Brusque and extreme fluctuations of mood from episodes of mania (a hyperactive, reckless and delusion-filled state of mind) to depression (devastatingly low periods of hopelessness and despair).Changes of perspective or opinion on different matters in an erratic manner without any discernible reason behind these changes of heart.Excessively frequent mood swings, with the sufferer suddenly and without warning or a trace of rational thought flipping between emotions.
Changes of mood from mania to depression
These two moods are the most distinctive facets of the disorder (Overview of Mood Disorders) (American Psychiatric Association, 123 - 126). The two other answers are misconceptions of what the disorder is in actuality.
Despite the sort of presence the mentally ill hold in the media, most individuals with mental disorders are no more likely to be violent than anyone else, with only 3 - 5% of violent crimes being directly attributable to people with serious psychological disorders (Mental Health Myths and Facts). In fact, people with mental health problems are over 10 times more likely to be on the receiving end of violent crimes than the general population (Mental Health Myths and Facts).
An excessive concern for the order and/or arrangement objects are in (especially when the sufferer's own possessions or symmetry-related issues are involved).Repetitive behaviors that the sufferer feels driven to perform in response to persistent intrusive thoughts that cause them marked distress (in order to relieve anxiety or dispel fear).An affinity for performing specific tasks in a particular and/or eccentric manner and a strong dislike for performing said task any other way.
Repetitive behaviors and intrusive thoughts
Those who suffer from OCD engage in seemingly eccentric and ritualistic behavior to counter thoughts that distress them, not because it causes them enjoyment or they are particularly intolerant of other's ways of doing things. Their illness causes them to believe that if they don't perform these rituals, what they fear will come true despite said rituals having no logical effect on whether said fears become true. This cycle is extremely time-consuming and makes it difficult for them to lead a normal life (American Psychiatric Association, 237).
1st Edition (1952)2nd Edition (1968)Via LGBT Mental Health Syllabus (aglp.org3rd Edition (1987)Via korrekt.com
3rd Edition (DSM III)
After a revision of differing perspectives and theories, a decision was met in 1973 to remove homosexuality's classification as a disorder from the DSM (the 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders'), which was reflected in its following edition (the DSM III, as this occurred post-DSM II publication). Unsurprisingly, this sparked an intense controversy but nonetheless the decision was not overturned (Drescher).
Despite the fact that 50% of schizophrenia sufferers attempt suicide and approx. 15% of the clinically depressed succeed in taking their own lives, eating disorders remain the deadliest mental illnesses (Fields). The combined strain the illness exerts on the mind and on the body via malnutrition that kills in a variety of ways, such as "sudden heart attack [and] multiple organ failure" is coupled with very high suicide rates among those who have the disorder (Fields). This heightens the death rates to such extremes that "people with anorexia nervosa [have] a six fold increase in mortality compared to the general population" (Kaye).
Psychopathy and sociopathyAnorexia and bulimia nervosaBipolar disorder and manic depression
Bipolar disorder and manic depression
Manic depression is merely an outdated term for bipolar disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 123 - 132). While psychopathy and sociopathy are both under the definition of antisocial personality disorder, psychopaths lack a conscience while sociopaths have a weak one (Mayer Robinson). Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, on the other hand, are separate eating disorders (American Psychiatric Organization, 338-350).
Warning signs of psychological disorders can be perceived even in very young children. First signs of mental disorders appear before the age of 14. Three quarters of all mental disorders begin before the age of 24 (Mental Health Myths and Facts), and in fact the average age of onset for anxiety disorders is 11 years old (Carter). However, less than 20% of children with diagnosable psychological conditions are given treatment (Mental Health Myths and Facts).
Insulin coma therapy
The procedure of inducing a coma via insulin was invented in 1927 and didn't fade away until the 1960s (Schwartzs). Lobotomies didn't "rapidly [fall] out of favor" until the mid-1950s (Levinson). The practice of chemically induced seizures was discredited around the 1940s (Tripiccio).
The sufferer's expression of two or more identities, demonstrating a marked discontinuity in sense of self and agency and related changes of behavior, perception, etc. as well as memory gaps that are inconsistent with normal forgetting.Via SIlja Eystberg Wendelboe // siljavich.deviantart.comPersistent, disruptive and stress-inducing delusions and hallucinations (namely auditory disturbances such as voices). Additional symptoms include disorganized speech, catatonic behavior, diminished emotional expression or diminished motivation.Via Laura Mitchell // dailystar.co.uk
Delusions and hallucinations
Contrary to popular belief, schizophrenia's main symptoms revolve around a distorted perception of reality (American Psychiatric Association, 99-100), not the expression of multiple personalities (in actuality, this corresponds to dissociative identity or 'split personality' disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)(American Psychiatric Association, 292)).
