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  • Creative PEACE is actually constructive practical LOVE in Action as shown by the courageous young 2014 Nobel Peace Laureate MALALA.

    Malālah Yūsafzay, born 12 July 1997,in Pakistan Peshawor ” Swat Valley , She is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest-ever Nobel Prize recipient. She is known mainly for human rights advocacy for education and for women in her native Swat Valley in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of northwest Pakistan, where the local Taliban had at times banned girls from attending school. Yousafzai’s advocacy has since grown into an international movement. Her family runs a chain of schools in the region. In early 2009, when she was 11–12, Yousafzai wrote a blog under a pseudonym for the BBC detailing her life under Taliban occupation, their attempts to take control of the valley, and her views on promoting education for girls in the Swat Valley. The following summer, journalist Adam B. Ellick made a New York Times documentary about her life as the Pakistani military intervened in the region, culminating in the Second Battle of Swat. Yousafzai rose in prominence, giving interviews in print and on television, and she was nominated for the International Children’s Peace Prize by South African activist Desmond Tutu. On the afternoon of 9 October 2012, Yousafzai boarded her school bus in the northwest Pakistani district of Swat. A gunman asked for her by name, then pointed a pistol at her and fired three shots. One bullet hit the left side of Yousafzai’s forehead, travelled under her skin through the length of her face, and then went into her shoulder. In the days immediately following the attack, she remained unconscious and in critical condition, but later her condition improved enough for her to be sent to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Birmingham, England, for intensiverehabilitation. On 12 October, a group of 50 Islamic clerics in Pakistan issued a fatwā against those who tried to kill her, but the Taliban reiterated their intent to kill Yousafzai and her father. Some Pakistanis believe the shooting was a CIAsetup and many conspiracy theories exist. The assassination attempt sparked a national and international outpouring of support for Yousafzai. Deutsche Wellewrote in January 2013 that Yousafzai may have become “the most famous teenager in the world. United Nations Special Envoy for Global Education Gordon Brown launched a UN petition in Yousafzai’s name, using the slogan “I am Malala” and demanding that all children worldwide be in school by the end of 2015 – a petition which helped lead to the ratification of Pakistan’s first Right to Education Bill. In the 29 April 2013 issue of Time magazine, Yousafzai was featured on the magazine’s front cover and as one of “The 100 Most Influential People in the World”. She was thewinner of Pakistan’s first National Youth Peace Prize. On 12 July 2013, Yousafzai spoke at the headquarters of the United Nations to call for worldwide access to education, and in September 2013 she officially opened the Library of Birmingham. Yousafzai is the recipient of the Sakharov Prize for 2013. On 16 October 2013, the Government of Canada announced its intention that the Parliament of Canadaconfer Honorary Canadian citizenship upon Yousafzai. In February 2014, she was nominated for the World Children’sprize in Sweden. On 15 May 2014, Yousafzai was granted an honorary doctorate by the University of King’s Collegein Halifax. On 10 October 2014, Yousafzai was announced as the co-recipient of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize for her struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education. At age 17, Yousafzai is the youngest-ever Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Yousafzai shared the prize withKailash Satyarthi, a children’s rights activist from India. She is the second Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize and the only Pakistani winner of the Nobel Peace Prize; Abdus Salam was a 1979 Physics laureate.

  • Will President Ghani walk the talk?

