Confederate monuments across the country are being taken down following the violence in Charlottesville, which began after white supremacists organized a rally to protest the removal of a statue of Robert E. Lee.
Across the United States, citizens have increased pressure on city officials to remove Confederate monuments after the events in Charlottesville, which led to the death of a 32-year-old liberal demonstrator.
President Donald Trump's equivocal response to the violence, including his defense of white supremacists, drew the ire of both Republicans and Democrats last week. He has continued to defend the motives of white supremacists protesting the removal of Confederate statutes, calling them "beautiful" and expressing concern that their removal "will be greatly missed and never able to be comparably replaced!"
Nevertheless, officials in several cities have begun to take down Confederate monuments following the Charlottesville violence.
Here is a running list of monuments that have been removed so far:
BuzzFeed News will continue to update this list.
Dec. 20, 2017: Memphis, Tennessee
Monuments removed: Statues of Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest and President Jefferson Davis
The statues honoring the Confederate leaders were removed by crane overnight.
The city of Memphis had been blocked under law from removing the statues, so the city council voted to sell the two parks to a nonprofit, which then carried out the task that had been planned for months.
The nonprofit group is storing the statues at a location that, for security reasons, has not been undisclosed. Under the terms of sale, the parks will continue to be operated as open space.
Sept. 14, 2017: Dallas, Texas
Monuments removed: Statue of General Robert E. Lee
The statue was removed in Dallas, Texas, with a crane and police escort.
The City Council had voted Sept. 6 to remove the controversial statue, but a court stay obtained by a pro-Confederacy group delayed the removal, which was done unannounced under heavy police presence.
Officials said the statue will be stored at a city-owned storage facility until the task force decides what to do with it long term.
Activists had staged protests at Lee Park this summer urging the statue's removal.
Sept. 6, 2017: Washington, DC
Monuments removed: Two stained glass windows honoring Confederate Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson at the Washington National Cathedral.
After a vote, the Washington National Cathedral began removing two stained glass windows depicting the Confederate generals, the Cathedral leadership said. The Cathedral Chapter voted to remove the windows following a two-year debate over the removal that was sparked by the shooting at a historic black church in Charleston.
"The Chapter believes that these windows are not only inconsistent with our current mission to serve as a house of prayer for all people, but also a barrier to our important work on racial justice and racial reconciliation," the Cathedral's leaders said. "Their association with racial oppression, human subjugation and white supremacy does not belong in the sacred fabric of this Cathedral."
The windows will be conserved and stored until the Cathedral determines "a more appropriate future for them."
Sept. 1, 2017: San Antonio Texas
Monuments removed: Statue of a Confederate soldier
Hours after a vote by the city council, crews worked overnight to remove a statue of an unknown Confederate soldier in Travis Park.
As the 8-foot statue was removed, a handful of spectators chanted, "Hey hey, ho ho, the racist statue’s got to go," the San Antonio Express-News reported.
William "Cruz" Shaw, a city council member, tweeted: "Today we voted to relocate the confederate statue in Travis Park. SA showed just how compassionate we are. Public spaces should be inclusive."
It is unclear where the statue will be stored or relocated.
Aug. 25, 2017: Kansas City, Missouri
Monuments removed: A memorial to the Loyal Women of the Old South
The United Daughters of the Confederacy — which erected the monument — asked for it to be removed after it was vandalized, the Kansas City Star reported.
It is being stored in an undisclosed location which is not on park property, the Kansas City Parks Director Mark McHenry told the paper.
Aug. 25, 2017: Lynchburg, Virginia
Monuments removed: Statue of George Morgan Jones
The statue of the Confederate soldier was removed from the Randolph College campus following a decision by the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees.
In a statement, President Bradley W. Bateman said that while Jones was a "generous donor" to the college, honoring him "does not obligate us to celebrate his participation in the Confederacy."
