1. Through the development of insulin, Dr. Frederick Banting and Charles Best were able to help patients suffering from diabetes.
2. In a time rife with racial prejudice, Dr. Charles Drew was able to make tremendous life-saving innovations in the field of blood storage.
3. Lady Montagu became a critical figure in the fight against smallpox by bringing knowledge about innoculation from the Ottoman Empire to Europe.
4. Dr. John Snow, the father of epidemiology, stopped a cholera outbreak in its tracks by tracing the spread of the disease back to a local water pump.
5. By using the first rabies vaccine, Louis Pasteur risked serious legal repercussions to save the life of nine-year-old Joseph Meister.
6. While usually penicillin is credited to Alexander Fleming and his dirty petri dishes, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain are actually responsible for developing the mold into one of the first antibiotics.
7. Before Jonas Salk's creation of the first polio vaccine, the only responses to the "infant paralysis" disease were iron lungs and quarantine.
Illustrations courtesy of Dan Blaushild.