    The inherent art of politics lies in talking with both friends and foes. The newly elected president of Afghanistan, Dr. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai, who was famous for being less talkative, seems to be taking his politics too seriously. President Ghani held a series of meetings with world leaders after taking over from Hamid Karzai a few weeks ago. Many important issues were discussed in the meetings, according to sources in the presidential palace. His first meeting as president was with Iranian vice president Shariat Madari on September 30 in Kabul. Mr. Madari, who attended the inauguration ceremony, congratulated him on his new assignment and pledged to strengthen bilateral ties between the two neighboring countries. The visiting Iranian leader said his government is working on facilitating the education opportunities for Afghan migrants in Iran. President Ghani emphasized on the importance of Chabahar port in expanding economic ties between the two countries. Pertinently, even though Iran and Afghanistan have age-old ties, the two countries have always shared love-hate relationship. Afghan refugees in Iran have often complained about discrimination and racial prejudice. Iranian government, however, has always played down the issue.President Ghani also met Indian vice president Hamid Ansari, who attended the inauguration ceremony at the presidential palace. Both the leaders discussed ways to continue to further enhance the relations between the two countries. President Ashraf Ghani during his meeting with India’s vice president Hamid Ansari India and Afghanistan became strong allies under former president Hamid Karzai. Mr. Karzai singled out India in his farewell speech as the country that has helped Afghanistan in past 13 years. President Ghani also held a meeting with Pakistan president Mamnoon Hussain and discussed ways to enhance bilateral relations between the two neighboring countries. Dr. Ghani said the insecurity and instability in either country automatically affects the other. President Ashraf Ghani during his meeting with Pakistan’s president Mamnoon Hussain The relations between the two countries have soured in recent years. The Afghan security agencies believe Pakistan sponsors terrorism inside Afghanistan to meet its sinister objectives. President Ghani also met the spiritual Leader of Ismaili Muslims, Prince Karim Aga Khan. Afghanistan is home to many Ismaili Muslims and Mr. Aga Khan has built a vast business empire in this country, which makes him an important figure. President Ghani also met the Chinese Minister of Human Resources & Social Security, Yin Weimin. Both the leaders discussed ways to improve bilateral ties between Afghanistan and China. President Ghani also held a meeting with Pakistan president Mamnoon Hussain and discussed ways to enhance bilateral relations between the two neighboring countries Mr. Weimin assured that his country would continue to provide grant assistance to Afghanistan in different areas. He said terrorism is a major concern and China is committed to help in facilitating peace and stability in Afghanistan. He also met the Education and Science Minister of Kazakhstan and Sri Lanka’s Urban Development Minister. However, his real test begins now, when he meets world leadership at global forums. Walking alongside friends and foes can be daunting. So, will he walk the talk?

  • President Karzai To Visit Families Affected By Landslide In Badakhshan

    President Hamid Karzai will be visiting the families affected by landslide in Argo district of northeastern Badakhshan province. He will also meet the local authorities to take stock of relief operations. Officials in Badakhshan province informed that President Karzai will hold a meeting with officials in Faizabad, center of Badakhshan, before proceeding to the affected areas. Gul Mohamamd Bedar, Deputy Governor of Badakhshan, confirmed the proposed visit of President Karzai. Last week, hundreds of houses were destroyed in a massive landslide that wreaked havoc in a small mountainous village, claiming hundreds of lives and rendering thousands of people homeless. More than 3000 people are missing, trapped under the rubble. According to local authorities, the danger has not been averted yet. The rescue operations were halted after a few days and the Afghan announced the national day of mourning for the victims of catastrophic tragedy. The shocked local residents started digging the huge mass of rubble themselves. Some government officials have drawn widespread outrage and criticism for their ‘pleasure trips’ to affected areas. Nimatullah Shahrani, Senior Advisor to President along with Mohammad Asif Rahimi, Agriculture Minister and a number of other high-profile officials, according to locals, took pictures in the area and posted on social networking blogs. In one of the pictures, the officials are seen standing on a red carpet, wearing nice clothes and flashing a smile.

