Espoused by: Gottfried Leibniz.
He said: “God is absolutely perfect, since perfection is nothing but magnitude of positive reality, in the strict sense, setting aside the limits or bounds in things which are limited.”
In other words: God made this rubbish world and it’s the best of the lot.
5. Deontological ethics.
Espoused by: Immanuel Kant.
He said: “What origin is there worthy of you, and where is to be found the root of your noble descent which proudly rejects all kinship with the inclinations, descent from which is the indispensable condition of that worth which human beings alone can give themselves?”
In other words: If you didn’t mean to do it, it’s OK.
Espoused by: Friedrich Nietzsche.
He said: “God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him. How shall we comfort ourselves, the murderers of all murderers? What was holiest and mightiest of all that the world has yet owned has bled to death under our knives: who will wipe this blood off us?”
In other words: Now that God is dead, let’s accept our lot and get on with living.
Espoused by: Søren Kierkegaard.
He said: “I certainly do not deny that I still recognise an imperative of knowledge and that through it one can work upon men, but it must be taken up into my life, and that is what I now recognise as the most important thing.”
In other words: To understand stuff, you have to have experienced it first.
11. The problem of bourgeois society.
Espoused by: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
He said: “We see around us hardly a creature in civil society, who does not lament his existence: we even see many deprive themselves of as much of it as they can, and laws human and divine together can hardly put a stop to the disorder… Let us judge, with less vanity, on which side the real misery is found.”
In other words: Society corrupts us and makes us do bad things.
15. The state of nature.
Espoused by: Thomas Hobbes.
He said: “He… to whom God hath not supernaturally revealed that they are His, nor that those that published them were sent by Him, is not obliged to obey them by any authority but his whose commands have already the force of laws; that is to say, by any other authority than that of the Commonwealth, residing in the sovereign, who only has the legislative power.”
In other words: Our rules make order out of chaos.
Espoused by: Karl Marx.
He said: “The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production, so that thereby, generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it.”
In other words: Societies progress through class struggle.
Espoused by: Daniel Dennett.
He said: “If it is true that human minds are themselves to a very great degree the creations of memes, then we cannot sustain the polarity of vision we considered earlier; it cannot be “memes versus us,” because earlier infestations of memes have already played a major role in determining who or what we are.”
In other words: Free will is an illusion. What will be, will be.