7. Climate change is definitely happening.
In September the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released the summary of their latest report. The full report is the work of hundreds of scientists and concludes that “warming of the climate system is unequivocal.”
8. Sometimes you have to wait three years for an intergalactic neutrino, then 28 turn up at once.
IceCube, an underground Antarctic telescope detected high-energy neutrinos from outside our solar system for the first time this year.
11. Sometimes not finding something can be almost as useful as finding it.
The first result from an experiment called LUX didn’t find any dark matter, and actually contradict hints of the stuff seen by other experiments. But it did put some useful constraints on what dark matter isn’t and will help scientists eventually work out what it is.
12. Living in a pretend spaceship can get you down.
The Mars 500 crew lived in a “spaceship” in a Russian car park for 500 days. They got out in 2011, but data from the stay is still being analysed now. In January this year we learnt that four of the six crew had trouble with sleeping or developed depression during the mission. One crew member had such chronic sleep deprivation that he accounted for the majority of errors in concentration and alertness tests all crew undertook.
13. It’s possible to grow something that looks remarkably similar to a developing brain in a lab.
The “cerebral organoids” are pea-sized and reached a similar level of development to a nine-week old fetus. But they’re not capable of thought. It’s not a brain in a jar. But it’s still exciting.
15. If a meteor falls in Russia, lots of videos of it will be available because everyone has dashboard cameras in their cars.
The asteroid that exploded over the skies of Chelyabinsk in February injured over 1000 people. Scientists were able to reconstruct exactly how the whole thing happened.
16. The US and the Soviet Union are not the only countries that can send a rover to the moon.
China landed its Chang’e 3 probe and first lunar rover, Yutu, on the moon this December. It’s already planning its next unmanned trip in 2017, when it will try to bring back samples.
17. The Milky Way has four arms, not two.
Turns out its hard to tell what a galaxy looks like when you’re living inside it.