  • The History of the National Anthem

    Summery : “O Canada” was proclaimed Canada’s national anthem on July 1, 1980, 100 years after it was first sung on June 24, 1880. The music was composed by Calixa Lavallée, a well-known composer; French lyrics to accompany the music were written by Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The song gained steadily in popularity. Many English versions have appeared over the years. The version on which the official English lyrics are based was written in 1908 by Mr. Justice Robert Stanley Weir. The official English version includes changes recommended in 1968 by a Special Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons. The French lyrics remain unaltered. Full History of “O Canada” Many people think of Calixa Lavallée as an obscure music teacher who dashed off a patriotic song in a moment of inspiration. The truth is quite different. Lavallée was, in fact, known as “Canada’s national musician” and it was on this account that he was asked to compose the music for a poem written by Judge Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The occasion was the “Congrès national des Canadiens-Français” in1880, which was being held at the same time as the St. Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations. There had been some thought of holding a competition for a national hymn to have its first performance on St. Jean-Baptiste Day, June 24, but by January the committee in charge decided there was not enough time, so the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, commissioned Judge Routhier to write a hymn and Lavallée to compose the tune. Lavallée made a number of drafts before the tune we know was greeted with enthusiasm by his musical friends. It is said that in the excitement of success Lavallée rushed to show his music to the Lieutenant Governor without even stopping to sign the manuscript. The first performance took place on June 24, 1880 at a banquet in the “Pavillon des Patineurs” in Quebec City as the climax of a”Mosaïque sur des airs populaires canadiens ” arranged by Joseph Vézina, a prominent composer and bandmaster. Although this first performance of “O Canada” with Routhier’s French words was well received on the evening, it does not seem to have made a lasting impression at that time. Arthur Lavigne, a Quebec musician and music dealer, published it without copyright but there was no rush to reprint. Lavallée’s obit in 1891 doesn’t mention it among his accomplishments, nor does a biography of Judge Routhier published in 1898. French Canada is represented in the 1887 edition of the University of Toronto song book by “Vive la canadienne”, “A la claire fontaine” and “Un canadien errant”. English Canada in general probably first heard “O Canada” when school children sang it when the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall (later King George V and Queen Mary) toured Canada in 1901. Five years later Whaley and Royce in Toronto published the music with the French text and a translation into English made by Dr. Thomas Bedford Richardson, a Toronto doctor. The Mendelssohn Choir used the Richardson lyrics in one of their performances about this time and Judge Routhier and the French press complimented the author. Richardson version: ” O Canada! Our fathers’ land of old Thy brow is crown’d with leaves of red and gold. Beneath the shade of the Holy Cross Thy children own their birth No stains thy glorious annals gloss Since valour shield thy hearth. Almighty God! On thee we call Defend our rights, forfend this nation’s thrall, Defend our rights, forfend this nation’s thrall.” In 1908 Collier’s Weekly inaugurated its Canadian edition with a competition for an English text to Lavallée’s music. It was won by Mercy E. Powell McCulloch, but her version did not take. McCulloch version : ” O Canada! in praise of thee we sing; From echoing hills our anthems proudly ring. With fertile plains and mountains grand With lakes and rivers clear, Eternal beauty, thos dost stand Throughout the changing year. Lord God of Hosts! We now implore Bless our dear land this day and evermore, Bless our dear land this day and evermore.” Since then many English versions have been written for “O Canada”. Poet Wilfred Campbell wrote one. So did Augustus Bridle, Toronto critic. Some were written for the 1908 tercentenary of Quebec City. One version became popular in British Columbia… Buchan version: O Canada, our heritage, our love Thy worth we praise all other lands above. From sea to see throughout their length From Pole to borderland, At Britain’s side, whate’er betide Unflinchingly we’ll stand With hearts we sing, “God save the King”, Guide then one Empire wide, do we implore, And prosper Canada from shore to shore.” However the version that gained the widest currency was made in 1908 by Robert Stanley Weir, a lawyer and at the time Recorder of the City of Montréal. A slightly modified version of the 1908 poem was published in an official form for the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation in 1927, and has since been generally accepted in English speaking Canada. Following further minor amendments, the first verse of Weir’s poem was proclaimed as Canada’s national anthem in 1980. The version adopted pursuant to the National Anthem Act in 1980 reads as follows: “O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. With glowing hearts we see thee rise, The True North, strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada, We stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free ! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.” Many musicians have made arrangements of “O Canada” but there appears to be a scarcity of recordings suitable for various purposes. Calixa Lavallée Calixa Lavallée was a “canadien errant”, a man who left his country for greener fields, but who nevertheless loved Canada and returned to it, returned with a reputation well earned in the United States and France to become the “national musician” of Canada. He was, in his time, a composer operettas, at least one symphony, various occasional pieces and songs; he was a pianist and organist of considerable note and he was a teacher who wanted to found the first Canadian Conservatory. The famous Canadian choral conductor Augustus Stephen Volt said of him: “I became acquainted with Lavallée in the 80’s of the last century, when I was in Boston as a student of music, and he impressed me as a man of extraordinary ability - not merely as a clever executant of the piano, and not merely as an adroit deviser of pretty melodies and sensuous harmonies, but as a genuinely creative artist, a pure musical genius”. Calixa Lavallée was born in Verchères , Canada East, on December 28, 1842, the son of Augustin Lavallée, a woodcutter and blacksmith, who became an instrument repairman, bandleader and music teacher. Later when the family moved to St-Hyacinthe, the father worked for the famous organ-builder Joseph Casavant and led the townband. Calixa showed talent early and played the organ in the cathedral at the age of eleven. Two years later he gave a piano recital at the Théâtre Royal in Montréal. In Montréal Lavallée met Lé on Derome, a butcher who loved music. He became Lavallée’s lifelong patron and friend, often coming to his aid in bad times. About this time, Calixa tired of regular lessons and left Montréal to try his luck in the United States. In New Orleans, he won a competition which in turn won him a job as accompanist to the famous Spanish violinist Olivera. After touring with Olivera in Brazil and the West Indies, Lavallée joined the Northern army during the American Civil War. Leaving the U.S. army as a lieutenant, Lavallée returned to Montréal where he gave piano lessons and played cornet in a theatre orchestra. In 1865 he returned to the United States to teach and give a series of concert tours. He married and began to work with Arnold de Thiers, with whom he composed a comic opera called “Loulou”. The night before its first performance, the owner of the opera house was shot and the theatre closed. Lavallée, who had been conductor and artistic director of the theatre, the New York Grand Opera House, found himself out of a job. He returned to Montréal in 1872 to a warm welcome from his friends, and had soon set up a studio with Jehin Prume and Rositadel Vecchio, well-known musicians. Success in Montréal brought him the fulfillment of a lifelong dream, to continue his musical education in Paris. A group of friends led by Derome made him a monthly allowance while he studied with Bazin, Boieldieu and Marmontel. A Lavallée symphony was performed by a Paris orchestra in 1874 and his teachers predicted a great future for him. Lavallée decided to devote his life to the establishment of a conservatory in Canada. To prove that talent existed, he mounted a Gounod drama with an all-Canadian cast of 80. The venture was a great success and Lavallée had high hopes of interesting the government in his idea. But although the public responded warmly to his productions, official quarters gave nothing but vague promises. It was during this Quebec period, in 1880 that Lavallée composed the music of “O Canada” for the “Congrès national des Canadiens-Français”. But he could see nothing ahead but routine teaching and playing, so once again he took off for the United States. Things took a turn for the better. He was appointed an organist and choirmaster; he toured with the famous Hungarian soprano Etelka Gerster; he increased his composing; many of his works were performed including “Tiq”, a “melodramatic musical satire”on the Indian question and his comic opera “The Widow”. As a member of the Music Teachers’ National Association, he organized a number of very successful concerts, and finally, in 1887, was elected president. In 1888 Lavallée represented the professional musicians of America in London and introduced American compositions in London where the Lord Mayor gave a dinner in his honour. Lavallée’s health had been poor for some years and after his return to Boston became much worse. By the autumn of 1890 he was bedridden and in financial straits. He died on January 21, 1891,at the age of 49, leaving some 60 works, only about half of which have been found. Lavallée was buried near Boston but his body was brought back to Canada in 1933 and now rests in Montréal Cemetery Côte-des-Neiges. Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier Adolphe-Basile Routhier was born in May 8, 1839 in Saint-Placide (Lower Canada). He studied at the University of Laval, and was a distinguished lawyer in Kamouraska. He was appointed judge of the Quebec Superior Court in 1873, and later became Chief Justice of Quebec from 1904 until his retirement in 1906. He was probably better known as a poet than as a judge, and it was natural that the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, should turn to him to write the words of an hymn for the great “Congrès national des Canadiens-Français” in 1880. His poem “O Canada!” was widely praised on its first presentation. Sir Adolphe was made a knight of the The Most Honourable Order of the Bath in 1911. He was a founding member of the Royal Society of Canada, and was president of that society from 1914-1915. Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier died on June 27, 1920, at Saint-Irenée-des-Bains, Quebec. The Honourable Robert Stanley Weir Robert Stanley Weir (1856-1926) was born in Hamilton, in what was then Canada West. He took all his higher education in Montreal, and was qualified for both teaching and the law. He chose law and rose rapidly in the profession, becoming in due course, like Routhier, a judge first as Recorder of the City of Montréal and later to the Exchequer Court of Canada (now the Federal Court of Canada). He wrote both learned legal works and poetry, and his fame as a writer won him election as a Fellow of the Royal Society which Routhier had helped found. Parliamentary Action By the time the World War broke out in 1914, “O Canada” was the best known patriotic song in Canada, edging out “The Maple leaf Forever” and others less well-known today. 1924 - The association of Canadian Clubs passed a unanimous resolution recommending the Weir version as suitable for use at Club meetings. Since then the I.O.D.E. and the Canadian Authors Association have endorsed it and in 1958 the Native Sons of Canada found in favour of it. 1927 - An official version of “O Canada” was authorized for singing in Canadian schools and for use at public functions. 1942 - July 27. The Prime Minister, the Right Honourable William Lyon Mackenzie King, was asked if he did not think this an appropriate time for proclaiming a national anthem. He replied that “There are times and seasons for all things and this time of war when there are other more important questions with which parliament has to deal, we might well continue to follow what has become the custom in Canada in recent years of regarding “God Save The King” and “O Canada” each as national anthems and entitled to similar recognition.” He said further that this was his opinion, his government’s opinion and he had no doubt it was the opinion of most people in the country. Some years later, his successor as Prime Minister, the Right Honourable Louis St-Laurent made a similar statement. 1964 - A government resolution authorized the formation of a special joint committee to consider the status of “God Save The Queen” and “O Canada”. 1966 - January 31. The Prime Minister, the Right Honourable Lester B. Pearson, placed a notice of motion on the order paper “That the government be authorized to take such steps as may be necessary to provide that “O Canada” shall be the National Anthem of Canada while “God Save The Queen” shall be the Royal Anthem of Canada. 1967 - March 15. The special joint committee “unanimously recommends that the government be authorized to adopt forthwith the music for “O Canada” composed by Calixa Lavallée as the music of the National Anthem of Canada with the following notation added to the sheet music: With dignity, not too slowly. “God Save The Queen” was found to be in the public domain as the Royal Anthem of Canada, but for “O Canada” the committee deemed it “essential to take such steps as necessary to appropriate the copyright to the music providing that it shall belong to Her Majesty in right of Canada for all time. This provision would also include that no other person shall be entitled to copyright in the music or any arrangements or adaptations thereof.” The committee recommended further study of the lyrics. It suggested keeping the original French version and using the Weir English version with minor changes - that is replacing two of the “Stand on guard” phrases with “From far and wide” and “God keep our land”. There was no trouble with the music copyright which had by now descended to Gordon V. Thompson. They were willing to sell for $1, but the heirs of Judge Weir objected to the changes in the original version. Since Judge Weir died in 1926, the Weir version would not come into public domain until 1976. There was some doubt that the Weir family had legal grounds for objection since Thompson’s apparently held copyright on both music and English words. However the committee preferred to settle the matter amicably if at all possible. The Government acquired the rights from G.V. Thompson in 1970. The version recommended by the committee: ” O Canada! our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. With glowing hearts we see thee rise, The True North strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada, We stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.” 