He further stated:
In the current national environment, a public dispute about the removal of the statue would have posed a very real risk to the physical safety of our campus community. If we were to have gained attention for debating the presence of a statue of a Confederate soldier on our campus, it is quite possible that armed white supremacists, Ku Klux Klan members, and neo-Nazis would have descended on our campus to "protect" the statue or simply to express their support for keeping it where it is. Their purposes, of course, would only be nominally connected to the debate about the statue. Their intent, as we saw in Charlottesville recently, is violent, threatening, and publicity seeking. Thus, prudent behavior required removing the statue now before it could become an issue."
The president asked for the base of the statue to remain in place and said that an alternative location for the statue would be decided.
Aug. 24, 2017: Bradenton, Florida
Monuments removed: Confederate memorial
While removing the 22-foot, 8.5-ton granite Confederate monument from the Manatee County courthouse grounds, workers broke the obelisk in half, the county said in a press release.
The memorial, which has the names of Jefferson Davis, Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee engraved on it, fell and broke into two pieces as workers attempted to remove it.
The county said the shaft's easy separation from the base of the monument, proved it was a "potential hazard" and an "even greater public safety risk than suspected."
County commissioners voted to remove the monument after lengthy public debates "based on the concerns for public safety of the citizens of Manatee County since the structure had become the focal point of an intense community debate," the county's release said.
The monument — which will be repaired — will remain at a "secure, undisclosed location" until a "decision can be reached on a prominent, respectful relocation site," the press release said.
Aug. 22, 2017: West Palm Beach, Florida
Monuments removed: Confederate memorial
After it was vandalized with graffiti, city workers removed the 10-foot-tall Confederate memorial in West Palm Beach's Woodlawn Cemetery by the Dixie Highway.
The monument was erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy “in memory of our Confederate Soldiers," the Palm Beach Post reported.
Mayor Jeri Muoio told the Post that despite the city's requests for the past few months, the Daughters had refused to remove the memorial.
"They haven’t done that, so we will do it for them,” she said. “We sort of lost our patience.”
The monument is being stored in a "secure location."
Aug. 22, 2017: Ellicott City, Maryland
Monuments removed: Confederate memorial
A Confederate memorial outside the Howard County Circuit Courthouse in Ellicott City was removed early Tuesday morning, as ordered by Howard County Executive Allan H. Kittleman.
"It has become increasingly clear in recent weeks that memorials such as this are hurtful to many residents in our community and elsewhere," Kittleman wrote in a Facebook post. "Given these feelings and the tragedy in Charlottesville, I felt compelled to remove this memorial from public property."
The memorial — which was dedicated in 1948 — will be donated to a local museum which Kittleman said was a "more appropriate place" for it.
"We cannot and should not erase the past," he said. "We must learn from it. A museum offers context for us and for future generations to better understand our shared history."
Aug. 21, 2017: University of Texas at Austin
Monuments removed: Statues of Confederate generals Robert E. Lee and Albert Sidney Johnston, Confederate postmaster John H. Reagan, and former Texas governor James Stephen Hogg
University of Texas at Austin President Gregory L. Fenves ordered the immediate removal of four Confederate statues Sunday from a prominent part of the campus, sending crews to take down the monuments in the middle of the night.
"Last week, the horrific displays of hatred at the University of Virginia and in Charlottesville shocked and saddened the nation," Fenves said in a written statement. "These events make it clear, now more than ever, that Confederate monuments have become symbols of modern white supremacy and neo-Nazism."
Fenves said that the statues of Lee, Johnston, and Reagan would be added to the collection at the university's Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, while the statue of Hogg will be "considered for re-installation at another campus site."
Aug. 19, 2017: Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
Monument removed: Statue of Robert E. Lee
Duke University removed the statue from the entrance of Duke Chapel after parts of Lee's face were vandalized.
