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Modern Day After-School Care For Children In Middle Childhood

In our modern day society, with married coupled families with children younger than 18 years of age, 61% of families had two employed parents and 91% of families had one employed parents. With working mothers on the rise, children are having to rely on different after-school care to fill their time.

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Self Care

One of the main types of after school care is self care. This is where a child is unsupervised at home after school. This type of care can be detrimental for a young child because if there is no one to watch them, they are more likely to engage in dangerous or unacceptable behaviors. Also, children that engage in high levels (<4 hours a week) of self-care compared to children in small amounts (1-3 hours a week) or no self-care at all, had much lower social competence, as well as lower GPA's, and higher levels of externalizing problems.

Sitter or Relative Care

This form of after school care refers to some form of informal adult supervision, such as a neighbor, sitter or relative watching the child. While this is much more beneficial than self-care, it has been found that children from low socio-economic status that engage in sitter/relative care had lower GPA's and achievement test scores.

Center-Based Care

Center-based care is where a child attends a formal after-school day care program that has adult supervision. For children from low SES backgrounds that attended day care, compared to low SES children not attending day care, they had much greater levels of social competence.

School-Based Care

Christopher Futcher

School-based cared is an after school program that is tied with an extracurricular activity which is then supervised by an adult. These programs are extremely beneficial for a child, because not only are they getting involved in programs through the school which is going to enhance their learning and increase social skills, but they are also being supervised by adults, which is going to be very helpful for the child.


HDFS 305 Lecture Notes 3/16/17

Pettit, Gregory|Laird, Robert D.|Dodge, Kenneth A.|Bates, John E., G., Laird, R., Bates, J., & Dodge, K. (1996, November 30). Patterns of After-School Care in Middle Childhood: Risk Factors and Developmental Outcomes.

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