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    "Since I can do no good because a woman, reach constantly at something that is near it."The Maid's Tragedy, Beaumont and Fletcher.

    BOOK I.



    "Since I can do no good because a woman,
    Reach constantly at something that is near it.
    —The Maid's Tragedy: BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER.

    Miss Brooke had that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into

    relief by poor dress. Her hand and wrist were so finely formed that

    she could wear sleeves not less bare of style than those in which the

    Blessed Virgin appeared to Italian painters; and her profile as well as

    her stature and bearing seemed to gain the more dignity from her plain

    garments, which by the side of provincial fashion gave her the

    impressiveness of a fine quotation from the Bible,—or from one of our

    elder poets,—in a paragraph of to-day's newspaper. She was usually

    spoken of as being remarkably clever, but with the addition that her

    sister Celia had more common-sense. Nevertheless, Celia wore scarcely

    more trimmings; and it was only to close observers that her dress

    differed from her sister's, and had a shade of coquetry in its

    arrangements; for Miss Brooke's plain dressing was due to mixed

    conditions, in most of which her sister shared. The pride of being

    ladies had something to do with it: the Brooke connections, though not

    exactly aristocratic, were unquestionably "good:" if you inquired

    backward for a generation or two, you would not find any yard-measuring

    or parcel-tying forefathers—anything lower than an admiral or a

    clergyman; and there was even an ancestor discernible as a Puritan

    gentleman who served under Cromwell, but afterwards conformed, and

    managed to come out of all political troubles as the proprietor of a

    respectable family estate. Young women of such birth, living in a

    quiet country-house, and attending a village church hardly larger than

    a parlor, naturally regarded frippery as the ambition of a huckster's

    daughter. Then there was well-bred economy, which in those days made

    show in dress the first item to be deducted from, when any margin was

    required for expenses more distinctive of rank. Such reasons would

    have been enough to account for plain dress, quite apart from religious

    feeling; but in Miss Brooke's case, religion alone would have

    determined it; and Celia mildly acquiesced in all her sister's

    sentiments, only infusing them with that common-sense which is able to

    accept momentous doctrines without any eccentric agitation. Dorothea

    knew many passages of Pascal's Pensees and of Jeremy Taylor by heart;

    and to her the destinies of mankind, seen by the light of Christianity,

    made the solicitudes of feminine fashion appear an occupation for

    Bedlam. She could not reconcile the anxieties of a spiritual life

    involving eternal consequences, with a keen interest in gimp and

    artificial protrusions of drapery. Her mind was theoretic, and yearned

    by its nature after some lofty conception of the world which might

    frankly include the parish of Tipton and her own rule of conduct there;

    she was enamoured of intensity and greatness, and rash in embracing

    whatever seemed to her to have those aspects; likely to seek martyrdom,

    to make retractations, and then to incur martyrdom after all in a

    quarter where she had not sought it. Certainly such elements in the

    character of a marriageable girl tended to interfere with her lot, and

    hinder it from being decided according to custom, by good looks,

    vanity, and merely canine affection. With all this, she, the elder of

    the sisters, was not yet twenty, and they had both been educated, since

    they were about twelve years old and had lost their parents, on plans

    at once narrow and promiscuous, first in an English family and

    afterwards in a Swiss family at Lausanne, their bachelor uncle and

    guardian trying in this way to remedy the disadvantages of their

    orphaned condition.

    It was hardly a year since they had come to live at Tipton Grange with

    their uncle, a man nearly sixty, of acquiescent temper, miscellaneous

    opinions, and uncertain vote. He had travelled in his younger years,

    and was held in this part of the county to have contracted a too

    rambling habit of mind. Mr. Brooke's conclusions were as difficult to

    predict as the weather: it was only safe to say that he would act with

    benevolent intentions, and that he would spend as little money as

    possible in carrying them out. For the most glutinously indefinite

    minds enclose some hard grains of habit; and a man has been seen lax

    about all his own interests except the retention of his snuff-box,

    concerning which he was watchful, suspicious, and greedy of clutch.

    In Mr. Brooke the hereditary strain of Puritan energy was clearly in

    abeyance; but in his niece Dorothea it glowed alike through faults and

    virtues, turning sometimes into impatience of her uncle's talk or his

    way of "letting things be" on his estate, and making her long all the

    more for the time when she would be of age and have some command of

    money for generous schemes. She was regarded as an heiress; for not

    only had the sisters seven hundred a-year each from their parents, but

    if Dorothea married and had a son, that son would inherit Mr. Brooke's

    estate, presumably worth about three thousand a-year—a rental which

    seemed wealth to provincial families, still discussing Mr. Peel's late

    conduct on the Catholic question, innocent of future gold-fields, and

    of that gorgeous plutocracy which has so nobly exalted the necessities

    of genteel life.

    And how should Dorothea not marry?—a girl so handsome and with such

    prospects? Nothing could hinder it but her love of extremes, and her

    insistence on regulating life according to notions which might cause a

    wary man to hesitate before he made her an offer, or even might lead

    her at last to refuse all offers. A young lady of some birth and

    fortune, who knelt suddenly down on a brick floor by the side of a sick

    laborer and prayed fervidly as if she thought herself living in the

    time of the Apostles—who had strange whims of fasting like a Papist,

    and of sitting up at night to read old theological books! Such a wife

    might awaken you some fine morning with a new scheme for the

    application of her income which would interfere with political economy

    and the keeping of saddle-horses: a man would naturally think twice

    before he risked himself in such fellowship. Women were expected to

    have weak opinions; but the great safeguard of society and of domestic

    life was, that opinions were not acted on. Sane people did what their

    neighbors did, so that if any lunatics were at large, one might know

    and avoid them.

    The rural opinion about the new young ladies, even among the cottagers,

    was generally in favor of Celia, as being so amiable and

    innocent-looking, while Miss Brooke's large eyes seemed, like her

    religion, too unusual and striking. Poor Dorothea! compared with her,

    the innocent-looking Celia was knowing and worldly-wise; so much

    subtler is a human mind than the outside tissues which make a sort of

    blazonry or clock-face for it.

    Yet those who approached Dorothea, though prejudiced against her by

    this alarming hearsay, found that she had a charm unaccountably

    reconcilable with it. Most men thought her bewitching when she was on

    horseback. She loved the fresh air and the various aspects of the

    country, and when her eyes and cheeks glowed with mingled pleasure she

    looked very little like a devotee. Riding was an indulgence which she

    allowed herself in spite of conscientious qualms; she felt that she

    enjoyed it in a pagan sensuous way, and always looked forward to

    renouncing it.

    She was open, ardent, and not in the least self-admiring; indeed, it

    was pretty to see how her imagination adorned her sister Celia with

    attractions altogether superior to her own, and if any gentleman

    appeared to come to the Grange from some other motive than that of

    seeing Mr. Brooke, she concluded that he must be in love with Celia:

    Sir James Chettam, for example, whom she constantly considered from

    Celia's point of view, inwardly debating whether it would be good for

    Celia to accept him. That he should be regarded as a suitor to herself

    would have seemed to her a ridiculous irrelevance. Dorothea, with all

    her eagerness to know the truths of life, retained very childlike ideas

    about marriage. She felt sure that she would have accepted the

    judicious Hooker, if she had been born in time to save him from that

    wretched mistake he made in matrimony; or John Milton when his

    blindness had come on; or any of the other great men whose odd habits

    it would have been glorious piety to endure; but an amiable handsome

    baronet, who said "Exactly" to her remarks even when she expressed

    uncertainty,—how could he affect her as a lover? The really

    delightful marriage must be that where your husband was a sort of

    father, and could teach you even Hebrew, if you wished it.

    These peculiarities of Dorothea's character caused Mr. Brooke to be all

    the more blamed in neighboring families for not securing some

    middle-aged lady as guide and companion to his nieces. But he himself

    dreaded so much the sort of superior woman likely to be available for

    such a position, that he allowed himself to be dissuaded by Dorothea's

    objections, and was in this case brave enough to defy the world—that

    is to say, Mrs. Cadwallader the Rector's wife, and the small group of

    gentry with whom he visited in the northeast corner of Loamshire. So

    Miss Brooke presided in her uncle's household, and did not at all

    dislike her new authority, with the homage that belonged to it.

    Sir James Chettam was going to dine at the Grange to-day with another

    gentleman whom the girls had never seen, and about whom Dorothea felt

    some venerating expectation. This was the Reverend Edward Casaubon,

    noted in the county as a man of profound learning, understood for many

    years to be engaged on a great work concerning religious history; also

    as a man of wealth enough to give lustre to his piety, and having views

    of his own which were to be more clearly ascertained on the publication

    of his book. His very name carried an impressiveness hardly to be

    measured without a precise chronology of scholarship.

    Early in the day Dorothea had returned from the infant school which she

    had set going in the village, and was taking her usual place in the

    pretty sitting-room which divided the bedrooms of the sisters, bent on

    finishing a plan for some buildings (a kind of work which she delighted

    in), when Celia, who had been watching her with a hesitating desire to

    propose something, said—

    "Dorothea, dear, if you don't mind—if you are not very busy—suppose

    we looked at mamma's jewels to-day, and divided them? It is exactly

    six months to-day since uncle gave them to you, and you have not looked

    at them yet."

    Celia's face had the shadow of a pouting expression in it, the full

    presence of the pout being kept back by an habitual awe of Dorothea and

    principle; two associated facts which might show a mysterious

    electricity if you touched them incautiously. To her relief,

    Dorothea's eyes were full of laughter as she looked up.

    "What a wonderful little almanac you are, Celia! Is it six calendar or

    six lunar months?"

    "It is the last day of September now, and it was the first of April

    when uncle gave them to you. You know, he said that he had forgotten

    them till then. I believe you have never thought of them since you

    locked them up in the cabinet here."

    "Well, dear, we should never wear them, you know." Dorothea spoke in a

    full cordial tone, half caressing, half explanatory. She had her

    pencil in her hand, and was making tiny side-plans on a margin.

    Celia colored, and looked very grave. "I think, dear, we are wanting

    in respect to mamma's memory, to put them by and take no notice of

    them. And," she added, after hesitating a little, with a rising sob of

    mortification, "necklaces are quite usual now; and Madame Poincon, who

    was stricter in some things even than you are, used to wear ornaments.

    And Christians generally—surely there are women in heaven now who wore

    jewels." Celia was conscious of some mental strength when she really

    applied herself to argument.

    "You would like to wear them?" exclaimed Dorothea, an air of astonished

    discovery animating her whole person with a dramatic action which she

    had caught from that very Madame Poincon who wore the ornaments. "Of

    course, then, let us have them out. Why did you not tell me before?

    But the keys, the keys!" She pressed her hands against the sides of her

    head and seemed to despair of her memory.

    "They are here," said Celia, with whom this explanation had been long

    meditated and prearranged.

    "Pray open the large drawer of the cabinet and get out the jewel-box."

    The casket was soon open before them, and the various jewels spread

    out, making a bright parterre on the table. It was no great

    collection, but a few of the ornaments were really of remarkable

    beauty, the finest that was obvious at first being a necklace of purple

    amethysts set in exquisite gold work, and a pearl cross with five

    brilliants in it. Dorothea immediately took up the necklace and

    fastened it round her sister's neck, where it fitted almost as closely

    as a bracelet; but the circle suited the Henrietta-Maria style of

    Celia's head and neck, and she could see that it did, in the pier-glass


    "There, Celia! you can wear that with your Indian muslin. But this

    cross you must wear with your dark dresses."

    Celia was trying not to smile with pleasure. "O Dodo, you must keep

    the cross yourself."

    "No, no, dear, no," said Dorothea, putting up her hand with careless


    "Yes, indeed you must; it would suit you—in your black dress, now,"

    said Celia, insistingly. "You might wear that."

    "Not for the world, not for the world. A cross is the last thing I

    would wear as a trinket." Dorothea shuddered slightly.

    "Then you will think it wicked in me to wear it," said Celia, uneasily.

    "No, dear, no," said Dorothea, stroking her sister's cheek. "Souls

    have complexions too: what will suit one will not suit another."

    "But you might like to keep it for mamma's sake."

    "No, I have other things of mamma's—her sandal-wood box which I am so

    fond of—plenty of things. In fact, they are all yours, dear. We need

    discuss them no longer. There—take away your property."

    Celia felt a little hurt. There was a strong assumption of superiority

    in this Puritanic toleration, hardly less trying to the blond flesh of

    an unenthusiastic sister than a Puritanic persecution.

    "But how can I wear ornaments if you, who are the elder sister, will

    never wear them?"

    "Nay, Celia, that is too much to ask, that I should wear trinkets to

    keep you in countenance. If I were to put on such a necklace as that,

    I should feel as if I had been pirouetting. The world would go round

    with me, and I should not know how to walk."

    Celia had unclasped the necklace and drawn it off. "It would be a

    little tight for your neck; something to lie down and hang would suit

    you better," she said, with some satisfaction. The complete unfitness

    of the necklace from all points of view for Dorothea, made Celia

    happier in taking it. She was opening some ring-boxes, which disclosed

    a fine emerald with diamonds, and just then the sun passing beyond a

    cloud sent a bright gleam over the table.

    "How very beautiful these gems are!" said Dorothea, under a new current

    of feeling, as sudden as the gleam. "It is strange how deeply colors

    seem to penetrate one, like scent. I suppose that is the reason why

    gems are used as spiritual emblems in the Revelation of St. John. They

    look like fragments of heaven. I think that emerald is more beautiful

    than any of them."

    "And there is a bracelet to match it," said Celia. "We did not notice

    this at first."

    "They are lovely," said Dorothea, slipping the ring and bracelet on her

    finely turned finger and wrist, and holding them towards the window on

    a level with her eyes. All the while her thought was trying to justify

    her delight in the colors by merging them in her mystic religious joy.

    "You would like those, Dorothea," said Celia, rather falteringly,

    beginning to think with wonder that her sister showed some weakness,

    and also that emeralds would suit her own complexion even better than

    purple amethysts. "You must keep that ring and bracelet—if nothing

    else. But see, these agates are very pretty and quiet."

    "Yes! I will keep these—this ring and bracelet," said Dorothea.

    Then, letting her hand fall on the table, she said in another

    tone—"Yet what miserable men find such things, and work at them, and

    sell them!" She paused again, and Celia thought that her sister was

    going to renounce the ornaments, as in consistency she ought to do.

    "Yes, dear, I will keep these," said Dorothea, decidedly. "But take

    all the rest away, and the casket."

    She took up her pencil without removing the jewels, and still looking

    at them. She thought of often having them by her, to feed her eye at

    these little fountains of pure color.

    "Shall you wear them in company?" said Celia, who was watching her with

    real curiosity as to what she would do.

    Dorothea glanced quickly at her sister. Across all her imaginative

    adornment of those whom she loved, there darted now and then a keen

    discernment, which was not without a scorching quality. If Miss Brooke

    ever attained perfect meekness, it would not be for lack of inward fire.