1972 - February 28 - The Secretary of State of Canada, the Honourable Gérard Pelletier, presented a bill in the House of Commons proposing the adoption of “O Canada” as the National Anthem of Canada. The recommendations of the 1967 study in Parliament are incorporated in the bill, which did not receive further study in Parliament and died on the order paper. The same legislation was reintroduced by Mr. Pelletier’s successors at further sessions of Parliament; no action was ever taken. 1980 - June 18 - The Secretary of State of Canada, the Honourable Francis Fox, presented a bill, similar to previously presented bills on “O Canada”, fulfilling a promise made earlier in the House that “O Canada” be proclaimed as Canada’s national anthem as soon as possible in this year of the centenary of the first rendition. The bill was unanimously accepted by the House of Commons and the Senate on June 27; Royal assent was given the same day. July 1 - The Governor General, His Excellency the Right Honourable Edward Schreyer, proclaimed the Act respecting the National Anthem of Canada, thus making “O Canada” an official symbol of the country. A public ceremony was held at noon on Parliament Hill in front of thousands of Canadians. Descendants of Weir and Routhier were on the official platform, as well as the successor of Robitaille, the Honourable Jean-Pierre Côté. Original Poem by Weir Originally “O Canada” was a patriotic poem by Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier, a Quebec judge. Calixa Lavallée, the well-known Canadian composer, was commissioned to set it to music, and it was first sung in 1880 during a national convention of French Canadians in Quebec City. Many English versions have appeared, but the one which was widely accepted was written in 1908 by another judge, R. Stanley Weir, in honour of the 300th anniversary of the founding of Quebec City. It was amended in 1913, 1914 and 1916 and published in an official form at the time of the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation in 1927 and during the Royal visit of 1939. A slightly modified version of the first verse of Weir’s poem was proclaimed as Canada’s national anthem in 1980. The original poem of 1908 by Stanley Weir reads as follows: “O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love thou dost in us command. We see thee rising fair, dear land, The True North, strong and free; And stand on guard, O Canada, We stand on guard for thee. Refrain O Canada! O Canada! O Canada! We stand on guard for thee. O Canada! We stand on guard for thee. O Canada! Where pines and maples grow. Great prairies spread and lordly rivers flow. How dear to us thy broad domain, From East to Western Sea, Thou land of hope for all who toil! Thou True North, strong and free! Refrain O Canada! O Canada! etc. O Canada! Beneath thy shining skies May stalwart sons and gentle maidens rise, To keep thee steadfast through the years From East to Western Sea, Our own beloved native land! Our True North, strong and free! Refrain O Canada! O Canada! etc. Ruler supreme, who hearest humble prayer, Hold our dominion within thy loving care; Help us to find, O God, in thee A lasting, rich reward, As waiting for the Better Day, We ever stand on guard. Refrain O Canada! O Canada! etc.” English Translation of the French Version of the National Anthem O Canada! Land of our forefathers Thy brow is wreathed with a glorious garland of flowers. As in thy arm ready to wield the sword, So also is it ready to carry the cross. Thy history is an epic of the most brilliant exploits. Ch. Thy valour steeped in faith Will protect our homes and our rights Will protect our homes and our rights. Music and lyrics As the National Anthem Act only sets the melody for the anthem, musicians are free to arrange the score to suit their requirements. There is no copyright on the melody and the words of the national anthem, the Act having declared them to be in the public domain. It is possible, however, to copyright the arrangements made to the melody. It is possible to translate the words of the national anthem in languages other than English or French; it should be kept in mind, however, that this translated version will not have an official status. Playing of anthems at events There is no specific rule as to when it is appropriate to sing the national anthem at an event. It is up to the organizers to determine if “O Canada” will be sung at the beginning or at the end of a ceremony. If two anthems are to be played at the beginning of an event, “O Canada” should be played first followed by the other one. When anthems are played at the end of an event, “O Canada” should be played last. Etiquette during the playing of the national anthem As a matter of respect and tradition, it is proper to stand for the playing of “O Canada” as well as for the anthem of any other nation. It is traditional for civilian men to take off their hats during the playing of the national anthem. Women as well as children do not remove their hats on such occasions. There is no law or behaviour governing the playing of the national anthem; it is left to the good citizenship of individuals. Commercial use “O Canada” and “God Save The Queen” are in the public domain and may be used without having to obtain permission from the Government. http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1359402373291/1359402467746