A feeling of sadness, emptiness and/or hopelessness that is present most of the day, practically every day.A marked decrease or even lack of interest and/or enjoyment in almost all activities performed by the patient in their day to day life.Both of the above.
Both of the above.
Major depression is a complex disorder with a range of symptoms; the ones listed above are the two that primarily characterize the illness. The other symptoms can be both psychological (diminished ability to concentrate, indecisiveness, feelings of worthlessness, excessive or inappropriate guilt, or recurring suicidal thoughts) and physical (weight loss or gain (when not dieting); increased or decreased appetite; persistent loss or lack of energy; sleeping too much or too little; and restlessness or feeling slowed down), and at least five of these other symptoms must be present (American Psychiatric Association, 160-161).
Most people who suffer from anxiety disorders are well aware that they have an illness and don't like what it does to them; they experience intense feelings of fear, tension, apprehension and other unpleasant symptoms, such as restlessness, fatigue, sleep disturbances and others (i.e. during panic attacks, fear of dying, chest pains, palpitations or light-headedness) (American Psychiatric Association, 189-223). These symptoms are persistent, whether they appear in response to specific situations, objects or places or for no discernible reason (American Psychiatric Association, 189-223). In the case of personality disorders, since they are consistent patterns of thought and behavior, they relate to how the sufferer conducts themselves. This leads to the impairment the illness causes not being identified as an indicator of a problem with themselves (American Psychiatric Association, 645-649). On the other hand, those who suffer from eating disorders typically deny having a problem, as they suffer a delusion that they are overweight and are deeply distressed by this perception and thus the actions they undertake to change that seem completely reasonable (Fields).
Yes, because they affect everyone
Just because you don't have one doesn't mean they don't affect you. Mental illness is very common; they affect all kinds of people. In 2014, "1 in 5 American adults experienced a mental health issue," and "1 in 25 Americans lived with a major psychological disorder," (Mental Health Myths and Facts). Additionally, 46.4% of Americans will experience a diagnosable psychological disorder in their lifetime (Carter). Chances are, someone you know suffers from one despite how mentally healthy they my seem, as they are highly valuable and productive members of our societies (Mental Health Myths and Facts).
Works Cited (Learn More)
Santoso, Alex. “10 Mind-Boggling Psychiatric Treatments.” Neatorama, 12 June 2007, www.neatorama.com/2007/06/12/10-mind-boggling-psychiatric-treatments/.
Levinson, Hugh. “The Strange and Curious History of Lobotomy.” BBC News, BBC, 8 Nov. 2011, www.bbc.com/news/magazine-15629160.
Mayer Robinson, Kara, and Joseph Goldberg. “Sociopath vs. Psychopath: What’s the Difference?” WebMD, WebMD, www.webmd.com/mental-health/features/sociopath-psychopath-difference.
Fields, R. Douglas. “The Deadliest Disorder.” Psychology Today, HealthProfs.com, 11 Mar. 2011, www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-new-brain/201103/the-deadliest-disorder-0.
Kaye, Walter. “Mortality and Eating Disorders.” National Eating Disorders Association, 4GirlsFoundation, www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/mortality-and-eating-disorders.
Hamilton, Gail et al. “Anorexia Nervosa – Highest Mortality Rate of Any Mental Disorder: Why?” Eating Disorder Hope, Eating Disorders Coalition, www.eatingdisorderhope.com/information/anorexia/anorexia-nervosa-highest-mortality-rate-of-any-mental-disorder-why.
Drescher, Jack. “Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality.” US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4695779/.
“Overview of Mood Disorders.” Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library, Johns Hopkins Medicine, www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/mental_health_disorders/overview_of_mood_disorders_85,P00759/.
“Mental Health Myths and Facts .” MentalHealth.gov, U.S. Department of Health &Amp; Human Services, www.mentalhealth.gov/basics/myths-facts/.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. Vol. 5. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Print.
“Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder).” WebMD , WebMD, www.webmd.com/mental-health/dissociative-identity-disorder-multiple-personality-disorder.
“Manic Depression (Manic Depressive Disorder): Symptoms, Treatments, Causes, and More.” WebMD, WebMD, www.webmd.com/depression/guide/bipolar-disorder-manic-depression#1.
Carter, Joe. “9 Things You Should Know About Mental Health.” TGC - The Gospel Coalition, TGC - The Gospel Coalition, 27 May 2015, www.thegospelcoalition.org/article/9-things-you-should-know-about-mental-health.
Schwartz / AlterNet, Larry. “8 Horrific 'Cures' for Mental Illness Through the Ages.” Alternet, 16 Dec. 2014, www.alternet.org/personal-health/8-horrific-cures-mental-illness-through-ages.
Tripiccio, Adalberto. “MEDUNA, Ladislas-Joseph Von (1896-1964).” RedePsi, 20 Feb. 2008, www.redepsi.com.br/2008/02/20/meduna-ladislas-joseph-von-1896-1964/.