    "Perhaps," she said, rather haughtily. "I cannot tell to what level I

    may sink."

    Celia blushed, and was unhappy: she saw that she had offended her

    sister, and dared not say even anything pretty about the gift of the

    ornaments which she put back into the box and carried away. Dorothea

    too was unhappy, as she went on with her plan-drawing, questioning the

    purity of her own feeling and speech in the scene which had ended with

    that little explosion.

    Celia's consciousness told her that she had not been at all in the

    wrong: it was quite natural and justifiable that she should have asked

    that question, and she repeated to herself that Dorothea was

    inconsistent: either she should have taken her full share of the

    jewels, or, after what she had said, she should have renounced them


    "I am sure—at least, I trust," thought Celia, "that the wearing of a

    necklace will not interfere with my prayers. And I do not see that I

    should be bound by Dorothea's opinions now we are going into society,

    though of course she herself ought to be bound by them. But Dorothea

    is not always consistent."

    Thus Celia, mutely bending over her tapestry, until she heard her

    sister calling her.

    "Here, Kitty, come and look at my plan; I shall think I am a great

    architect, if I have not got incompatible stairs and fireplaces."

    As Celia bent over the paper, Dorothea put her cheek against her

    sister's arm caressingly. Celia understood the action. Dorothea saw

    that she had been in the wrong, and Celia pardoned her. Since they

    could remember, there had been a mixture of criticism and awe in the

    attitude of Celia's mind towards her elder sister. The younger had

    always worn a yoke; but is there any yoked creature without its private



    "'Dime; no ves aquel caballero que hacia nosotros viene
    sobre un caballo rucio rodado que trae puesto en la cabeza
    un yelmo de oro?' 'Lo que veo y columbro,' respondio Sancho,
    'no es sino un hombre sobre un as no pardo como el mio, que
    trae sobre la cabeza una cosa que relumbra.' 'Pues ese es el
    yelmo de Mambrino,' dijo Don Quijote."—CERVANTES.

    "'Seest thou not yon cavalier who cometh toward us on a
    dapple-gray steed, and weareth a golden helmet?' 'What I
    see,' answered Sancho, 'is nothing but a man on a gray ass
    like my own, who carries something shiny on his head.' 'Just
    so,' answered Don Quixote: 'and that resplendent object is
    the helmet of Mambrino.'"

    "Sir Humphry Davy?" said Mr. Brooke, over the soup, in his easy smiling

    way, taking up Sir James Chettam's remark that he was studying Davy's

    Agricultural Chemistry. "Well, now, Sir Humphry Davy; I dined with him

    years ago at Cartwright's, and Wordsworth was there too—the poet

    Wordsworth, you know. Now there was something singular. I was at

    Cambridge when Wordsworth was there, and I never met him—and I dined

    with him twenty years afterwards at Cartwright's. There's an oddity in

    things, now. But Davy was there: he was a poet too. Or, as I may say,

    Wordsworth was poet one, and Davy was poet two. That was true in every

    sense, you know."

    Dorothea felt a little more uneasy than usual. In the beginning of

    dinner, the party being small and the room still, these motes from the

    mass of a magistrate's mind fell too noticeably. She wondered how a

    man like Mr. Casaubon would support such triviality. His manners, she

    thought, were very dignified; the set of his iron-gray hair and his

    deep eye-sockets made him resemble the portrait of Locke. He had the

    spare form and the pale complexion which became a student; as different

    as possible from the blooming Englishman of the red-whiskered type

    represented by Sir James Chettam.

    "I am reading the Agricultural Chemistry," said this excellent baronet,

    "because I am going to take one of the farms into my own hands, and see

    if something cannot be done in setting a good pattern of farming among

    my tenants. Do you approve of that, Miss Brooke?"

    "A great mistake, Chettam," interposed Mr. Brooke, "going into

    electrifying your land and that kind of thing, and making a parlor of

    your cow-house. It won't do. I went into science a great deal myself

    at one time; but I saw it would not do. It leads to everything; you

    can let nothing alone. No, no—see that your tenants don't sell their

    straw, and that kind of thing; and give them draining-tiles, you know.

    But your fancy farming will not do—the most expensive sort of whistle

    you can buy: you may as well keep a pack of hounds."

    "Surely," said Dorothea, "it is better to spend money in finding out

    how men can make the most of the land which supports them all, than in

    keeping dogs and horses only to gallop over it. It is not a sin to

    make yourself poor in performing experiments for the good of all."

    She spoke with more energy than is expected of so young a lady, but Sir

    James had appealed to her. He was accustomed to do so, and she had

    often thought that she could urge him to many good actions when he was

    her brother-in-law.

    Mr. Casaubon turned his eyes very markedly on Dorothea while she was

    speaking, and seemed to observe her newly.

    "Young ladies don't understand political economy, you know," said Mr.

    Brooke, smiling towards Mr. Casaubon. "I remember when we were all

    reading Adam Smith. There is a book, now. I took in all the new

    ideas at one time—human perfectibility, now. But some say, history

    moves in circles; and that may be very well argued; I have argued it

    myself. The fact is, human reason may carry you a little too far—over

    the hedge, in fact. It carried me a good way at one time; but I saw it

    would not do. I pulled up; I pulled up in time. But not too hard. I

    have always been in favor of a little theory: we must have Thought;

    else we shall be landed back in the dark ages. But talking of books,

    there is Southey's 'Peninsular War.' I am reading that of a morning.

    You know Southey?"

    "No" said Mr. Casaubon, not keeping pace with Mr. Brooke's impetuous

    reason, and thinking of the book only. "I have little leisure for such

    literature just now. I have been using up my eyesight on old

    characters lately; the fact is, I want a reader for my evenings; but I

    am fastidious in voices, and I cannot endure listening to an imperfect

    reader. It is a misfortune, in some senses: I feed too much on the

    inward sources; I live too much with the dead. My mind is something

    like the ghost of an ancient, wandering about the world and trying

    mentally to construct it as it used to be, in spite of ruin and

    confusing changes. But I find it necessary to use the utmost caution

    about my eyesight."

    This was the first time that Mr. Casaubon had spoken at any length. He

    delivered himself with precision, as if he had been called upon to make

    a public statement; and the balanced sing-song neatness of his speech,

    occasionally corresponded to by a movement of his head, was the more

    conspicuous from its contrast with good Mr. Brooke's scrappy

    slovenliness. Dorothea said to herself that Mr. Casaubon was the most

    interesting man she had ever seen, not excepting even Monsieur Liret,

    the Vaudois clergyman who had given conferences on the history of the

    Waldenses. To reconstruct a past world, doubtless with a view to the

    highest purposes of truth—what a work to be in any way present at, to

    assist in, though only as a lamp-holder! This elevating thought lifted

    her above her annoyance at being twitted with her ignorance of

    political economy, that never-explained science which was thrust as an

    extinguisher over all her lights.

    "But you are fond of riding, Miss Brooke," Sir James presently took an

    opportunity of saying. "I should have thought you would enter a little

    into the pleasures of hunting. I wish you would let me send over a

    chestnut horse for you to try. It has been trained for a lady. I saw

    you on Saturday cantering over the hill on a nag not worthy of you. My

    groom shall bring Corydon for you every day, if you will only mention

    the time."

    "Thank you, you are very good. I mean to give up riding. I shall not

    ride any more," said Dorothea, urged to this brusque resolution by a

    little annoyance that Sir James would be soliciting her attention when

    she wanted to give it all to Mr. Casaubon.

    "No, that is too hard," said Sir James, in a tone of reproach that

    showed strong interest. "Your sister is given to self-mortification,

    is she not?" he continued, turning to Celia, who sat at his right hand.

    "I think she is," said Celia, feeling afraid lest she should say

    something that would not please her sister, and blushing as prettily as

    possible above her necklace. "She likes giving up."

    "If that were true, Celia, my giving-up would be self-indulgence, not

    self-mortification. But there may be good reasons for choosing not to

    do what is very agreeable," said Dorothea.

    Mr. Brooke was speaking at the same time, but it was evident that Mr.

    Casaubon was observing Dorothea, and she was aware of it.

    "Exactly," said Sir James. "You give up from some high, generous


    "No, indeed, not exactly. I did not say that of myself," answered

    Dorothea, reddening. Unlike Celia, she rarely blushed, and only from

    high delight or anger. At this moment she felt angry with the perverse

    Sir James. Why did he not pay attention to Celia, and leave her to

    listen to Mr. Casaubon?—if that learned man would only talk, instead

    of allowing himself to be talked to by Mr. Brooke, who was just then

    informing him that the Reformation either meant something or it did

    not, that he himself was a Protestant to the core, but that Catholicism

    was a fact; and as to refusing an acre of your ground for a Romanist

    chapel, all men needed the bridle of religion, which, properly

    speaking, was the dread of a Hereafter.

    "I made a great study of theology at one time," said Mr. Brooke, as if

    to explain the insight just manifested. "I know something of all

    schools. I knew Wilberforce in his best days. Do you know


    Mr. Casaubon said, "No."

    "Well, Wilberforce was perhaps not enough of a thinker; but if I went

    into Parliament, as I have been asked to do, I should sit on the

    independent bench, as Wilberforce did, and work at philanthropy."

    Mr. Casaubon bowed, and observed that it was a wide field.

    "Yes," said Mr. Brooke, with an easy smile, "but I have documents. I

    began a long while ago to collect documents. They want arranging, but

    when a question has struck me, I have written to somebody and got an

    answer. I have documents at my back. But now, how do you arrange your


    "In pigeon-holes partly," said Mr. Casaubon, with rather a startled air

    of effort.

    "Ah, pigeon-holes will not do. I have tried pigeon-holes, but

    everything gets mixed in pigeon-holes: I never know whether a paper is

    in A or Z."

    "I wish you would let me sort your papers for you, uncle," said

    Dorothea. "I would letter them all, and then make a list of subjects

    under each letter."

    Mr. Casaubon gravely smiled approval, and said to Mr. Brooke, "You have

    an excellent secretary at hand, you perceive."

    "No, no," said Mr. Brooke, shaking his head; "I cannot let young ladies

    meddle with my documents. Young ladies are too flighty."

    Dorothea felt hurt. Mr. Casaubon would think that her uncle had some

    special reason for delivering this opinion, whereas the remark lay in

    his mind as lightly as the broken wing of an insect among all the other

    fragments there, and a chance current had sent it alighting on her.

    When the two girls were in the drawing-room alone, Celia said—

    "How very ugly Mr. Casaubon is!"

    "Celia! He is one of the most distinguished-looking men I ever saw.

    He is remarkably like the portrait of Locke. He has the same deep


    "Had Locke those two white moles with hairs on them?"

    "Oh, I dare say! when people of a certain sort looked at him," said

    Dorothea, walking away a little.

    "Mr. Casaubon is so sallow."

    "All the better. I suppose you admire a man with the complexion of a

    cochon de lait."

    "Dodo!" exclaimed Celia, looking after her in surprise. "I never heard

    you make such a comparison before."

    "Why should I make it before the occasion came? It is a good

    comparison: the match is perfect."

    Miss Brooke was clearly forgetting herself, and Celia thought so.

    "I wonder you show temper, Dorothea."

    "It is so painful in you, Celia, that you will look at human beings as

    if they were merely animals with a toilet, and never see the great soul

    in a man's face."

    "Has Mr. Casaubon a great soul?" Celia was not without a touch of naive


    "Yes, I believe he has," said Dorothea, with the full voice of

    decision. "Everything I see in him corresponds to his pamphlet on

    Biblical Cosmology."

    "He talks very little," said Celia

    "There is no one for him to talk to."

    Celia thought privately, "Dorothea quite despises Sir James Chettam; I

    believe she would not accept him." Celia felt that this was a pity.

    She had never been deceived as to the object of the baronet's interest.

    Sometimes, indeed, she had reflected that Dodo would perhaps not make a

    husband happy who had not her way of looking at things; and stifled in

    the depths of her heart was the feeling that her sister was too

    religious for family comfort. Notions and scruples were like spilt

    needles, making one afraid of treading, or sitting down, or even eating.

    When Miss Brooke was at the tea-table, Sir James came to sit down by

    her, not having felt her mode of answering him at all offensive. Why

    should he? He thought it probable that Miss Brooke liked him, and

    manners must be very marked indeed before they cease to be interpreted

    by preconceptions either confident or distrustful. She was thoroughly

    charming to him, but of course he theorized a little about his

    attachment. He was made of excellent human dough, and had the rare

    merit of knowing that his talents, even if let loose, would not set the

    smallest stream in the county on fire: hence he liked the prospect of a

    wife to whom he could say, "What shall we do?" about this or that; who

    could help her husband out with reasons, and would also have the

    property qualification for doing so. As to the excessive religiousness

    alleged against Miss Brooke, he had a very indefinite notion of what it

    consisted in, and thought that it would die out with marriage. In

    short, he felt himself to be in love in the right place, and was ready

    to endure a great deal of predominance, which, after all, a man could

    always put down when he liked. Sir James had no idea that he should

    ever like to put down the predominance of this handsome girl, in whose

    cleverness he delighted. Why not? A man's mind—what there is of

    it—has always the advantage of being masculine,—as the smallest

    birch-tree is of a higher kind than the most soaring palm,—and even

    his ignorance is of a sounder quality. Sir James might not have

    originated this estimate; but a kind Providence furnishes the limpest

    personality with a little gunk or starch in the form of tradition.

    "Let me hope that you will rescind that resolution about the horse,

    Miss Brooke," said the persevering admirer. "I assure you, riding is

    the most healthy of exercises."

    "I am aware of it," said Dorothea, coldly. "I think it would do Celia

    good—if she would take to it."

    "But you are such a perfect horsewoman."

    "Excuse me; I have had very little practice, and I should be easily


    "Then that is a reason for more practice. Every lady ought to be a

    perfect horsewoman, that she may accompany her husband."

    "You see how widely we differ, Sir James. I have made up my mind that

    I ought not to be a perfect horsewoman, and so I should never

    correspond to your pattern of a lady." Dorothea looked straight before

    her, and spoke with cold brusquerie, very much with the air of a

    handsome boy, in amusing contrast with the solicitous amiability of her


    "I should like to know your reasons for this cruel resolution. It is

    not possible that you should think horsemanship wrong."

    "It is quite possible that I should think it wrong for me."

    "Oh, why?" said Sir James, in a tender tone of remonstrance.

    Mr. Casaubon had come up to the table, teacup in hand, and was


    "We must not inquire too curiously into motives," he interposed, in his

    measured way. "Miss Brooke knows that they are apt to become feeble in

    the utterance: the aroma is mixed with the grosser air. We must keep

    the germinating grain away from the light."

    Dorothea colored with pleasure, and looked up gratefully to the

    speaker. Here was a man who could understand the higher inward life,

    and with whom there could be some spiritual communion; nay, who could

    illuminate principle with the widest knowledge a man whose learning

    almost amounted to a proof of whatever he believed!

