Cohen was co-captain of the mathematics team at Dwight Morrow High School in Englewood, New Jersey. The team became state champions in 1984. This picture appeared the same year in his high school yearbook.

The problem concerns reordering a stack of pancakes so that the largest is at the bottom and the smallest at the top. Bill Gates’s only mathematical paper is on this same topic.

Gage Skidmore / en.wikipedia.org

Mathematicians at the University of California, San Diego, are publishing a paper titled “Keeler’s Theorem and Products of Distinct Transpositions” in American Mathematical Monthly.

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He also used a simpler substitution cipher for a second alien script.

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Burns and Keeler investigated the possible cross-sections of a cube and discovered that a particular slice results in a hexagonal cross-section. This shape marks the divide between the lower seating and upper transparent roof.

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Kif describes how he built his Holo-shed for Amy: “I programmed it in for you. Four million lines of BASIC!” A non-mathematician claimed that the reference to BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was too obscure for the general audience. Kaplan simply said: “F**k, ‘em”. His philosophy was that viewers who missed an arcane reference would laugh at the next joke.

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]]>The name is not just a pun on Herman Melville’s novel *Moby-Dick*: It also refers to a one-sided mathematical surface known as a Möbius strip. The episode title is the punchline to this obscure joke: “What's non-orientable and lives in the ocean?”

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Bender is more confused than spooked, but when he sees the digits reflected in the mirror as 1010011010 he is immediately terrified. No explanation is given in the dialogue, but those capable of translating binary to decimal would have appreciated that this is 666, the number of the beast.

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This is a tribute to an Indian genius Srinivasa Ramanujan, who observed that 1729 is the smallest number that is the sum of two positive cubes in two different ways. (1729 = 10^3 + 9^3 = 12^3 + 1^3.)

Ramanujan first started thinking about the number 1729 when he was visited by the mathematician G. H. Hardy, who had come to see him in a taxi with this number.

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It's the smallest number that is the sum of two positive cubes in three different ways.

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There's an unsolved mystery in mathematics known as P v NP. In short, P-problems are easy, and NP-problems are hard. But if someone gives you the answer to an NP-problem, then it is easy to check if it is right. So are NP-problems really hard, or is there a shortcut that would turn them into P-problems?

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Discreet implies that Bender will respect his clients’ privacy. Discrete is used in mathematical circles to describe an area of research that deals with data that does not vary smoothly or continuously. The sign might have been inspired by this joke:

Q: What do you call a mathematician who has lots of romantic

liaisons, but who doesn’t like to talk about it?

A: A discrete data.

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It says “Studio 1^2 2^1 3^3”, which is equivalent to “Studio 1 × 2 × 27” or "Studio 54", the famous 1970s New York nightclub.

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Instead of “Historic Route 66”.

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Incidentally, its inventor, Felix Klein, was born on April 25, 1849, which is 4/25/1849, which is 2^2/5^2/43^2. Each element of the date is the square of a prime number.

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Mathematicians have proved that there are different scales of infinity, and ℵ0 is smallest, standard type. ℵ1 is even bigger. Which means Buzz Lightyear’s catchphrase “To infinity and beyond” is meaningful, and the “beyond” probably refers to ℵ1.

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