Sodium HypochloriteVia PubChemSodium Dodecyl SulfateVia PubChemPotassium HydroxideVia PubChem
In most cases, the active ingredient in household bleach is sodium hypochlorite. Dilute sodium hypochlorite is also used in what's known as a Dakin's solution, which is used to treat wounds.
AmmoniaTable SaltPotassium Chloride
Sodium Chloride makes everything taste so much better. It also changes the freezing and boiling points of water, making our pasta cook faster and helping our sidewalks freeze over more slowly.
Technically ammonium hydroxide. This stuff leaves a streak-free mirror, and is also useful in the advent of a jellyfish sting.
Sodium BicarbonateVia PubChemSodium BenzoateVia PubChemPotassium BicarbonateVia PubChem
The hint is in the word "soda", like "sodium". This alkaline stuff reacts with acids to produce bubbles. It's a must have for yeast free baking, and 4th grade science projects.
Acetic acid is what gives vinegar its tang, and mustard gets some of its familiar zip from vinegar.