    Dorothea's inferences may seem large; but really life could never have

    gone on at any period but for this liberal allowance of conclusions,

    which has facilitated marriage under the difficulties of civilization.

    Has any one ever pinched into its pilulous smallness the cobweb of

    pre-matrimonial acquaintanceship?

    "Certainly," said good Sir James. "Miss Brooke shall not be urged to

    tell reasons she would rather be silent upon. I am sure her reasons

    would do her honor."

    He was not in the least jealous of the interest with which Dorothea had

    looked up at Mr. Casaubon: it never occurred to him that a girl to whom

    he was meditating an offer of marriage could care for a dried bookworm

    towards fifty, except, indeed, in a religious sort of way, as for a

    clergyman of some distinction.

    However, since Miss Brooke had become engaged in a conversation with

    Mr. Casaubon about the Vaudois clergy, Sir James betook himself to

    Celia, and talked to her about her sister; spoke of a house in town,

    and asked whether Miss Brooke disliked London. Away from her sister,

    Celia talked quite easily, and Sir James said to himself that the

    second Miss Brooke was certainly very agreeable as well as pretty,

    though not, as some people pretended, more clever and sensible than the

    elder sister. He felt that he had chosen the one who was in all

    respects the superior; and a man naturally likes to look forward to

    having the best. He would be the very Mawworm of bachelors who

    pretended not to expect it.


    "Say, goddess, what ensued, when Raphael,
    The affable archangel . . .
    The story heard attentive, and was filled
    With admiration, and deep muse, to hear
    Of things so high and strange."
    —Paradise Lost, B. vii.

    If it had really occurred to Mr. Casaubon to think of Miss Brooke as a

    suitable wife for him, the reasons that might induce her to accept him

    were already planted in her mind, and by the evening of the next day

    the reasons had budded and bloomed. For they had had a long

    conversation in the morning, while Celia, who did not like the company

    of Mr. Casaubon's moles and sallowness, had escaped to the vicarage to

    play with the curate's ill-shod but merry children.

    Dorothea by this time had looked deep into the ungauged reservoir of

    Mr. Casaubon's mind, seeing reflected there in vague labyrinthine

    extension every quality she herself brought; had opened much of her own

    experience to him, and had understood from him the scope of his great

    work, also of attractively labyrinthine extent. For he had been as

    instructive as Milton's "affable archangel;" and with something of the

    archangelic manner he told her how he had undertaken to show (what

    indeed had been attempted before, but not with that thoroughness,

    justice of comparison, and effectiveness of arrangement at which Mr.

    Casaubon aimed) that all the mythical systems or erratic mythical

    fragments in the world were corruptions of a tradition originally

    revealed. Having once mastered the true position and taken a firm

    footing there, the vast field of mythical constructions became

    intelligible, nay, luminous with the reflected light of

    correspondences. But to gather in this great harvest of truth was no

    light or speedy work. His notes already made a formidable range of

    volumes, but the crowning task would be to condense these voluminous

    still-accumulating results and bring them, like the earlier vintage of

    Hippocratic books, to fit a little shelf. In explaining this to

    Dorothea, Mr. Casaubon expressed himself nearly as he would have done

    to a fellow-student, for he had not two styles of talking at command:

    it is true that when he used a Greek or Latin phrase he always gave the

    English with scrupulous care, but he would probably have done this in

    any case. A learned provincial clergyman is accustomed to think of his

    acquaintances as of "lords, knyghtes, and other noble and worthi men,

    that conne Latyn but lytille."

    Dorothea was altogether captivated by the wide embrace of this

    conception. Here was something beyond the shallows of ladies' school

    literature: here was a living Bossuet, whose work would reconcile

    complete knowledge with devoted piety; here was a modern Augustine who

    united the glories of doctor and saint.

    The sanctity seemed no less clearly marked than the learning, for when

    Dorothea was impelled to open her mind on certain themes which she

    could speak of to no one whom she had before seen at Tipton, especially

    on the secondary importance of ecclesiastical forms and articles of

    belief compared with that spiritual religion, that submergence of self

    in communion with Divine perfection which seemed to her to be expressed

    in the best Christian books of widely distant ages, she found in Mr.

    Casaubon a listener who understood her at once, who could assure her of

    his own agreement with that view when duly tempered with wise

    conformity, and could mention historical examples before unknown to her.

    "He thinks with me," said Dorothea to herself, "or rather, he thinks a

    whole world of which my thought is but a poor twopenny mirror. And his

    feelings too, his whole experience—what a lake compared with my little


    Miss Brooke argued from words and dispositions not less unhesitatingly

    than other young ladies of her age. Signs are small measurable things,

    but interpretations are illimitable, and in girls of sweet, ardent

    nature, every sign is apt to conjure up wonder, hope, belief, vast as a

    sky, and colored by a diffused thimbleful of matter in the shape of

    knowledge. They are not always too grossly deceived; for Sinbad

    himself may have fallen by good-luck on a true description, and wrong

    reasoning sometimes lands poor mortals in right conclusions: starting a

    long way off the true point, and proceeding by loops and zigzags, we

    now and then arrive just where we ought to be. Because Miss Brooke was

    hasty in her trust, it is not therefore clear that Mr. Casaubon was

    unworthy of it.

    He stayed a little longer than he had intended, on a slight pressure of

    invitation from Mr. Brooke, who offered no bait except his own

    documents on machine-breaking and rick-burning. Mr. Casaubon was called

    into the library to look at these in a heap, while his host picked up

    first one and then the other to read aloud from in a skipping and

    uncertain way, passing from one unfinished passage to another with a

    "Yes, now, but here!" and finally pushing them all aside to open the

    journal of his youthful Continental travels.

    "Look here—here is all about Greece. Rhamnus, the ruins of

    Rhamnus—you are a great Grecian, now. I don't know whether you have

    given much study to the topography. I spent no end of time in making

    out these things—Helicon, now. Here, now!—'We started the next

    morning for Parnassus, the double-peaked Parnassus.' All this volume is

    about Greece, you know," Mr. Brooke wound up, rubbing his thumb

    transversely along the edges of the leaves as he held the book forward.

    Mr. Casaubon made a dignified though somewhat sad audience; bowed in

    the right place, and avoided looking at anything documentary as far as

    possible, without showing disregard or impatience; mindful that this

    desultoriness was associated with the institutions of the country, and

    that the man who took him on this severe mental scamper was not only an

    amiable host, but a landholder and custos rotulorum. Was his endurance

    aided also by the reflection that Mr. Brooke was the uncle of Dorothea?

    Certainly he seemed more and more bent on making her talk to him, on

    drawing her out, as Celia remarked to herself; and in looking at her

    his face was often lit up by a smile like pale wintry sunshine. Before

    he left the next morning, while taking a pleasant walk with Miss Brooke

    along the gravelled terrace, he had mentioned to her that he felt the

    disadvantage of loneliness, the need of that cheerful companionship

    with which the presence of youth can lighten or vary the serious toils

    of maturity. And he delivered this statement with as much careful

    precision as if he had been a diplomatic envoy whose words would be

    attended with results. Indeed, Mr. Casaubon was not used to expect

    that he should have to repeat or revise his communications of a

    practical or personal kind. The inclinations which he had deliberately

    stated on the 2d of October he would think it enough to refer to by the

    mention of that date; judging by the standard of his own memory, which

    was a volume where a vide supra could serve instead of repetitions, and

    not the ordinary long-used blotting-book which only tells of forgotten

    writing. But in this case Mr. Casaubon's confidence was not likely to

    be falsified, for Dorothea heard and retained what he said with the

    eager interest of a fresh young nature to which every variety in

    experience is an epoch.

    It was three o'clock in the beautiful breezy autumn day when Mr.

    Casaubon drove off to his Rectory at Lowick, only five miles from

    Tipton; and Dorothea, who had on her bonnet and shawl, hurried along

    the shrubbery and across the park that she might wander through the

    bordering wood with no other visible companionship than that of Monk,

    the Great St. Bernard dog, who always took care of the young ladies in

    their walks. There had risen before her the girl's vision of a

    possible future for herself to which she looked forward with trembling

    hope, and she wanted to wander on in that visionary future without

    interruption. She walked briskly in the brisk air, the color rose in

    her cheeks, and her straw bonnet (which our contemporaries might look

    at with conjectural curiosity as at an obsolete form of basket) fell a

    little backward. She would perhaps be hardly characterized enough if

    it were omitted that she wore her brown hair flatly braided and coiled

    behind so as to expose the outline of her head in a daring manner at a

    time when public feeling required the meagreness of nature to be

    dissimulated by tall barricades of frizzed curls and bows, never

    surpassed by any great race except the Feejeean. This was a trait of

    Miss Brooke's asceticism. But there was nothing of an ascetic's

    expression in her bright full eyes, as she looked before her, not

    consciously seeing, but absorbing into the intensity of her mood, the

    solemn glory of the afternoon with its long swathes of light between

    the far-off rows of limes, whose shadows touched each other.

    All people, young or old (that is, all people in those ante-reform

    times), would have thought her an interesting object if they had

    referred the glow in her eyes and cheeks to the newly awakened ordinary

    images of young love: the illusions of Chloe about Strephon have been

    sufficiently consecrated in poetry, as the pathetic loveliness of all

    spontaneous trust ought to be. Miss Pippin adoring young Pumpkin, and

    dreaming along endless vistas of unwearying companionship, was a little

    drama which never tired our fathers and mothers, and had been put into

    all costumes. Let but Pumpkin have a figure which would sustain the

    disadvantages of the shortwaisted swallow-tail, and everybody felt it

    not only natural but necessary to the perfection of womanhood, that a

    sweet girl should be at once convinced of his virtue, his exceptional

    ability, and above all, his perfect sincerity. But perhaps no persons

    then living—certainly none in the neighborhood of Tipton—would have

    had a sympathetic understanding for the dreams of a girl whose notions

    about marriage took their color entirely from an exalted enthusiasm

    about the ends of life, an enthusiasm which was lit chiefly by its own

    fire, and included neither the niceties of the trousseau, the pattern

    of plate, nor even the honors and sweet joys of the blooming matron.

    It had now entered Dorothea's mind that Mr. Casaubon might wish to make

    her his wife, and the idea that he would do so touched her with a sort

    of reverential gratitude. How good of him—nay, it would be almost as

    if a winged messenger had suddenly stood beside her path and held out

    his hand towards her! For a long while she had been oppressed by the

    indefiniteness which hung in her mind, like a thick summer haze, over

    all her desire to make her life greatly effective. What could she do,

    what ought she to do?—she, hardly more than a budding woman, but yet

    with an active conscience and a great mental need, not to be satisfied

    by a girlish instruction comparable to the nibblings and judgments of a

    discursive mouse. With some endowment of stupidity and conceit, she

    might have thought that a Christian young lady of fortune should find

    her ideal of life in village charities, patronage of the humbler

    clergy, the perusal of "Female Scripture Characters," unfolding the

    private experience of Sara under the Old Dispensation, and Dorcas under

    the New, and the care of her soul over her embroidery in her own

    boudoir—with a background of prospective marriage to a man who, if

    less strict than herself, as being involved in affairs religiously

    inexplicable, might be prayed for and seasonably exhorted. From such

    contentment poor Dorothea was shut out. The intensity of her religious

    disposition, the coercion it exercised over her life, was but one

    aspect of a nature altogether ardent, theoretic, and intellectually

    consequent: and with such a nature struggling in the bands of a narrow

    teaching, hemmed in by a social life which seemed nothing but a

    labyrinth of petty courses, a walled-in maze of small paths that led no

    whither, the outcome was sure to strike others as at once exaggeration

    and inconsistency. The thing which seemed to her best, she wanted to

    justify by the completest knowledge; and not to live in a pretended

    admission of rules which were never acted on. Into this soul-hunger as

    yet all her youthful passion was poured; the union which attracted her

    was one that would deliver her from her girlish subjection to her own

    ignorance, and give her the freedom of voluntary submission to a guide

    who would take her along the grandest path.

    "I should learn everything then," she said to herself, still walking

    quickly along the bridle road through the wood. "It would be my duty

    to study that I might help him the better in his great works. There

    would be nothing trivial about our lives. Every-day things with us

    would mean the greatest things. It would be like marrying Pascal. I

    should learn to see the truth by the same light as great men have seen

    it by. And then I should know what to do, when I got older: I should

    see how it was possible to lead a grand life here—now—in England. I

    don't feel sure about doing good in any way now: everything seems like

    going on a mission to a people whose language I don't know;—unless it

    were building good cottages—there can be no doubt about that. Oh, I

    hope I should be able to get the people well housed in Lowick! I will

    draw plenty of plans while I have time."

    Dorothea checked herself suddenly with self-rebuke for the presumptuous

    way in which she was reckoning on uncertain events, but she was spared

    any inward effort to change the direction of her thoughts by the

    appearance of a cantering horseman round a turning of the road. The

    well-groomed chestnut horse and two beautiful setters could leave no

    doubt that the rider was Sir James Chettam. He discerned Dorothea,

    jumped off his horse at once, and, having delivered it to his groom,

    advanced towards her with something white on his arm, at which the two

    setters were barking in an excited manner.

    "How delightful to meet you, Miss Brooke," he said, raising his hat and

    showing his sleekly waving blond hair. "It has hastened the pleasure I

    was looking forward to."

    Miss Brooke was annoyed at the interruption. This amiable baronet,

    really a suitable husband for Celia, exaggerated the necessity of

    making himself agreeable to the elder sister. Even a prospective

    brother-in-law may be an oppression if he will always be presupposing

    too good an understanding with you, and agreeing with you even when you

    contradict him. The thought that he had made the mistake of paying his

    addresses to herself could not take shape: all her mental activity was

    used up in persuasions of another kind. But he was positively

    obtrusive at this moment, and his dimpled hands were quite

    disagreeable. Her roused temper made her color deeply, as she returned

    his greeting with some haughtiness.

    Sir James interpreted the heightened color in the way most gratifying

    to himself, and thought he never saw Miss Brooke looking so handsome.

    "I have brought a little petitioner," he said, "or rather, I have

    brought him to see if he will be approved before his petition is

    offered." He showed the white object under his arm, which was a tiny

    Maltese puppy, one of nature's most naive toys.

    "It is painful to me to see these creatures that are bred merely as

    pets," said Dorothea, whose opinion was forming itself that very moment

    (as opinions will) under the heat of irritation.

    "Oh, why?" said Sir James, as they walked forward.

    "I believe all the petting that is given them does not make them happy.

    They are too helpless: their lives are too frail. A weasel or a mouse

    that gets its own living is more interesting. I like to think that the

    animals about us have souls something like our own, and either carry on

    their own little affairs or can be companions to us, like Monk here.

    Those creatures are parasitic."

    "I am so glad I know that you do not like them," said good Sir James.

    "I should never keep them for myself, but ladies usually are fond of

    these Maltese dogs. Here, John, take this dog, will you?"

