphs in the Temple of Seti I
  • The temple is located in Abydos dates back to the 14th century BC.
  • These hieroglyphs are located on a beam.
  • Some believe these are hovering spacecrafts and modern day flying machinery such as helicopters.
  • Sources: [1] [2] [3]

Ancient Greek Laptop
  • This ancient Greek stele (funerary marker) dates back to roughly 100 BC.
  • Most people believe that the woman is being presented with a shallow chest or possibly a jewelry box by her servant girl.
  • Alien enthusiasts believe it is a laptop with USB ports, proof of advanced technology given by aliens or possibly time travel.
  • Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4]

Light Bulbs
  • This relief is located at Dendera, inside the Hathor Temple.
  • Construction and renovation of the temple spanned under the rule of the Ptolemies, Ptolemy XII, Cleopatra, and the Romans.
  • Fringe investigators believe they are light bulbs, proof of advanced technology. This would also explain how Egyptians were able to see when drawing elaborate hieroglyphs inside their tombs.
  • Sources: [1] [2] [3] [4]