  • Paramount Television Network

    The Paramount Television Network was a venture in the late 1940s by American film corporation Paramount Pictures to organize a television network. The company had built television stations KTLA in Los Angeles and WBKB in Chicago, and had invested $400,000 in the DuMont Television Network, which operated stations in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Pittsburgh. The Paramount Television Network aired several programs, including the Emmy award-winning children’s series Time for Beany, and distributed them to an ad-hoc network of stations. It signed affiliation agreements with more than 50 television stations in 1950; despite this, most of Paramount’s series were not widely viewed outside the West Coast. The Federal Communications Commission prevented the studio from acquiring additional television stations. Escalating disputes between Paramount and DuMont concerning breaches of contract, company control, and network competition erupted regularly between 1940 and 1956, and led to the dismantling of the DuMont Network. Paramount continued to produce series for other networks, and re-entered the broadcast network field in 1995 with the. A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay TV providers. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small number of broadcast networks. Many early television networks (e.g., the BBC, NBC or CBC) evolved from earlier radio networks. In countries where most networks broadcast identical, centrally originated content to all their stations and where most individual TV transmitters therefore operate only as large “repeater stations”, the terms “television network”, “television channel” (a numeric identifier or radio frequency), and “television station” have become mostly interchangeable in everyday language, with professionals in TV-related occupations continuing to make a difference between them. Within the industry, a tiering is sometimes created among groups of networks based on whether their programming is simultaneously originated from a central point, and whether the network master control has the technical and administrative capability to take-over the programming of their affiliates in real-time when it deems this necessary – the most common example being national breaking news events. In North America in particular, many television networks available via cable and satellite television are branded as “channels” because they are somewhat different than traditional networks in the sense defined above, as they are singular operations – they have no affiliates or component stations, but instead are distributed to the public via cable or direct-broadcast satellite companies. Such networks are commonly referred to by terms such as “specialty channels” in Canada or “cable networks” in the U.S. A network may or may not produce all of its own programming. If not, production houses such as Warner Bros. and Sony Pictures can distribute their content to the different networks, and it is common that a certain production house may have programs on two or more rival networks. Similarly, some networks may import television programs from other countries, or use archival programming to help complement their schedules. Some stations have the capability to interrupt the network through the local insertion of TV commercials, station IDs, and emergency alerts. Others completely break away from the network for their own programming, known as regional variation. This is common where small networks are members of larger networks. The majority of commercial television stations are self-owned, even though a variety of these instances are the property of an Owned And Operated television network. The commercial television stations can also be linked with a non-commercial educational broadcasting agency. It is also important to note that some countries have installed nationwide television networks, so that individual television stations can act as common repeaters of nationwide programs. On the other hand, televisions networks also undergo the impending experience of major changes related to cultural varieties. The emergence of cable television network has made available in major media markets on television, programs aimed at American bi-cultural Latinos. Such a diverse captive audience presents an occasion for the networks and affiliates to advertise the best programming that needs to be aired. This is explained by author Tim P. Vos in his abstract “A Cultural Explanation of Early Broadcast” where he determines Targeted group/non-targeted group representations and also the cultural specificity employed in the television network entity. He notes: Policymakers did not expressly intend to create a broadcast order dominated by commercial networks. In fact, legislative attempts were made to limit the network’s preferred position. As to individual stations, modern network operations centers usually use broadcast automation to handle most tasks. These systems are not only used for Broadcast programming and for video server playout, but use exact atomic time from GPS or other sources to maintain perfect synchronization with upstream and downstream systems, so that programming appears seamless to audience viewers.

  • Afghan National Sport

    A F G H A N S P O R T A F T E R F O U R D E C A D E S About A non-profit organization based in the United States & run by Afghan individuals for the benefit of amateur sports among the Afghan youths & adults, men & women, at every level of excellence in the region & the world. AfghanSportsFederation.org Mission The aim of ASF is to create a center of guidance or counseling for Afghan athletes (men and women) who wants to be active in amateur sports or pursue a professional career in any athletic field of his/her choice and to promote all amateur sports and operate as an amateur sports federation. Long Term Goals: • Build our own (ASF) Soccer Field(s), Gymnasiums for indoor activities of the Afghan Communities (Community Center(s)) in the United States and other countries. • Establish Afghan Sports Body Worldwide and participate in the future Olympics. • Establish an Afghan Soccer (Football) Body Worldwide and participate in the World Cups. Company Overview Afghan Sports Federation (ASF) is a non-profit organization based in the United States and run by Afghan individuals for the benefit of amateur sports among the Afghan youths and adults, both men and women, at every level of excellence in the region, the U.S and the world. ASF was formally established in 1998 in Fairfax, Virginia by a group of Afghan Soccer (Football) players and Soccer (Football) enthusiasts from the Metropolitan Washington DC area. Today, the organization has grown to be one of the most or perhaps the most recognized Afghan sports organizations in the world.

  • New Year In Afghanistan, Iran & Azerbaijan

    Norooz, or Nowruz, the Afghan, Persian and Azerbaijan New Year, happens today 03/21/2014. People are this country Celebration this particular day with their friend and Family Coinciding with the Spring Equinox, its name combines two Persian words: “now,” which means new, and “ruz,” which means day. It’s a time of year in which followers celebrate the coming of spring and the renewal of nature. The official date and time for the new year is March 21. Traditionally people are gathering , Dancing , greeting each others, Fire work, Music and entertaining in this particular day in Afghanistan and wish all of Afghan, Irani and Azeri people happy Now roz , Joy , prosperous , good health, peace and much much more! kind wishes

  • Happy New Year 1993

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