    The objectionable puppy, whose nose and eyes were equally black and

    expressive, was thus got rid of, since Miss Brooke decided that it had

    better not have been born. But she felt it necessary to explain.

    "You must not judge of Celia's feeling from mine. I think she likes

    these small pets. She had a tiny terrier once, which she was very fond

    of. It made me unhappy, because I was afraid of treading on it. I am

    rather short-sighted."

    "You have your own opinion about everything, Miss Brooke, and it is

    always a good opinion."

    What answer was possible to such stupid complimenting?

    "Do you know, I envy you that," Sir James said, as they continued

    walking at the rather brisk pace set by Dorothea.

    "I don't quite understand what you mean."

    "Your power of forming an opinion. I can form an opinion of persons.

    I know when I like people. But about other matters, do you know, I

    have often a difficulty in deciding. One hears very sensible things

    said on opposite sides."

    "Or that seem sensible. Perhaps we don't always discriminate between

    sense and nonsense."

    Dorothea felt that she was rather rude.

    "Exactly," said Sir James. "But you seem to have the power of


    "On the contrary, I am often unable to decide. But that is from

    ignorance. The right conclusion is there all the same, though I am

    unable to see it."

    "I think there are few who would see it more readily. Do you know,

    Lovegood was telling me yesterday that you had the best notion in the

    world of a plan for cottages—quite wonderful for a young lady, he

    thought. You had a real genus, to use his expression. He said you

    wanted Mr. Brooke to build a new set of cottages, but he seemed to

    think it hardly probable that your uncle would consent. Do you know,

    that is one of the things I wish to do—I mean, on my own estate. I

    should be so glad to carry out that plan of yours, if you would let me

    see it. Of course, it is sinking money; that is why people object to

    it. Laborers can never pay rent to make it answer. But, after all, it

    is worth doing."

    "Worth doing! yes, indeed," said Dorothea, energetically, forgetting

    her previous small vexations. "I think we deserve to be beaten out of

    our beautiful houses with a scourge of small cords—all of us who let

    tenants live in such sties as we see round us. Life in cottages might

    be happier than ours, if they were real houses fit for human beings

    from whom we expect duties and affections."

    "Will you show me your plan?"

    "Yes, certainly. I dare say it is very faulty. But I have been

    examining all the plans for cottages in Loudon's book, and picked out

    what seem the best things. Oh what a happiness it would be to set the

    pattern about here! I think instead of Lazarus at the gate, we should

    put the pigsty cottages outside the park-gate."

    Dorothea was in the best temper now. Sir James, as brother in-law,

    building model cottages on his estate, and then, perhaps, others being

    built at Lowick, and more and more elsewhere in imitation—it would be

    as if the spirit of Oberlin had passed over the parishes to make the

    life of poverty beautiful!

    Sir James saw all the plans, and took one away to consult upon with

    Lovegood. He also took away a complacent sense that he was making

    great progress in Miss Brooke's good opinion. The Maltese puppy was

    not offered to Celia; an omission which Dorothea afterwards thought of

    with surprise; but she blamed herself for it. She had been engrossing

    Sir James. After all, it was a relief that there was no puppy to tread


    Celia was present while the plans were being examined, and observed Sir

    James's illusion. "He thinks that Dodo cares about him, and she only

    cares about her plans. Yet I am not certain that she would refuse him

    if she thought he would let her manage everything and carry out all her

    notions. And how very uncomfortable Sir James would be! I cannot bear


    It was Celia's private luxury to indulge in this dislike. She dared

    not confess it to her sister in any direct statement, for that would be

    laying herself open to a demonstration that she was somehow or other at

    war with all goodness. But on safe opportunities, she had an indirect

    mode of making her negative wisdom tell upon Dorothea, and calling her

    down from her rhapsodic mood by reminding her that people were staring,

    not listening. Celia was not impulsive: what she had to say could

    wait, and came from her always with the same quiet staccato evenness.

    When people talked with energy and emphasis she watched their faces and

    features merely. She never could understand how well-bred persons

    consented to sing and open their mouths in the ridiculous manner

    requisite for that vocal exercise.

    It was not many days before Mr. Casaubon paid a morning visit, on which

    he was invited again for the following week to dine and stay the night.

    Thus Dorothea had three more conversations with him, and was convinced

    that her first impressions had been just. He was all she had at first

    imagined him to be: almost everything he had said seemed like a

    specimen from a mine, or the inscription on the door of a museum which

    might open on the treasures of past ages; and this trust in his mental

    wealth was all the deeper and more effective on her inclination because

    it was now obvious that his visits were made for her sake. This

    accomplished man condescended to think of a young girl, and take the

    pains to talk to her, not with absurd compliment, but with an appeal to

    her understanding, and sometimes with instructive correction. What

    delightful companionship! Mr. Casaubon seemed even unconscious that

    trivialities existed, and never handed round that small-talk of heavy

    men which is as acceptable as stale bride-cake brought forth with an

    odor of cupboard. He talked of what he was interested in, or else he

    was silent and bowed with sad civility. To Dorothea this was adorable

    genuineness, and religious abstinence from that artificiality which

    uses up the soul in the efforts of pretence. For she looked as

    reverently at Mr. Casaubon's religious elevation above herself as she

    did at his intellect and learning. He assented to her expressions of

    devout feeling, and usually with an appropriate quotation; he allowed

    himself to say that he had gone through some spiritual conflicts in his

    youth; in short, Dorothea saw that here she might reckon on

    understanding, sympathy, and guidance. On one—only one—of her

    favorite themes she was disappointed. Mr. Casaubon apparently did not

    care about building cottages, and diverted the talk to the extremely

    narrow accommodation which was to be had in the dwellings of the

    ancient Egyptians, as if to check a too high standard. After he was

    gone, Dorothea dwelt with some agitation on this indifference of his;

    and her mind was much exercised with arguments drawn from the varying

    conditions of climate which modify human needs, and from the admitted

    wickedness of pagan despots. Should she not urge these arguments on

    Mr. Casaubon when he came again? But further reflection told her that

    she was presumptuous in demanding his attention to such a subject; he

    would not disapprove of her occupying herself with it in leisure

    moments, as other women expected to occupy themselves with their dress

    and embroidery—would not forbid it when—Dorothea felt rather ashamed

    as she detected herself in these speculations. But her uncle had been

    invited to go to Lowick to stay a couple of days: was it reasonable to

    suppose that Mr. Casaubon delighted in Mr. Brooke's society for its own

    sake, either with or without documents?

    Meanwhile that little disappointment made her delight the more in Sir

    James Chettam's readiness to set on foot the desired improvements. He

    came much oftener than Mr. Casaubon, and Dorothea ceased to find him

    disagreeable since he showed himself so entirely in earnest; for he had

    already entered with much practical ability into Lovegood's estimates,

    and was charmingly docile. She proposed to build a couple of cottages,

    and transfer two families from their old cabins, which could then be

    pulled down, so that new ones could be built on the old sites. Sir

    James said "Exactly," and she bore the word remarkably well.

    Certainly these men who had so few spontaneous ideas might be very

    useful members of society under good feminine direction, if they were

    fortunate in choosing their sisters-in-law! It is difficult to say

    whether there was or was not a little wilfulness in her continuing

    blind to the possibility that another sort of choice was in question in

    relation to her. But her life was just now full of hope and action:

    she was not only thinking of her plans, but getting down learned books

    from the library and reading many things hastily (that she might be a

    little less ignorant in talking to Mr. Casaubon), all the while being

    visited with conscientious questionings whether she were not exalting

    these poor doings above measure and contemplating them with that

    self-satisfaction which was the last doom of ignorance and folly.


    1st Gent. Our deeds are fetters that we forge ourselves.
    2d Gent. Ay, truly: but I think it is the world
    That brings the iron.

    "Sir James seems determined to do everything you wish," said Celia, as

    they were driving home from an inspection of the new building-site.

    "He is a good creature, and more sensible than any one would imagine,"

    said Dorothea, inconsiderately.

    "You mean that he appears silly."

    "No, no," said Dorothea, recollecting herself, and laying her hand on

    her sister's a moment, "but he does not talk equally well on all


    "I should think none but disagreeable people do," said Celia, in her

    usual purring way. "They must be very dreadful to live with. Only

    think! at breakfast, and always."

    Dorothea laughed. "O Kitty, you are a wonderful creature!" She pinched

    Celia's chin, being in the mood now to think her very winning and

    lovely—fit hereafter to be an eternal cherub, and if it were not

    doctrinally wrong to say so, hardly more in need of salvation than a

    squirrel. "Of course people need not be always talking well. Only one

    tells the quality of their minds when they try to talk well."

    "You mean that Sir James tries and fails."

    "I was speaking generally. Why do you catechise me about Sir James?

    It is not the object of his life to please me."

    "Now, Dodo, can you really believe that?"

    "Certainly. He thinks of me as a future sister—that is all." Dorothea

    had never hinted this before, waiting, from a certain shyness on such

    subjects which was mutual between the sisters, until it should be

    introduced by some decisive event. Celia blushed, but said at once—

    "Pray do not make that mistake any longer, Dodo. When Tantripp was

    brushing my hair the other day, she said that Sir James's man knew from

    Mrs. Cadwallader's maid that Sir James was to marry the eldest Miss


    "How can you let Tantripp talk such gossip to you, Celia?" said

    Dorothea, indignantly, not the less angry because details asleep in her

    memory were now awakened to confirm the unwelcome revelation. "You

    must have asked her questions. It is degrading."

    "I see no harm at all in Tantripp's talking to me. It is better to

    hear what people say. You see what mistakes you make by taking up

    notions. I am quite sure that Sir James means to make you an offer;

    and he believes that you will accept him, especially since you have

    been so pleased with him about the plans. And uncle too—I know he

    expects it. Every one can see that Sir James is very much in love with


    The revulsion was so strong and painful in Dorothea's mind that the

    tears welled up and flowed abundantly. All her dear plans were

    embittered, and she thought with disgust of Sir James's conceiving that

    she recognized him as her lover. There was vexation too on account of


    "How could he expect it?" she burst forth in her most impetuous manner.

    "I have never agreed with him about anything but the cottages: I was

    barely polite to him before."

    "But you have been so pleased with him since then; he has begun to feel

    quite sure that you are fond of him."

    "Fond of him, Celia! How can you choose such odious expressions?" said

    Dorothea, passionately.

    "Dear me, Dorothea, I suppose it would be right for you to be fond of a

    man whom you accepted for a husband."

    "It is offensive to me to say that Sir James could think I was fond of

    him. Besides, it is not the right word for the feeling I must have

    towards the man I would accept as a husband."

    "Well, I am sorry for Sir James. I thought it right to tell you,

    because you went on as you always do, never looking just where you are,

    and treading in the wrong place. You always see what nobody else sees;

    it is impossible to satisfy you; yet you never see what is quite plain.

    That's your way, Dodo." Something certainly gave Celia unusual courage;

    and she was not sparing the sister of whom she was occasionally in awe.

    Who can tell what just criticisms Murr the Cat may be passing on us

    beings of wider speculation?

    "It is very painful," said Dorothea, feeling scourged. "I can have no

    more to do with the cottages. I must be uncivil to him. I must tell

    him I will have nothing to do with them. It is very painful." Her eyes

    filled again with tears.

    "Wait a little. Think about it. You know he is going away for a day

    or two to see his sister. There will be nobody besides Lovegood."

    Celia could not help relenting. "Poor Dodo," she went on, in an

    amiable staccato. "It is very hard: it is your favorite fad to draw


    "Fad to draw plans! Do you think I only care about my

    fellow-creatures' houses in that childish way? I may well make

    mistakes. How can one ever do anything nobly Christian, living among

    people with such petty thoughts?"

    No more was said; Dorothea was too much jarred to recover her temper

    and behave so as to show that she admitted any error in herself. She

    was disposed rather to accuse the intolerable narrowness and the

    purblind conscience of the society around her: and Celia was no longer

    the eternal cherub, but a thorn in her spirit, a pink-and-white

    nullifidian, worse than any discouraging presence in the "Pilgrim's

    Progress." The fad of drawing plans! What was life worth—what great

    faith was possible when the whole effect of one's actions could be

    withered up into such parched rubbish as that? When she got out of the

    carriage, her cheeks were pale and her eyelids red. She was an image

    of sorrow, and her uncle who met her in the hall would have been

    alarmed, if Celia had not been close to her looking so pretty and

    composed, that he at once concluded Dorothea's tears to have their

    origin in her excessive religiousness. He had returned, during their

    absence, from a journey to the county town, about a petition for the

    pardon of some criminal.

    "Well, my dears," he said, kindly, as they went up to kiss him, "I hope

    nothing disagreeable has happened while I have been away."

    "No, uncle," said Celia, "we have been to Freshitt to look at the

    cottages. We thought you would have been at home to lunch."

    "I came by Lowick to lunch—you didn't know I came by Lowick. And I

    have brought a couple of pamphlets for you, Dorothea—in the library,

    you know; they lie on the table in the library."

    It seemed as if an electric stream went through Dorothea, thrilling her

    from despair into expectation. They were pamphlets about the early

    Church. The oppression of Celia, Tantripp, and Sir James was shaken

    off, and she walked straight to the library. Celia went up-stairs. Mr.

    Brooke was detained by a message, but when he re-entered the library,

    he found Dorothea seated and already deep in one of the pamphlets which

    had some marginal manuscript of Mr. Casaubon's,—taking it in as

    eagerly as she might have taken in the scent of a fresh bouquet after a

    dry, hot, dreary walk.

    She was getting away from Tipton and Freshitt, and her own sad

    liability to tread in the wrong places on her way to the New Jerusalem.

    Mr. Brooke sat down in his arm-chair, stretched his legs towards the

    wood-fire, which had fallen into a wondrous mass of glowing dice

    between the dogs, and rubbed his hands gently, looking very mildly

    towards Dorothea, but with a neutral leisurely air, as if he had

    nothing particular to say. Dorothea closed her pamphlet, as soon as

    she was aware of her uncle's presence, and rose as if to go. Usually

    she would have been interested about her uncle's merciful errand on

    behalf of the criminal, but her late agitation had made her


    "I came back by Lowick, you know," said Mr. Brooke, not as if with any

    intention to arrest her departure, but apparently from his usual

    tendency to say what he had said before. This fundamental principle of

    human speech was markedly exhibited in Mr. Brooke. "I lunched there

    and saw Casaubon's library, and that kind of thing. There's a sharp

    air, driving. Won't you sit down, my dear? You look cold."

    Dorothea felt quite inclined to accept the invitation. Some times,

    when her uncle's easy way of taking things did not happen to be

    exasperating, it was rather soothing. She threw off her mantle and

    bonnet, and sat down opposite to him, enjoying the glow, but lifting up

    her beautiful hands for a screen. They were not thin hands, or small

    hands; but powerful, feminine, maternal hands. She seemed to be

    holding them up in propitiation for her passionate desire to know and

    to think, which in the unfriendly mediums of Tipton and Freshitt had

    issued in crying and red eyelids.

