3. Britain, as the ancient Romans thought it looked.
Claudius Ptolemy, a Greek scholar who lived in the second century AD, wrote a book describing the world. This is a medieval depiction of the British Isles based on Ptolemy’s method, including the strange eastward projection of Scotland.
9. The post-Roman peoples of Britain.
10. The bits of Britain ruled by Vikings in the 9th century.
The light blue section is where the Danes – a Germanic tribe, who lived roughly in what is now Denmark, also known as Norsemen and Vikings – ruled Britain from about the 8th century to the 12th. This is when the poem Beowulf was written, by an Anglo-Saxon poet, about a great king of the Danes.
14. All the land that the British Empire held.
Not all at once, we should add. The “first empire”, which held large areas of land in North America and the Caribbean, ended with the American revolution in 1776. The “second empire” was built in the 19th century, based on British naval power, and included huge parts of Africa and south-east Asia.
(Note: It also includes, in light pink, the areas which Britain occupied during the Second World War, which most people wouldn’t call part of the British Empire. See here for the full breakdown.)
15. These are the countries which British troops have never invaded.
According to Stuart Laycock’s book All the Countries We’ve Ever Invaded: And the Few We Never Got Round To, of the 193 countries which are currently UN member states, Britain has at one stage or another invaded 171, or more than 90%. (The definition of “invaded” may be a bit liberal, admittedly.)