Scotland's parliament has overwhelmingly rejected the UK government's plan to leave the European Union, with four of its five political parties voting against starting the Brexit process.
In what first minister Nicola Sturgeon called "one of the most significant votes in the history of the Scottish parliament", the vast majority of MSPs from all parties but the Scottish Conservatives voted against the triggering of Article 50. Tuesday afternoon's debate saw 90 MSPs vote against the move to 34 in favour.
The vote will not stop the UK government from activating Article 50 – which will begin the two-year process of leaving the EU – but the Scottish government's Brexit minister, Mike Russell, said it will act as a "key test" of whether Scotland is being listened to by Theresa May.
Sturgeon has repeatedly threatened to call another referendum on Scottish independence if the UK government doesn't compromise with the Scottish government on Brexit with its plan to remain a member of the European single market.
Opening Tuesday's debate for the Scottish government, Russell said: "The clock is ticking as the time to trigger Article 50 approaches."
Russell went on: "There is still time for the UK government to recognise democracy on these islands, the existence and importance of the devolved settlement, the actual votes of this parliament, and the clear voice of the people of this country.
"But, presiding officer, that time is running out. Consequently, voting today to reject the triggering of Article 50 is a good way, in fact it is now the only way, to remind the prime minister of that fact."
Sixty-two per cent of voters in Scotland chose Remain in the EU referendum last June, and 58 of Scotland's 59 MPs in Westminster rejected the UK government's bill to trigger Article 50 in a House of Commons vote last week.
The Supreme Court ruled in January that the Scottish parliament does not have a veto against the triggering of Article 50, but the SNP – backed by Scottish Labour, the Scottish Greens, and the Scottish Lib Dems – rejected it in the hope of influencing the UK government's position.
Scottish Labour leader Kezia Dugdale ordered her MSPs to vote against the triggering of Article 50, which puts her directly at odds with UK Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn who told his MPs to vote in favour.
However, three Scottish Labour MSPs defied Dugdale and voted in favour on Tuesday afternoon in Holyrood.
During the debate, Dugdale said: "Brexit and independence are two sides of the same coin. I believe in working together, in solidarity with our friends and neighbours. I believe that we can achieve more together than we ever could apart. I believe in pooling and sharing resources.
"Whether that’s with the EU to tackle climate change, the refugee crisis or international terrorism. Or whether that’s with the rest of the UK to fund our public services, pay pensions or to grow our economy."
The only party to vote in favour of triggering Article 50 was the Scottish Conservatives, and its spokesperson for external affairs, Jackson Carlaw, said the Scottish government was trying to "manufacture a grievance out of nothing".
"We are at a critical point – Article 50 is going to be triggered," said Carlaw. "I think [Labour MSP] Pauline McNeil in a contribution in an earlier debate said she may not agree with everything the Conservative party are going to do, but it's now important to influence the actual debate taking place.
"That has got to be the challenge for the Scottish government. Not standing there shouting, full of grievance, full of pain, full of false arguments in favour of independence. It's time for them to stand up and influence the outcome for Scotland and if they won't it's up to others to do that for them."