    She bethought herself now of the condemned criminal. "What news have

    you brought about the sheep-stealer, uncle?"

    "What, poor Bunch?—well, it seems we can't get him off—he is to be


    Dorothea's brow took an expression of reprobation and pity.

    "Hanged, you know," said Mr. Brooke, with a quiet nod. "Poor Romilly!

    he would have helped us. I knew Romilly. Casaubon didn't know

    Romilly. He is a little buried in books, you know, Casaubon is."

    "When a man has great studies and is writing a great work, he must of

    course give up seeing much of the world. How can he go about making


    "That's true. But a man mopes, you know. I have always been a

    bachelor too, but I have that sort of disposition that I never moped;

    it was my way to go about everywhere and take in everything. I never

    moped: but I can see that Casaubon does, you know. He wants a

    companion—a companion, you know."

    "It would be a great honor to any one to be his companion," said

    Dorothea, energetically.

    "You like him, eh?" said Mr. Brooke, without showing any surprise, or

    other emotion. "Well, now, I've known Casaubon ten years, ever since

    he came to Lowick. But I never got anything out of him—any ideas, you

    know. However, he is a tiptop man and may be a bishop—that kind of

    thing, you know, if Peel stays in. And he has a very high opinion of

    you, my dear."

    Dorothea could not speak.

    "The fact is, he has a very high opinion indeed of you. And he speaks

    uncommonly well—does Casaubon. He has deferred to me, you not being

    of age. In short, I have promised to speak to you, though I told him I

    thought there was not much chance. I was bound to tell him that. I

    said, my niece is very young, and that kind of thing. But I didn't

    think it necessary to go into everything. However, the long and the

    short of it is, that he has asked my permission to make you an offer of

    marriage—of marriage, you know," said Mr. Brooke, with his explanatory

    nod. "I thought it better to tell you, my dear."

    No one could have detected any anxiety in Mr. Brooke's manner, but he

    did really wish to know something of his niece's mind, that, if there

    were any need for advice, he might give it in time. What feeling he,

    as a magistrate who had taken in so many ideas, could make room for,

    was unmixedly kind. Since Dorothea did not speak immediately, he

    repeated, "I thought it better to tell you, my dear."

    "Thank you, uncle," said Dorothea, in a clear unwavering tone. "I am

    very grateful to Mr. Casaubon. If he makes me an offer, I shall accept

    him. I admire and honor him more than any man I ever saw."

    Mr. Brooke paused a little, and then said in a lingering low tone,

    "Ah? … Well! He is a good match in some respects. But now, Chettam is

    a good match. And our land lies together. I shall never interfere

    against your wishes, my dear. People should have their own way in

    marriage, and that sort of thing—up to a certain point, you know. I

    have always said that, up to a certain point. I wish you to marry

    well; and I have good reason to believe that Chettam wishes to marry

    you. I mention it, you know."

    "It is impossible that I should ever marry Sir James Chettam," said

    Dorothea. "If he thinks of marrying me, he has made a great mistake."

    "That is it, you see. One never knows. I should have thought Chettam

    was just the sort of man a woman would like, now."

    "Pray do not mention him in that light again, uncle," said Dorothea,

    feeling some of her late irritation revive.

    Mr. Brooke wondered, and felt that women were an inexhaustible subject

    of study, since even he at his age was not in a perfect state of

    scientific prediction about them. Here was a fellow like Chettam with

    no chance at all.

    "Well, but Casaubon, now. There is no hurry—I mean for you. It's

    true, every year will tell upon him. He is over five-and-forty, you

    know. I should say a good seven-and-twenty years older than you. To

    be sure,—if you like learning and standing, and that sort of thing, we

    can't have everything. And his income is good—he has a handsome

    property independent of the Church—his income is good. Still he is

    not young, and I must not conceal from you, my dear, that I think his

    health is not over-strong. I know nothing else against him."

    "I should not wish to have a husband very near my own age," said

    Dorothea, with grave decision. "I should wish to have a husband who

    was above me in judgment and in all knowledge."

    Mr. Brooke repeated his subdued, "Ah?—I thought you had more of your

    own opinion than most girls. I thought you liked your own

    opinion—liked it, you know."

    "I cannot imagine myself living without some opinions, but I should

    wish to have good reasons for them, and a wise man could help me to see

    which opinions had the best foundation, and would help me to live

    according to them."

    "Very true. You couldn't put the thing better—couldn't put it better,

    beforehand, you know. But there are oddities in things," continued Mr.

    Brooke, whose conscience was really roused to do the best he could for

    his niece on this occasion. "Life isn't cast in a mould—not cut out

    by rule and line, and that sort of thing. I never married myself, and

    it will be the better for you and yours. The fact is, I never loved

    any one well enough to put myself into a noose for them. It is a

    noose, you know. Temper, now. There is temper. And a husband likes

    to be master."

    "I know that I must expect trials, uncle. Marriage is a state of

    higher duties. I never thought of it as mere personal ease," said poor


    "Well, you are not fond of show, a great establishment, balls, dinners,

    that kind of thing. I can see that Casaubon's ways might suit you

    better than Chettam's. And you shall do as you like, my dear. I would

    not hinder Casaubon; I said so at once; for there is no knowing how

    anything may turn out. You have not the same tastes as every young

    lady; and a clergyman and scholar—who may be a bishop—that kind of

    thing—may suit you better than Chettam. Chettam is a good fellow, a

    good sound-hearted fellow, you know; but he doesn't go much into ideas.

    I did, when I was his age. But Casaubon's eyes, now. I think he has

    hurt them a little with too much reading."

    "I should be all the happier, uncle, the more room there was for me to

    help him," said Dorothea, ardently.

    "You have quite made up your mind, I see. Well, my dear, the fact is,

    I have a letter for you in my pocket." Mr. Brooke handed the letter to

    Dorothea, but as she rose to go away, he added, "There is not too much

    hurry, my dear. Think about it, you know."

    When Dorothea had left him, he reflected that he had certainly spoken

    strongly: he had put the risks of marriage before her in a striking

    manner. It was his duty to do so. But as to pretending to be wise for

    young people,—no uncle, however much he had travelled in his youth,

    absorbed the new ideas, and dined with celebrities now deceased, could

    pretend to judge what sort of marriage would turn out well for a young

    girl who preferred Casaubon to Chettam. In short, woman was a problem

    which, since Mr. Brooke's mind felt blank before it, could be hardly

    less complicated than the revolutions of an irregular solid.


    "Hard students are commonly troubled with gowts, catarrhs,
    rheums, cachexia, bradypepsia, bad eyes, stone, and collick,
    crudities, oppilations, vertigo, winds, consumptions, and
    all such diseases as come by over-much sitting: they are
    most part lean, dry, ill-colored … and all through
    immoderate pains and extraordinary studies. If you will not
    believe the truth of this, look upon great Tostatus and
    Thomas Aquainas' works; and tell me whether those men took
    pains."—BURTON'S Anatomy of Melancholy, P. I, s. 2.

    This was Mr. Casaubon's letter.

    MY DEAR MISS BROOKE,—I have your guardian's permission to address you on a subject than which I have none more at heart. I am not, I trust, mistaken in the recognition of some deeper correspondence than that of date in the fact that a consciousness of need in my own life had arisen contemporaneously with the possibility of my becoming acquainted with you. For in the first hour of meeting you, I had an impression of your eminent and perhaps exclusive fitness to supply that need (connected, I may say, with such activity of the affections as even the preoccupations of a work too special to be abdicated could not uninterruptedly dissimulate); and each succeeding opportunity for observation has given the impression an added depth by convincing me more emphatically of that fitness which I had preconceived, and thus evoking more decisively those affections to which I have but now referred. Our conversations have, I think, made sufficiently clear to you the tenor of my life and purposes: a tenor unsuited, I am aware, to the commoner order of minds. But I have discerned in you an elevation of thought and a capability of devotedness, which I had hitherto not conceived to be compatible either with the early bloom of youth or with those graces of sex that may be said at once to win and to confer distinction when combined, as they notably are in you, with the mental qualities above indicated. It was, I confess, beyond my hope to meet with this rare combination of elements both solid and attractive, adapted to supply aid in graver labors and to cast a charm over vacant hours; and but for the event of my introduction to you (which, let me again say, I trust not to be superficially coincident with foreshadowing needs, but providentially related thereto as stages towards the completion of a life's plan), I should presumably have gone on to the last without any attempt to lighten my solitariness by a matrimonial union.

    Such, my dear Miss Brooke, is the accurate statement of my feelings; and I rely on your kind indulgence in venturing now to ask you how far your own are of a nature to confirm my happy presentiment. To be accepted by you as your husband and the earthly guardian of your welfare, I should regard as the highest of providential gifts. In return I can at least offer you an affection hitherto unwasted, and the faithful consecration of a life which, however short in the sequel, has no backward pages whereon, if you choose to turn them, you will find records such as might justly cause you either bitterness or shame. I await the expression of your sentiments with an anxiety which it would be the part of wisdom (were it possible) to divert by a more arduous labor than usual. But in this order of experience I am still young, and in looking forward to an unfavorable possibility I cannot but feel that resignation to solitude will be more difficult after the temporary illumination of hope.

    In any case, I shall remain,
    Yours with sincere devotion,

    Dorothea trembled while she read this letter; then she fell on her

    knees, buried her face, and sobbed. She could not pray: under the rush

    of solemn emotion in which thoughts became vague and images floated

    uncertainly, she could but cast herself, with a childlike sense of

    reclining, in the lap of a divine consciousness which sustained her

    own. She remained in that attitude till it was time to dress for


    How could it occur to her to examine the letter, to look at it

    critically as a profession of love? Her whole soul was possessed by

    the fact that a fuller life was opening before her: she was a neophyte

    about to enter on a higher grade of initiation. She was going to have

    room for the energies which stirred uneasily under the dimness and

    pressure of her own ignorance and the petty peremptoriness of the

    world's habits.

    Now she would be able to devote herself to large yet definite duties;

    now she would be allowed to live continually in the light of a mind

    that she could reverence. This hope was not unmixed with the glow of

    proud delight—the joyous maiden surprise that she was chosen by the

    man whom her admiration had chosen. All Dorothea's passion was

    transfused through a mind struggling towards an ideal life; the

    radiance of her transfigured girlhood fell on the first object that

    came within its level. The impetus with which inclination became

    resolution was heightened by those little events of the day which had

    roused her discontent with the actual conditions of her life.

    After dinner, when Celia was playing an "air, with variations," a small

    kind of tinkling which symbolized the aesthetic part of the young

    ladies' education, Dorothea went up to her room to answer Mr.

    Casaubon's letter. Why should she defer the answer? She wrote it over

    three times, not because she wished to change the wording, but because

    her hand was unusually uncertain, and she could not bear that Mr.

    Casaubon should think her handwriting bad and illegible. She piqued

    herself on writing a hand in which each letter was distinguishable

    without any large range of conjecture, and she meant to make much use

    of this accomplishment, to save Mr. Casaubon's eyes. Three times she


    MY DEAR MR. CASAUBON,—I am very grateful to you for loving me, and thinking me worthy to be your wife. I can look forward to no better happiness than that which would be one with yours. If I said more, it would only be the same thing written out at greater length, for I cannot now dwell on any other thought than that I may be through life
    Yours devotedly,

    Later in the evening she followed her uncle into the library to give

    him the letter, that he might send it in the morning. He was

    surprised, but his surprise only issued in a few moments' silence,

    during which he pushed about various objects on his writing-table, and

    finally stood with his back to the fire, his glasses on his nose,

    looking at the address of Dorothea's letter.

    "Have you thought enough about this, my dear?" he said at last.

    "There was no need to think long, uncle. I know of nothing to make me

    vacillate. If I changed my mind, it must be because of something

    important and entirely new to me."

    "Ah!—then you have accepted him? Then Chettam has no chance? Has

    Chettam offended you—offended you, you know? What is it you don't

    like in Chettam?"

    "There is nothing that I like in him," said Dorothea, rather


    Mr. Brooke threw his head and shoulders backward as if some one had

    thrown a light missile at him. Dorothea immediately felt some

    self-rebuke, and said—

    "I mean in the light of a husband. He is very kind, I think—really

    very good about the cottages. A well-meaning man."

    "But you must have a scholar, and that sort of thing? Well, it lies a

    little in our family. I had it myself—that love of knowledge, and

    going into everything—a little too much—it took me too far; though

    that sort of thing doesn't often run in the female-line; or it runs

    underground like the rivers in Greece, you know—it comes out in the

    sons. Clever sons, clever mothers. I went a good deal into that, at

    one time. However, my dear, I have always said that people should do

    as they like in these things, up to a certain point. I couldn't, as

    your guardian, have consented to a bad match. But Casaubon stands

    well: his position is good. I am afraid Chettam will be hurt, though,

    and Mrs. Cadwallader will blame me."

    That evening, of course, Celia knew nothing of what had happened. She

    attributed Dorothea's abstracted manner, and the evidence of further

    crying since they had got home, to the temper she had been in about Sir

    James Chettam and the buildings, and was careful not to give further

    offence: having once said what she wanted to say, Celia had no

    disposition to recur to disagreeable subjects. It had been her nature

    when a child never to quarrel with any one—only to observe with wonder

    that they quarrelled with her, and looked like turkey-cocks; whereupon

    she was ready to play at cat's cradle with them whenever they recovered

    themselves. And as to Dorothea, it had always been her way to find

    something wrong in her sister's words, though Celia inwardly protested

    that she always said just how things were, and nothing else: she never

    did and never could put words together out of her own head. But the

    best of Dodo was, that she did not keep angry for long together. Now,

    though they had hardly spoken to each other all the evening, yet when

    Celia put by her work, intending to go to bed, a proceeding in which

    she was always much the earlier, Dorothea, who was seated on a low

    stool, unable to occupy herself except in meditation, said, with the

    musical intonation which in moments of deep but quiet feeling made her

    speech like a fine bit of recitative—

    "Celia, dear, come and kiss me," holding her arms open as she spoke.

    Celia knelt down to get the right level and gave her little butterfly

    kiss, while Dorothea encircled her with gentle arms and pressed her

    lips gravely on each cheek in turn.

    "Don't sit up, Dodo, you are so pale to-night: go to bed soon," said

    Celia, in a comfortable way, without any touch of pathos.

    "No, dear, I am very, very happy," said Dorothea, fervently.

    "So much the better," thought Celia. "But how strangely Dodo goes from

    one extreme to the other."

    The next day, at luncheon, the butler, handing something to Mr. Brooke,

    said, "Jonas is come back, sir, and has brought this letter."

    Mr. Brooke read the letter, and then, nodding toward Dorothea, said,

    "Casaubon, my dear: he will be here to dinner; he didn't wait to write

    more—didn't wait, you know."

