Over the weekend Russian leader Vladimir Putin signed a law that will further limit online freedoms inside the country.
International digital rights organizations have condemned the legislation.
Amnesty International called the law the "latest blow" in an assault on online freedom.
"The ban on VPNs takes this shameful campaign a whole step further," a spokesperson for the organization said in a statement. (In 2014, the Russian government passed a law that required foreign companies to store users' data within the country. LinkedIn was blocked last year for failing to comply.)
Former NSA contractor Edward Snowden, who has been living in Russia since 2013, also criticized the law:
Despite this, Amnesty International's Russian spokesperson Alexander Artemyev said there hasn't been much outcry inside Russia.
Speaking via WhatsApp from Moscow, he said that so far they had not seen "any initiative or counter-action" against the new law.
"There was a protest rally against the new assault on internet freedoms but the attendance was quite low for Moscow, around a few thousand people," he told BuzzFeed News.
He suggested that activists would be downloading VPNs ahead of the November ban, adding that because the law targeted ISPs (the providers) rather than individual users of VPNs, that could account for the muted response.
"So for those who would like to have their internet browsing protected it becomes only more difficult to obtain needed tech tools," Artemyev said, but "difficult doesn't mean impossible."
But Eva Galperin of the Electronic Frontier Foundation said that the law is designed to create an atmosphere of criminality.
Russia has been looking to the Chinese government's attempts to limit access to the free web for a long time now.
This latest move is a further sign of his intention to clamp down — but is also being seen as a sign of the Kremlin looking out for itself.
Andrei Soldatov, writing in the Moscow Times, notes the FSB (Federal Security Service) will be tasked with enforcing the ban, rather than the internet communications monitor Roskomnadzor.
"This time, it’s not some ordinary threat it is trying to root out, but a threat to 'national security,' which is the Kremlin’s euphemism for 'the stability of the present political regime,'" he writes.
But this being Russia, there are some *notable* exemptions. Members of the Duma will submit an amendment for Russian-occupied Crimea to be exempt, allowing users there to still access and use VPNs, according to Lenta.ru.
Rose Troup Buchanan is a reporter for BuzzFeed News and is based in London.
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