"I took this course of action to protect Duke Chapel, to ensure the vital safety of students and community members who worship there, and above all to express the deep and abiding values of our university," Duke University President Vincent E. Price wrote in a letter to students and staff.
Price said that Lee's statue — which stood among 10 historical figures — will be preserved "so that students can study Duke’s complex past and take part in a more inclusive future."
Prior to the vandalism, hundreds of Duke alumni had written a letter to Price supporting the statue's removal.
Aug. 18, 2017: New York City, New York
Monuments removed: Busts of generals Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson
Bronx Community College removed the busts of Lee and Jackson from the Hall of Fame for Great Americans after Bronx Borough President Ruben Diaz Jr. and
New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo called for their removal.
"There are many great Americans, many of them New Yorkers worthy of a spot in this great hall," Cuomo said in a tweet. "These two confederates are not among them."
In a statement. the school's president, Thomas A. Isekenegbe, explained the decision, writing that "[e]mbracing difference includes creating space where all people feel respected, welcomed, and valued."
Aug. 18, 2017: Daytona Beach, Florida
Monuments removed: Three plaques commemorating Confederate soldiers
The plaques were removed from the city's Riverfront Park a day after after Daytona Beach Mayor Derrick Henry told a News-Journal reporter that he didn't think the plaques "need to have a prominent place in public life if it is in homage to the Confederacy."
"I don’t see them as having any positive place in the future of our city,” Henry said.
Two of the plaques listed names of Confederate soldiers from the county and the third was dedicated to the memory of Confederate soldiers by the "Southern Citizens of Daytona Beach."
Aug. 18, 2017: Annapolis, Maryland
Monument removed: Statue of former Supreme Court justice Roger B. Taney
Following a vote by the State House Trust, workers removed the statue of Taney from the Maryland State House grounds.
Taney — a staunch supporter of slavery — authored the infamous 1857 Dred Scott decision of the Supreme Court, which upheld slavery and ruled that black people could not be US citizens and could not sue in federal courts.
Following the violence in Charlottesville, Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan reversed his previous stance on preserving the statue.
"While we cannot hide from our history — nor should we — the time has come to make clear the difference between properly acknowledging our past and glorifying the darkest chapters of our history," Hogan said in a statement. "I believe removing the Justice Roger B. Taney statue from the State House grounds is the right thing to do."
Aug. 18, 2017: Helena, Montana
Monument removed: Confederate Memorial Fountain
The granite fountain in Helena Hill Park served as a memorial to Confederate soldiers and was commissioned by the United Daughters of the Confederacy more than a century ago, the Associated Press reported.
The Helena City Commission voted to remove the fountain after the American Indian Caucus of the Montana Legislature sent a letter to the city calling it a "divisive symbol" that sent "a harmful message to Indians, minorities and all Montanans."
"Public property in Montana should not be used to promote Nazism, fascism, totalitarianism, separatism or racism," the letter said. "Please send a message that there is no hate in our state by removing this divisive memorabilia from the capital city."
Aug. 18, 2017: Worthington, Ohio
Monument removed: General Roswell Ripley
Officials in Worthington removed a historical marker outside of Ripley's former home on Friday. According to the Columbus Dispatch, the marker was taken down in anticipation of protests.
“Worthington seeks to be a community that promotes tolerance, respect and inclusion so we, with the permission of the owner of the property where the sign was located, have removed the marker,” Assistant City Manager Robyn Stewart told the Dispatch.
Aug. 17, 2017: Madison, Wisconsin
Monument removed: Confederate’s Rest plaque
Madison Mayor Paul Soglin ordered the plaque, which honored Confederate soldiers, to be removed from the city's Forest Hill Cemetery. He also called for the removal of a "larger monument" erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, the local news outlet Isthmus reported.
"The Civil War was an act of insurrection and treason and a defense of the deplorable practice of slavery," Soglin wrote in a statement. "The monuments in question were connected to that action and we do not need them on City property."