    It could not seem remarkable to Celia that a dinner guest should be

    announced to her sister beforehand, but, her eyes following the same

    direction as her uncle's, she was struck with the peculiar effect of

    the announcement on Dorothea. It seemed as if something like the

    reflection of a white sunlit wing had passed across her features,

    ending in one of her rare blushes. For the first time it entered into

    Celia's mind that there might be something more between Mr. Casaubon

    and her sister than his delight in bookish talk and her delight in

    listening. Hitherto she had classed the admiration for this "ugly" and

    learned acquaintance with the admiration for Monsieur Liret at

    Lausanne, also ugly and learned. Dorothea had never been tired of

    listening to old Monsieur Liret when Celia's feet were as cold as

    possible, and when it had really become dreadful to see the skin of his

    bald head moving about. Why then should her enthusiasm not extend to

    Mr. Casaubon simply in the same way as to Monsieur Liret? And it

    seemed probable that all learned men had a sort of schoolmaster's view

    of young people.

    But now Celia was really startled at the suspicion which had darted

    into her mind. She was seldom taken by surprise in this way, her

    marvellous quickness in observing a certain order of signs generally

    preparing her to expect such outward events as she had an interest in.

    Not that she now imagined Mr. Casaubon to be already an accepted lover:

    she had only begun to feel disgust at the possibility that anything in

    Dorothea's mind could tend towards such an issue. Here was something

    really to vex her about Dodo: it was all very well not to accept Sir

    James Chettam, but the idea of marrying Mr. Casaubon! Celia felt a

    sort of shame mingled with a sense of the ludicrous. But perhaps Dodo,

    if she were really bordering on such an extravagance, might be turned

    away from it: experience had often shown that her impressibility might

    be calculated on. The day was damp, and they were not going to walk

    out, so they both went up to their sitting-room; and there Celia

    observed that Dorothea, instead of settling down with her usual

    diligent interest to some occupation, simply leaned her elbow on an

    open book and looked out of the window at the great cedar silvered with

    the damp. She herself had taken up the making of a toy for the

    curate's children, and was not going to enter on any subject too


    Dorothea was in fact thinking that it was desirable for Celia to know

    of the momentous change in Mr. Casaubon's position since he had last

    been in the house: it did not seem fair to leave her in ignorance of

    what would necessarily affect her attitude towards him; but it was

    impossible not to shrink from telling her. Dorothea accused herself of

    some meanness in this timidity: it was always odious to her to have any

    small fears or contrivances about her actions, but at this moment she

    was seeking the highest aid possible that she might not dread the

    corrosiveness of Celia's pretty carnally minded prose. Her reverie was

    broken, and the difficulty of decision banished, by Celia's small and

    rather guttural voice speaking in its usual tone, of a remark aside or

    a "by the bye."

    "Is any one else coming to dine besides Mr. Casaubon?"

    "Not that I know of."

    "I hope there is some one else. Then I shall not hear him eat his soup


    "What is there remarkable about his soup-eating?"

    "Really, Dodo, can't you hear how he scrapes his spoon? And he always

    blinks before he speaks. I don't know whether Locke blinked, but I'm

    sure I am sorry for those who sat opposite to him if he did."

    "Celia," said Dorothea, with emphatic gravity, "pray don't make any

    more observations of that kind."

    "Why not? They are quite true," returned Celia, who had her reasons

    for persevering, though she was beginning to be a little afraid.

    "Many things are true which only the commonest minds observe."

    "Then I think the commonest minds must be rather useful. I think it is

    a pity Mr. Casaubon's mother had not a commoner mind: she might have

    taught him better." Celia was inwardly frightened, and ready to run

    away, now she had hurled this light javelin.

    Dorothea's feelings had gathered to an avalanche, and there could be no

    further preparation.

    "It is right to tell you, Celia, that I am engaged to marry Mr.


    Perhaps Celia had never turned so pale before. The paper man she was

    making would have had his leg injured, but for her habitual care of

    whatever she held in her hands. She laid the fragile figure down at

    once, and sat perfectly still for a few moments. When she spoke there

    was a tear gathering.

    "Oh, Dodo, I hope you will be happy." Her sisterly tenderness could not

    but surmount other feelings at this moment, and her fears were the

    fears of affection.

    Dorothea was still hurt and agitated.

    "It is quite decided, then?" said Celia, in an awed under tone. "And

    uncle knows?"

    "I have accepted Mr. Casaubon's offer. My uncle brought me the letter

    that contained it; he knew about it beforehand."

    "I beg your pardon, if I have said anything to hurt you, Dodo," said

    Celia, with a slight sob. She never could have thought that she should

    feel as she did. There was something funereal in the whole affair, and

    Mr. Casaubon seemed to be the officiating clergyman, about whom it

    would be indecent to make remarks.

    "Never mind, Kitty, do not grieve. We should never admire the same

    people. I often offend in something of the same way; I am apt to speak

    too strongly of those who don't please me."

    In spite of this magnanimity Dorothea was still smarting: perhaps as

    much from Celia's subdued astonishment as from her small criticisms.

    Of course all the world round Tipton would be out of sympathy with this

    marriage. Dorothea knew of no one who thought as she did about life

    and its best objects.

    Nevertheless before the evening was at an end she was very happy. In

    an hour's tete-a-tete with Mr. Casaubon she talked to him with more

    freedom than she had ever felt before, even pouring out her joy at the

    thought of devoting herself to him, and of learning how she might best

    share and further all his great ends. Mr. Casaubon was touched with an

    unknown delight (what man would not have been?) at this childlike

    unrestrained ardor: he was not surprised (what lover would have been?)

    that he should be the object of it.

    "My dear young lady—Miss Brooke—Dorothea!" he said, pressing her hand

    between his hands, "this is a happiness greater than I had ever

    imagined to be in reserve for me. That I should ever meet with a mind

    and person so rich in the mingled graces which could render marriage

    desirable, was far indeed from my conception. You have all—nay, more

    than all—those qualities which I have ever regarded as the

    characteristic excellences of womanhood. The great charm of your sex

    is its capability of an ardent self-sacrificing affection, and herein

    we see its fitness to round and complete the existence of our own.

    Hitherto I have known few pleasures save of the severer kind: my

    satisfactions have been those of the solitary student. I have been

    little disposed to gather flowers that would wither in my hand, but now

    I shall pluck them with eagerness, to place them in your bosom."

    No speech could have been more thoroughly honest in its intention: the

    frigid rhetoric at the end was as sincere as the bark of a dog, or the

    cawing of an amorous rook. Would it not be rash to conclude that there

    was no passion behind those sonnets to Delia which strike us as the

    thin music of a mandolin?

    Dorothea's faith supplied all that Mr. Casaubon's words seemed to leave

    unsaid: what believer sees a disturbing omission or infelicity? The

    text, whether of prophet or of poet, expands for whatever we can put

    into it, and even his bad grammar is sublime.

    "I am very ignorant—you will quite wonder at my ignorance," said

    Dorothea. "I have so many thoughts that may be quite mistaken; and now

    I shall be able to tell them all to you, and ask you about them. But,"

    she added, with rapid imagination of Mr. Casaubon's probable feeling,

    "I will not trouble you too much; only when you are inclined to listen

    to me. You must often be weary with the pursuit of subjects in your

    own track. I shall gain enough if you will take me with you there."

    "How should I be able now to persevere in any path without your

    companionship?" said Mr. Casaubon, kissing her candid brow, and feeling

    that heaven had vouchsafed him a blessing in every way suited to his

    peculiar wants. He was being unconsciously wrought upon by the charms

    of a nature which was entirely without hidden calculations either for

    immediate effects or for remoter ends. It was this which made Dorothea

    so childlike, and, according to some judges, so stupid, with all her

    reputed cleverness; as, for example, in the present case of throwing

    herself, metaphorically speaking, at Mr. Casaubon's feet, and kissing

    his unfashionable shoe-ties as if he were a Protestant Pope. She was

    not in the least teaching Mr. Casaubon to ask if he were good enough

    for her, but merely asking herself anxiously how she could be good

    enough for Mr. Casaubon. Before he left the next day it had been

    decided that the marriage should take place within six weeks. Why not?

    Mr. Casaubon's house was ready. It was not a parsonage, but a

    considerable mansion, with much land attached to it. The parsonage was

    inhabited by the curate, who did all the duty except preaching the

    morning sermon.


    My lady's tongue is like the meadow blades,
    That cut you stroking them with idle hand.
    Nice cutting is her function: she divides
    With spiritual edge the millet-seed,
    And makes intangible savings.

    As Mr. Casaubon's carriage was passing out of the gateway, it arrested

    the entrance of a pony phaeton driven by a lady with a servant seated

    behind. It was doubtful whether the recognition had been mutual, for

    Mr. Casaubon was looking absently before him; but the lady was

    quick-eyed, and threw a nod and a "How do you do?" in the nick of time.

    In spite of her shabby bonnet and very old Indian shawl, it was plain

    that the lodge-keeper regarded her as an important personage, from the

    low curtsy which was dropped on the entrance of the small phaeton.

    "Well, Mrs. Fitchett, how are your fowls laying now?" said the

    high-colored, dark-eyed lady, with the clearest chiselled utterance.

    "Pretty well for laying, madam, but they've ta'en to eating their eggs:

    I've no peace o' mind with 'em at all."

    "Oh, the cannibals! Better sell them cheap at once. What will you

    sell them a couple? One can't eat fowls of a bad character at a high


    "Well, madam, half-a-crown: I couldn't let 'em go, not under."

    "Half-a-crown, these times! Come now—for the Rector's chicken-broth

    on a Sunday. He has consumed all ours that I can spare. You are half

    paid with the sermon, Mrs. Fitchett, remember that. Take a pair of

    tumbler-pigeons for them—little beauties. You must come and see them.

    You have no tumblers among your pigeons."

    "Well, madam, Master Fitchett shall go and see 'em after work. He's

    very hot on new sorts; to oblige you."

    "Oblige me! It will be the best bargain he ever made. A pair of

    church pigeons for a couple of wicked Spanish fowls that eat their own

    eggs! Don't you and Fitchett boast too much, that is all!"

    The phaeton was driven onwards with the last words, leaving Mrs.

    Fitchett laughing and shaking her head slowly, with an interjectional

    "Surely, surely!"—from which it might be inferred that she would

    have found the country-side somewhat duller if the Rector's lady had

    been less free-spoken and less of a skinflint. Indeed, both the

    farmers and laborers in the parishes of Freshitt and Tipton would have

    felt a sad lack of conversation but for the stories about what Mrs.

    Cadwallader said and did: a lady of immeasurably high birth, descended,

    as it were, from unknown earls, dim as the crowd of heroic shades—who

    pleaded poverty, pared down prices, and cut jokes in the most

    companionable manner, though with a turn of tongue that let you know

    who she was. Such a lady gave a neighborliness to both rank and

    religion, and mitigated the bitterness of uncommuted tithe. A much

    more exemplary character with an infusion of sour dignity would not

    have furthered their comprehension of the Thirty-nine Articles, and

    would have been less socially uniting.

    Mr. Brooke, seeing Mrs. Cadwallader's merits from a different point of

    view, winced a little when her name was announced in the library, where

    he was sitting alone.

    "I see you have had our Lowick Cicero here," she said, seating herself

    comfortably, throwing back her wraps, and showing a thin but well-built

    figure. "I suspect you and he are brewing some bad polities, else you

    would not be seeing so much of the lively man. I shall inform against

    you: remember you are both suspicious characters since you took Peel's

    side about the Catholic Bill. I shall tell everybody that you are

    going to put up for Middlemarch on the Whig side when old Pinkerton

    resigns, and that Casaubon is going to help you in an underhand manner:

    going to bribe the voters with pamphlets, and throw open the

    public-houses to distribute them. Come, confess!"

    "Nothing of the sort," said Mr. Brooke, smiling and rubbing his

    eye-glasses, but really blushing a little at the impeachment.

    "Casaubon and I don't talk politics much. He doesn't care much about

    the philanthropic side of things; punishments, and that kind of thing.

    He only cares about Church questions. That is not my line of action,

    you know."

    "Ra-a-ther too much, my friend. I have heard of your doings. Who was

    it that sold his bit of land to the Papists at Middlemarch? I believe

    you bought it on purpose. You are a perfect Guy Faux. See if you are

    not burnt in effigy this 5th of November coming. Humphrey would not

    come to quarrel with you about it, so I am come."

    "Very good. I was prepared to be persecuted for not persecuting—not

    persecuting, you know."

    "There you go! That is a piece of clap-trap you have got ready for the

    hustings. Now, do not let them lure you to the hustings, my dear Mr.

    Brooke. A man always makes a fool of himself, speechifying: there's no

    excuse but being on the right side, so that you can ask a blessing on

    your humming and hawing. You will lose yourself, I forewarn you. You

    will make a Saturday pie of all parties' opinions, and be pelted by


    "That is what I expect, you know," said Mr. Brooke, not wishing to

    betray how little he enjoyed this prophetic sketch—"what I expect as

    an independent man. As to the Whigs, a man who goes with the thinkers

    is not likely to be hooked on by any party. He may go with them up to

    a certain point—up to a certain point, you know. But that is what you

    ladies never understand."

    "Where your certain point is? No. I should like to be told how a man

    can have any certain point when he belongs to no party—leading a

    roving life, and never letting his friends know his address. 'Nobody

    knows where Brooke will be—there's no counting on Brooke'—that is

    what people say of you, to be quite frank. Now, do turn respectable.

    How will you like going to Sessions with everybody looking shy on you,

    and you with a bad conscience and an empty pocket?"

    "I don't pretend to argue with a lady on politics," said Mr. Brooke,

    with an air of smiling indifference, but feeling rather unpleasantly

    conscious that this attack of Mrs. Cadwallader's had opened the

    defensive campaign to which certain rash steps had exposed him. "Your

    sex are not thinkers, you know—varium et mutabile semper—that kind of

    thing. You don't know Virgil. I knew"—Mr. Brooke reflected in time

    that he had not had the personal acquaintance of the Augustan poet—"I

    was going to say, poor Stoddart, you know. That was what he said.

    You ladies are always against an independent attitude—a man's caring

    for nothing but truth, and that sort of thing. And there is no part of

    the county where opinion is narrower than it is here—I don't mean to

    throw stones, you know, but somebody is wanted to take the independent

    line; and if I don't take it, who will?"

    "Who? Why, any upstart who has got neither blood nor position. People

    of standing should consume their independent nonsense at home, not hawk

    it about. And you! who are going to marry your niece, as good as your

    daughter, to one of our best men. Sir James would be cruelly annoyed:

    it will be too hard on him if you turn round now and make yourself a

    Whig sign-board."

    Mr. Brooke again winced inwardly, for Dorothea's engagement had no

    sooner been decided, than he had thought of Mrs. Cadwallader's

    prospective taunts. It might have been easy for ignorant observers to

    say, "Quarrel with Mrs. Cadwallader;" but where is a country gentleman

    to go who quarrels with his oldest neighbors? Who could taste the fine

    flavor in the name of Brooke if it were delivered casually, like wine

    without a seal? Certainly a man can only be cosmopolitan up to a

    certain point.

