Anatomy of the eyes
The anatomy of the eyes for both dogs and humans are similar. Like humans, dogs have rods and cones, similarly used as light receptors. They help us make out the shapes and colors of the object we are looking at. Dogs have their eyes set on the side while human eyes are set forward on the face. This has to do with the prey/predator anatomy. Prey has to have better peripheral vision. Dogs have limited peripheral vision. Thus, dogs are the predators and humans are prey.
Seeing in color
It has been the ongoing thought that dogs see in black and white. They have no way to different things based on their color. This is not the case at all. Dogs can see in color much like humans. The difference between how dogs see color and how humans see color is the range. Humans see a much larger and broader range of colors. We also see them more vividly than dogs do.
How dogs’ eyes are better than ours?
Dogs have far better night vision than we could ever hope to have. Again, this helps them with hunting. Another aspect of their predator ways is that they are better at sensing motion. They are able to catch small, fast movement out of the corner of their eye. One of the drawbacks to having great night vision and motion is that they are nearsighted. This means that they cannot see very far. While their vision might be good, it does not stretch very far.