Aug. 17, 2017: Franklin, Ohio
Monument removed: General Robert E. Lee
Officials in Franklin removed the stone-and-plaque monument along Dixie Highway, which had originally been erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, the Dayton Daily News reported.
Plans to remove the monument were put in place in the wake of the violence in Charlottesville, after local news media asked officials about the future of the plaque, WHIO reported. After the monument had been taken down, protesters waving Confederate flags reportedly gathered at the site.
Aug. 16, 2017: Baltimore, Maryland
Monuments removed: Statues of generals Robert E. Lee and “Stonewall” Jackson and Supreme Court justice Roger B. Taney Monument, a memorial of Confederate women, and a monument to soldiers and sailers who fought for the Confederacy
On the Monday following the violent clashes in Charlottesville, Baltimore's city council voted to remove four local Confederate monuments. The following day, crews arrived in the middle of the night and carted away the giant statues.
Aug. 16, 2017: San Diego, California
Monument removed: Plaque to Confederate president Jefferson Davis
The plaque, donated by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1925, sat amid paving tiles at the city's downtown Horton Plaza Park, NBC San Diego reported. It was removed at around 8:30 a.m. on Aug. 16.
According to the San Diego Union-Tribune, the plaque was installed amid controversy and removed for a period shortly after, thanks in part to a push from Union Army veterans. It was later reinstalled, before being taken out last week amid local pressure post-Charlottesville.
“San Diegans stand together against Confederate symbols of division.” Mayor Kevin Faulconer told the Union-Tribune after giving the order to remove the plaque.
Aug. 16, 2017: New York City, New York
Monuments removed: Two plaques honoring Robert E. Lee
The Lee plaques were affixed to a tree on the grounds of St. John's Episcopal Church in Brooklyn, marking a spot where the Confederate general reportedly planted a tree while serving in the US Army during the 1840s.
"The Episcopal Diocese of Long Island is on the right side of history by removing this symbol that venerates our history of slavery," Rev. Khader El-Yateem said in a statement to PIX 11. "Removing this plaque makes it very clear that while we will never forget the history of slavery in America, we are ready to move forward and address racism at its root.”
Aug. 15, 2017: Los Angeles, California
Monument removed: Memorial to Confederate soldiers
The Hollywood Forever Cemetery removed a 6-foot stone-and-plaque monument around 4 a.m. on Aug. 15. The monument, erected in 1925, was owned and maintained by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, according to NBC Los Angeles. Nearly 100 Confederate veterans who moved to California after the Civil War are buried near the spot where the monument had been located, Fox LA reported.
In the aftermath of Charlottesville, a Change.org petition calling for the monument to be taken down racked up nearly 2,000 signatures. LA Mayor Eric Garcetti also voiced support for its removal.
Aug. 15, 2017: St. Petersburg, Florida
Monument removed: Plaque marking the end of the Stonewall Jackson Memorial Highway
St. Petersburg Mayor Rick Kriseman ordered city officials to remove the marker around noon on Aug. 15, the Tampa Bay Times reported. The United Daughters of the Confederacy had originally donated the plaque in 1925.
“The plaque may not have elicited the same attention or emotions as the offensive statues and monuments that glorify the Confederacy, but that's no reason for it remain on public land and serve as a flashpoint in this national debate," Kriseman told the Times.
Aug. 14, 2017: Gainsville, Florida
Monument removed: "Old Joe" statue honoring Confederate soldiers
The statue, erected in 1904, had been located in front of the Alachua County Administration Building. It's removal had been debated for months, the Gainsville Sun reported, but officials did not give the go ahead to jackhammer it out until the Monday following the deadly Charlottesville rally. According to the Orlando Sentinel, it was unclear what impact the rally had on the decision to take down the statue.
The statue has since been relocated to the private Oak Ridge Cemetery, the Sun reported.
Tasneem Nashrulla is a reporter for BuzzFeed News and is based in New York.
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