    "I hope Chettam and I shall always be good friends; but I am sorry to

    say there is no prospect of his marrying my niece," said Mr. Brooke,

    much relieved to see through the window that Celia was coming in.

    "Why not?" said Mrs. Cadwallader, with a sharp note of surprise. "It

    is hardly a fortnight since you and I were talking about it."

    "My niece has chosen another suitor—has chosen him, you know. I have

    had nothing to do with it. I should have preferred Chettam; and I

    should have said Chettam was the man any girl would have chosen. But

    there is no accounting for these things. Your sex is capricious, you


    "Why, whom do you mean to say that you are going to let her marry?"

    Mrs. Cadwallader's mind was rapidly surveying the possibilities of

    choice for Dorothea.

    But here Celia entered, blooming from a walk in the garden, and the

    greeting with her delivered Mr. Brooke from the necessity of answering

    immediately. He got up hastily, and saying, "By the way, I must speak

    to Wright about the horses," shuffled quickly out of the room.

    "My dear child, what is this?—this about your sister's engagement?"

    said Mrs. Cadwallader.

    "She is engaged to marry Mr. Casaubon," said Celia, resorting, as

    usual, to the simplest statement of fact, and enjoying this opportunity

    of speaking to the Rector's wife alone.

    "This is frightful. How long has it been going on?"

    "I only knew of it yesterday. They are to be married in six weeks."

    "Well, my dear, I wish you joy of your brother-in-law."

    "I am so sorry for Dorothea."

    "Sorry! It is her doing, I suppose."

    "Yes; she says Mr. Casaubon has a great soul."

    "With all my heart."

    "Oh, Mrs. Cadwallader, I don't think it can be nice to marry a man with

    a great soul."

    "Well, my dear, take warning. You know the look of one now; when the

    next comes and wants to marry you, don't you accept him."

    "I'm sure I never should."

    "No; one such in a family is enough. So your sister never cared about

    Sir James Chettam? What would you have said to him for a


    "I should have liked that very much. I am sure he would have been a

    good husband. Only," Celia added, with a slight blush (she sometimes

    seemed to blush as she breathed), "I don't think he would have suited


    "Not high-flown enough?"

    "Dodo is very strict. She thinks so much about everything, and is so

    particular about what one says. Sir James never seemed to please her."

    "She must have encouraged him, I am sure. That is not very creditable."

    "Please don't be angry with Dodo; she does not see things. She thought

    so much about the cottages, and she was rude to Sir James sometimes;

    but he is so kind, he never noticed it."

    "Well," said Mrs. Cadwallader, putting on her shawl, and rising, as if

    in haste, "I must go straight to Sir James and break this to him. He

    will have brought his mother back by this time, and I must call. Your

    uncle will never tell him. We are all disappointed, my dear. Young

    people should think of their families in marrying. I set a bad

    example—married a poor clergyman, and made myself a pitiable object

    among the De Bracys—obliged to get my coals by stratagem, and pray to

    heaven for my salad oil. However, Casaubon has money enough; I must do

    him that justice. As to his blood, I suppose the family quarterings

    are three cuttle-fish sable, and a commentator rampant. By the bye,

    before I go, my dear, I must speak to your Mrs. Carter about pastry. I

    want to send my young cook to learn of her. Poor people with four

    children, like us, you know, can't afford to keep a good cook. I have

    no doubt Mrs. Carter will oblige me. Sir James's cook is a perfect


    In less than an hour, Mrs. Cadwallader had circumvented Mrs. Carter and

    driven to Freshitt Hall, which was not far from her own parsonage, her

    husband being resident in Freshitt and keeping a curate in Tipton.

    Sir James Chettam had returned from the short journey which had kept

    him absent for a couple of days, and had changed his dress, intending

    to ride over to Tipton Grange. His horse was standing at the door when

    Mrs. Cadwallader drove up, and he immediately appeared there himself,

    whip in hand. Lady Chettam had not yet returned, but Mrs.

    Cadwallader's errand could not be despatched in the presence of grooms,

    so she asked to be taken into the conservatory close by, to look at the

    new plants; and on coming to a contemplative stand, she said—

    "I have a great shock for you; I hope you are not so far gone in love

    as you pretended to be."

    It was of no use protesting, against Mrs. Cadwallader's way of putting

    things. But Sir James's countenance changed a little. He felt a vague


    "I do believe Brooke is going to expose himself after all. I accused

    him of meaning to stand for Middlemarch on the Liberal side, and he

    looked silly and never denied it—talked about the independent line,

    and the usual nonsense."

    "Is that all?" said Sir James, much relieved.

    "Why," rejoined Mrs. Cadwallader, with a sharper note, "you don't mean

    to say that you would like him to turn public man in that way—making a

    sort of political Cheap Jack of himself?"

    "He might be dissuaded, I should think. He would not like the expense."

    "That is what I told him. He is vulnerable to reason there—always a

    few grains of common-sense in an ounce of miserliness. Miserliness is

    a capital quality to run in families; it's the safe side for madness to

    dip on. And there must be a little crack in the Brooke family, else we

    should not see what we are to see."

    "What? Brooke standing for Middlemarch?"

    "Worse than that. I really feel a little responsible. I always told

    you Miss Brooke would be such a fine match. I knew there was a great

    deal of nonsense in her—a flighty sort of Methodistical stuff. But

    these things wear out of girls. However, I am taken by surprise for


    "What do you mean, Mrs. Cadwallader?" said Sir James. His fear lest

    Miss Brooke should have run away to join the Moravian Brethren, or some

    preposterous sect unknown to good society, was a little allayed by the

    knowledge that Mrs. Cadwallader always made the worst of things. "What

    has happened to Miss Brooke? Pray speak out."

    "Very well. She is engaged to be married." Mrs. Cadwallader paused a

    few moments, observing the deeply hurt expression in her friend's face,

    which he was trying to conceal by a nervous smile, while he whipped his

    boot; but she soon added, "Engaged to Casaubon."

    Sir James let his whip fall and stooped to pick it up. Perhaps his

    face had never before gathered so much concentrated disgust as when he

    turned to Mrs. Cadwallader and repeated, "Casaubon?"

    "Even so. You know my errand now."

    "Good God! It is horrible! He is no better than a mummy!" (The point

    of view has to be allowed for, as that of a blooming and disappointed


    "She says, he is a great soul.—A great bladder for dried peas to

    rattle in!" said Mrs. Cadwallader.

    "What business has an old bachelor like that to marry?" said Sir James.

    "He has one foot in the grave."

    "He means to draw it out again, I suppose."

    "Brooke ought not to allow it: he should insist on its being put off

    till she is of age. She would think better of it then. What is a

    guardian for?"

    "As if you could ever squeeze a resolution out of Brooke!"

    "Cadwallader might talk to him."

    "Not he! Humphrey finds everybody charming. I never can get him to

    abuse Casaubon. He will even speak well of the bishop, though I tell

    him it is unnatural in a beneficed clergyman; what can one do with a

    husband who attends so little to the decencies? I hide it as well as I

    can by abusing everybody myself. Come, come, cheer up! you are well

    rid of Miss Brooke, a girl who would have been requiring you to see the

    stars by daylight. Between ourselves, little Celia is worth two of

    her, and likely after all to be the better match. For this marriage to

    Casaubon is as good as going to a nunnery."

    "Oh, on my own account—it is for Miss Brooke's sake I think her

    friends should try to use their influence."

    "Well, Humphrey doesn't know yet. But when I tell him, you may depend

    on it he will say, 'Why not? Casaubon is a good fellow—and

    young—young enough.' These charitable people never know vinegar from

    wine till they have swallowed it and got the colic. However, if I were

    a man I should prefer Celia, especially when Dorothea was gone. The

    truth is, you have been courting one and have won the other. I can see

    that she admires you almost as much as a man expects to be admired. If

    it were any one but me who said so, you might think it exaggeration.


    Sir James handed Mrs. Cadwallader to the phaeton, and then jumped on

    his horse. He was not going to renounce his ride because of his

    friend's unpleasant news—only to ride the faster in some other

    direction than that of Tipton Grange.

    Now, why on earth should Mrs. Cadwallader have been at all busy about

    Miss Brooke's marriage; and why, when one match that she liked to think

    she had a hand in was frustrated, should she have straightway contrived

    the preliminaries of another? Was there any ingenious plot, any

    hide-and-seek course of action, which might be detected by a careful

    telescopic watch? Not at all: a telescope might have swept the

    parishes of Tipton and Freshitt, the whole area visited by Mrs.

    Cadwallader in her phaeton, without witnessing any interview that could

    excite suspicion, or any scene from which she did not return with the

    same unperturbed keenness of eye and the same high natural color. In

    fact, if that convenient vehicle had existed in the days of the Seven

    Sages, one of them would doubtless have remarked, that you can know

    little of women by following them about in their pony-phaetons. Even

    with a microscope directed on a water-drop we find ourselves making

    interpretations which turn out to be rather coarse; for whereas under a

    weak lens you may seem to see a creature exhibiting an active voracity

    into which other smaller creatures actively play as if they were so

    many animated tax-pennies, a stronger lens reveals to you certain

    tiniest hairlets which make vortices for these victims while the

    swallower waits passively at his receipt of custom. In this way,

    metaphorically speaking, a strong lens applied to Mrs. Cadwallader's

    match-making will show a play of minute causes producing what may be

    called thought and speech vortices to bring her the sort of food she

    needed. Her life was rurally simple, quite free from secrets either

    foul, dangerous, or otherwise important, and not consciously affected

    by the great affairs of the world. All the more did the affairs of the

    great world interest her, when communicated in the letters of high-born

    relations: the way in which fascinating younger sons had gone to the

    dogs by marrying their mistresses; the fine old-blooded idiocy of young

    Lord Tapir, and the furious gouty humors of old Lord Megatherium; the

    exact crossing of genealogies which had brought a coronet into a new

    branch and widened the relations of scandal,—these were topics of

    which she retained details with the utmost accuracy, and reproduced

    them in an excellent pickle of epigrams, which she herself enjoyed the

    more because she believed as unquestionably in birth and no-birth as

    she did in game and vermin. She would never have disowned any one on

    the ground of poverty: a De Bracy reduced to take his dinner in a basin

    would have seemed to her an example of pathos worth exaggerating, and I

    fear his aristocratic vices would not have horrified her. But her

    feeling towards the vulgar rich was a sort of religious hatred: they

    had probably made all their money out of high retail prices, and Mrs.

    Cadwallader detested high prices for everything that was not paid in

    kind at the Rectory: such people were no part of God's design in making

    the world; and their accent was an affliction to the ears. A town

    where such monsters abounded was hardly more than a sort of low comedy,

    which could not be taken account of in a well-bred scheme of the

    universe. Let any lady who is inclined to be hard on Mrs. Cadwallader

    inquire into the comprehensiveness of her own beautiful views, and be

    quite sure that they afford accommodation for all the lives which have

    the honor to coexist with hers.

    With such a mind, active as phosphorus, biting everything that came

    near into the form that suited it, how could Mrs. Cadwallader feel that

    the Miss Brookes and their matrimonial prospects were alien to her?

    especially as it had been the habit of years for her to scold Mr.

    Brooke with the friendliest frankness, and let him know in confidence

    that she thought him a poor creature. From the first arrival of the

    young ladies in Tipton she had prearranged Dorothea's marriage with Sir

    James, and if it had taken place would have been quite sure that it was

    her doing: that it should not take place after she had preconceived it,

    caused her an irritation which every thinker will sympathize with. She

    was the diplomatist of Tipton and Freshitt, and for anything to happen

    in spite of her was an offensive irregularity. As to freaks like this

    of Miss Brooke's, Mrs. Cadwallader had no patience with them, and now

    saw that her opinion of this girl had been infected with some of her

    husband's weak charitableness: those Methodistical whims, that air of

    being more religious than the rector and curate together, came from a

    deeper and more constitutional disease than she had been willing to


    "However," said Mrs. Cadwallader, first to herself and afterwards to

    her husband, "I throw her over: there was a chance, if she had married

    Sir James, of her becoming a sane, sensible woman. He would never have

    contradicted her, and when a woman is not contradicted, she has no

    motive for obstinacy in her absurdities. But now I wish her joy of her

    hair shirt."

    It followed that Mrs. Cadwallader must decide on another match for Sir

    James, and having made up her mind that it was to be the younger Miss

    Brooke, there could not have been a more skilful move towards the

    success of her plan than her hint to the baronet that he had made an

    impression on Celia's heart. For he was not one of those gentlemen who

    languish after the unattainable Sappho's apple that laughs from the

    topmost bough—the charms which

    "Smile like the knot of cowslips on the cliff,Not to be come at by the willing hand."
    He had no sonnets to write, and it could not strike him agreeably that
    he was not an object of preference to the woman whom he had preferred.
    Already the knowledge that Dorothea had chosen Mr. Casaubon had bruised
    his attachment and relaxed its hold. Although Sir James was a
    sportsman, he had some other feelings towards women than towards grouse
    and foxes, and did not regard his future wife in the light of prey,
    valuable chiefly for the excitements of the chase. Neither was he so
    well acquainted with the habits of primitive races as to feel that an
    ideal combat for her, tomahawk in hand, so to speak, was necessary to
    the historical continuity of the marriage-tie. On the contrary, having
    the amiable vanity which knits us to those who are fond of us, and
    disinclines us to those who are indifferent, and also a good grateful
    nature, the mere idea that a woman had a kindness towards him spun
    little threads of tenderness from out his heart towards hers.

    Thus it happened, that after Sir James had ridden rather fast for half
    an hour in a direction away from Tipton Grange, he slackened his pace,
    and at last turned into a road which would lead him back by a shorter
    cut. Various feelings wrought in him the determination after all to go
    to the Grange to-day as if nothing new had happened. He could not help
    rejoicing that he had never made the offer and been rejected; mere
    friendly politeness required that he should call to see Dorothea about
    the cottages, and now happily Mrs. Cadwallader had prepared him to
    offer his congratulations, if necessary, without showing too much
    awkwardness. He really did not like it: giving up Dorothea was very
    painful to him; but there was something in the resolve to make this
    visit forthwith and conquer all show of feeling, which was a sort of
    file-biting and counter-irritant. And without his distinctly
    recognizing the impulse, there certainly was present in him the sense
    that Celia would be there, and that he should pay her more attention
    than he had done before.

    We mortals, men and women, devour many a disappointment between
    breakfast and dinner-time; keep back the tears and look a little pale
    about the lips, and in answer to inquiries say, "Oh, nothing!" Pride
    helps us; and pride is not a bad thing when it only urges us to hide
    our own hurts—not to hurt others.


    "Piacer e popone
    Vuol la sua stagione."
    —Italian Proverb.

    Mr. Casaubon, as might be expected, spent a great deal of his time at

    the Grange in these weeks, and the hindrance which courtship occasioned

    to the progress of his great work—the Key to all

    Mythologies—naturally made him look forward the more eagerly to the

    happy termination of courtship. But he had deliberately incurred the

    hindrance, having made up his mind that it was now time for him to

    adorn his life with the graces of female companionship, to irradiate

    the gloom which fatigue was apt to hang over the intervals of studious

    labor with the play of female fancy, and to secure in this, his

    culminating age, the solace of female tendance for his declining years.

    Hence he determined to abandon himself to the stream of feeling, and

    perhaps was surprised to find what an exceedingly shallow rill it was.

    As in droughty regions baptism by immersion could only be performed

    symbolically, Mr. Casaubon found that sprinkling was the utmost

    approach to a plunge which his stream would afford him; and he

    concluded that the poets had much exaggerated the force of masculine

    passion. Nevertheless, he observed with pleasure that Miss Brooke

    showed an ardent submissive affection which promised to fulfil his most

    agreeable previsions of marriage. It had once or twice crossed his

    mind that possibly there was some deficiency in Dorothea to account for

    the moderation of his abandonment; but he was unable to discern the

    deficiency, or to figure to himself a woman who would have pleased him

    better; so that there was clearly no reason to fall back upon but the

    exaggerations of human tradition.

    "Could I not be preparing myself now to be more useful?" said Dorothea

    to him, one morning, early in the time of courtship; "could I not learn

    to read Latin and Greek aloud to you, as Milton's daughters did to

    their father, without understanding what they read?"

    "I fear that would be wearisome to you," said Mr. Casaubon, smiling;

    "and, indeed, if I remember rightly, the young women you have mentioned

    regarded that exercise in unknown tongues as a ground for rebellion

    against the poet."

    "Yes; but in the first place they were very naughty girls, else they

    would have been proud to minister to such a father; and in the second

    place they might have studied privately and taught themselves to

    understand what they read, and then it would have been interesting. I

    hope you don't expect me to be naughty and stupid?"

    "I expect you to be all that an exquisite young lady can be in every

    possible relation of life. Certainly it might be a great advantage if

    you were able to copy the Greek character, and to that end it were well

    to begin with a little reading."

    Dorothea seized this as a precious permission. She would not have

    asked Mr. Casaubon at once to teach her the languages, dreading of all

    things to be tiresome instead of helpful; but it was not entirely out

    of devotion to her future husband that she wished to know Latin and

    Greek. Those provinces of masculine knowledge seemed to her a

    standing-ground from which all truth could be seen more truly. As it

    was, she constantly doubted her own conclusions, because she felt her

    own ignorance: how could she be confident that one-roomed cottages were

    not for the glory of God, when men who knew the classics appeared to

    conciliate indifference to the cottages with zeal for the glory?

    Perhaps even Hebrew might be necessary—at least the alphabet and a few

    roots—in order to arrive at the core of things, and judge soundly on

    the social duties of the Christian. And she had not reached that point

    of renunciation at which she would have been satisfied with having a

    wise husband: she wished, poor child, to be wise herself. Miss Brooke

    was certainly very naive with all her alleged cleverness. Celia, whose

    mind had never been thought too powerful, saw the emptiness of other

    people's pretensions much more readily. To have in general but little

    feeling, seems to be the only security against feeling too much on any

    particular occasion.

    However, Mr. Casaubon consented to listen and teach for an hour

    together, like a schoolmaster of little boys, or rather like a lover,

    to whom a mistress's elementary ignorance and difficulties have a

    touching fitness. Few scholars would have disliked teaching the

    alphabet under such circumstances. But Dorothea herself was a little

    shocked and discouraged at her own stupidity, and the answers she got

    to some timid questions about the value of the Greek accents gave her a

    painful suspicion that here indeed there might be secrets not capable

    of explanation to a woman's reason.

    Mr. Brooke had no doubt on that point, and expressed himself with his

    usual strength upon it one day that he came into the library while the

    reading was going forward.

    "Well, but now, Casaubon, such deep studies, classics, mathematics,

    that kind of thing, are too taxing for a woman—too taxing, you know."

    "Dorothea is learning to read the characters simply," said Mr.

    Casaubon, evading the question. "She had the very considerate thought

    of saving my eyes."

    "Ah, well, without understanding, you know—that may not be so bad.

    But there is a lightness about the feminine mind—a touch and

    go—music, the fine arts, that kind of thing—they should study those

    up to a certain point, women should; but in a light way, you know. A

    woman should be able to sit down and play you or sing you a good old

    English tune. That is what I like; though I have heard most

    things—been at the opera in Vienna: Gluck, Mozart, everything of that

    sort. But I'm a conservative in music—it's not like ideas, you know.

    I stick to the good old tunes."

    "Mr. Casaubon is not fond of the piano, and I am very glad he is not,"

    said Dorothea, whose slight regard for domestic music and feminine fine

    art must be forgiven her, considering the small tinkling and smearing

    in which they chiefly consisted at that dark period. She smiled and

    looked up at her betrothed with grateful eyes. If he had always been

    asking her to play the "Last Rose of Summer," she would have required

    much resignation. "He says there is only an old harpsichord at Lowick,

    and it is covered with books."

    "Ah, there you are behind Celia, my dear. Celia, now, plays very

    prettily, and is always ready to play. However, since Casaubon does

    not like it, you are all right. But it's a pity you should not have

    little recreations of that sort, Casaubon: the bow always strung—that

    kind of thing, you know—will not do."

    "I never could look on it in the light of a recreation to have my ears

    teased with measured noises," said Mr. Casaubon. "A tune much iterated

    has the ridiculous effect of making the words in my mind perform a sort

    of minuet to keep time—an effect hardly tolerable, I imagine, after

    boyhood. As to the grander forms of music, worthy to accompany solemn

    celebrations, and even to serve as an educating influence according to

    the ancient conception, I say nothing, for with these we are not

    immediately concerned."

    "No; but music of that sort I should enjoy," said Dorothea. "When we

    were coming home from Lausanne my uncle took us to hear the great organ

    at Freiberg, and it made me sob."

    "That kind of thing is not healthy, my dear," said Mr. Brooke.

    "Casaubon, she will be in your hands now: you must teach my niece to

    take things more quietly, eh, Dorothea?"

    He ended with a smile, not wishing to hurt his niece, but really

    thinking that it was perhaps better for her to be early married to so

    sober a fellow as Casaubon, since she would not hear of Chettam.

    "It is wonderful, though," he said to himself as he shuffled out of the

    room—"it is wonderful that she should have liked him. However, the

    match is good. I should have been travelling out of my brief to have

    hindered it, let Mrs. Cadwallader say what she will. He is pretty

    certain to be a bishop, is Casaubon. That was a very seasonable

    pamphlet of his on the Catholic Question:—a deanery at least. They

    owe him a deanery."

    And here I must vindicate a claim to philosophical reflectiveness, by

    remarking that Mr. Brooke on this occasion little thought of the

    Radical speech which, at a later period, he was led to make on the

    incomes of the bishops. What elegant historian would neglect a

    striking opportunity for pointing out that his heroes did not foresee

    the history of the world, or even their own actions?—For example, that

    Henry of Navarre, when a Protestant baby, little thought of being a

    Catholic monarch; or that Alfred the Great, when he measured his

    laborious nights with burning candles, had no idea of future gentlemen

    measuring their idle days with watches. Here is a mine of truth,

    which, however vigorously it may be worked, is likely to outlast our


    But of Mr. Brooke I make a further remark perhaps less warranted by

    precedent—namely, that if he had foreknown his speech, it might not

    have made any great difference. To think with pleasure of his niece's

    husband having a large ecclesiastical income was one thing—to make a

    Liberal speech was another thing; and it is a narrow mind which cannot

    look at a subject from various points of view.


    "Oh, rescue her! I am her brother now,
    And you her father. Every gentle maid
    Should have a guardian in each gentleman."

    It was wonderful to Sir James Chettam how well he continued to like

    going to the Grange after he had once encountered the difficulty of

    seeing Dorothea for the first time in the light of a woman who was

    engaged to another man. Of course the forked lightning seemed to pass

    through him when he first approached her, and he remained conscious

    throughout the interview of hiding uneasiness; but, good as he was, it

    must be owned that his uneasiness was less than it would have been if

    he had thought his rival a brilliant and desirable match. He had no

    sense of being eclipsed by Mr. Casaubon; he was only shocked that

    Dorothea was under a melancholy illusion, and his mortification lost

    some of its bitterness by being mingled with compassion.

    Nevertheless, while Sir James said to himself that he had completely

    resigned her, since with the perversity of a Desdemona she had not

    affected a proposed match that was clearly suitable and according to

    nature; he could not yet be quite passive under the idea of her

    engagement to Mr. Casaubon. On the day when he first saw them together

    in the light of his present knowledge, it seemed to him that he had not

    taken the affair seriously enough. Brooke was really culpable; he

    ought to have hindered it. Who could speak to him? Something might be

    done perhaps even now, at least to defer the marriage. On his way home

    he turned into the Rectory and asked for Mr. Cadwallader. Happily, the

    Rector was at home, and his visitor was shown into the study, where all

    the fishing tackle hung. But he himself was in a little room

    adjoining, at work with his turning apparatus, and he called to the

    baronet to join him there. The two were better friends than any other

    landholder and clergyman in the county—a significant fact which was in

    agreement with the amiable expression of their faces.

    Mr. Cadwallader was a large man, with full lips and a sweet smile; very

    plain and rough in his exterior, but with that solid imperturbable ease

    and good-humor which is infectious, and like great grassy hills in the

    sunshine, quiets even an irritated egoism, and makes it rather ashamed

    of itself. "Well, how are you?" he said, showing a hand not quite fit

    to be grasped. "Sorry I missed you before. Is there anything

    particular? You look vexed."

    Sir James's brow had a little crease in it, a little depression of the

    eyebrow, which he seemed purposely to exaggerate as he answered.

    "It is only this conduct of Brooke's. I really think somebody should

    speak to him."

    "What? meaning to stand?" said Mr. Cadwallader, going on with the

    arrangement of the reels which he had just been turning. "I hardly

    think he means it. But where's the harm, if he likes it? Any one who

    objects to Whiggery should be glad when the Whigs don't put up the

    strongest fellow. They won't overturn the Constitution with our friend

    Brooke's head for a battering ram."

    "Oh, I don't mean that," said Sir James, who, after putting down his

    hat and throwing himself into a chair, had begun to nurse his leg and

    examine the sole of his boot with much bitterness. "I mean this

    marriage. I mean his letting that blooming young girl marry Casaubon."

    "What is the matter with Casaubon? I see no harm in him—if the girl

    likes him."

    "She is too young to know what she likes. Her guardian ought to

    interfere. He ought not to allow the thing to be done in this headlong

    manner. I wonder a man like you, Cadwallader—a man with daughters,

    can look at the affair with indifference: and with such a heart as

    yours! Do think seriously about it."

    "I am not joking; I am as serious as possible," said the Rector, with a

    provoking little inward laugh. "You are as bad as Elinor. She has

    been wanting me to go and lecture Brooke; and I have reminded her that

    her friends had a very poor opinion of the match she made when she

    married me."

    "But look at Casaubon," said Sir James, indignantly. "He must be

    fifty, and I don't believe he could ever have been much more than the

    shadow of a man. Look at his legs!"

    "Confound you handsome young fellows! you think of having it all your

    own way in the world. You don't under stand women. They don't admire

    you half so much as you admire yourselves. Elinor used to tell her

    sisters that she married me for my ugliness—it was so various and

    amusing that it had quite conquered her prudence."

    "You! it was easy enough for a woman to love you. But this is no

    question of beauty. I don't like Casaubon." This was Sir James's

    strongest way of implying that he thought ill of a man's character.

    "Why? what do you know against him?" said the Rector laying down his

    reels, and putting his thumbs into his armholes with an air of


    Sir James paused. He did not usually find it easy to give his reasons:

    it seemed to him strange that people should not know them without being

    told, since he only felt what was reasonable. At last he said—

    "Now, Cadwallader, has he got any heart?"

    "Well, yes. I don't mean of the melting sort, but a sound kernel,

    that you may be sure of. He is very good to his poor relations:

    pensions several of the women, and is educating a young fellow at a

    good deal of expense. Casaubon acts up to his sense of justice. His

    mother's sister made a bad match—a Pole, I think—lost herself—at any

    rate was disowned by her family. If it had not been for that, Casaubon

    would not have had so much money by half. I believe he went himself to

    find out his cousins, and see what he could do for them. Every man

    would not ring so well as that, if you tried his metal. You would,

    Chettam; but not every man."

    "I don't know," said Sir James, coloring. "I am not so sure of

    myself." He paused a moment, and then added, "That was a right thing

    for Casaubon to do. But a man may wish to do what is right, and yet be

    a sort of parchment code. A woman may not be happy with him. And I

    think when a girl is so young as Miss Brooke is, her friends ought to

    interfere a little to hinder her from doing anything foolish. You

    laugh, because you fancy I have some feeling on my own account. But

    upon my honor, it is not that. I should feel just the same if I were

    Miss Brooke's brother or uncle."

    "Well, but what should you do?"

    "I should say that the marriage must not be decided on until she was of

    age. And depend upon it, in that case, it would never come off. I

    wish you saw it as I do—I wish you would talk to Brooke about it."

    Sir James rose as he was finishing his sentence, for he saw Mrs.

    Cadwallader entering from the study. She held by the hand her youngest

    girl, about five years old, who immediately ran to papa, and was made

    comfortable on his knee.

    "I hear what you are talking about," said the wife. "But you will make

    no impression on Humphrey. As long as the fish rise to his bait,

    everybody is what he ought to be. Bless you, Casaubon has got a

    trout-stream, and does not care about fishing in it himself: could

    there be a better fellow?"

    "Well, there is something in that," said the Rector, with his quiet,

    inward laugh. "It is a very good quality in a man to have a


    "But seriously," said Sir James, whose vexation had not yet spent

    itself, "don't you think the Rector might do some good by speaking?"

    "Oh, I told you beforehand what he would say," answered Mrs.

    Cadwallader, lifting up her eyebrows. "I have done what I could: I

    wash my hands of the marriage."

    "In the first place," said the Rector, looking rather grave, "it would

    be nonsensical to expect that I could convince Brooke, and make him act

    accordingly. Brooke is a very good fellow, but pulpy; he will run into

    any mould, but he won't keep shape."

    "He might keep shape long enough to defer the marriage," said Sir James.

    "But, my dear Chettam, why should I use my influence to Casaubon's

    disadvantage, unless I were much surer than I am that I should be

    acting for the advantage of Miss Brooke? I know no harm of Casaubon.

    I don't care about his Xisuthrus and Fee-fo-fum and the rest; but then

    he doesn't care about my fishing-tackle. As to the line he took on the

    Catholic Question, that was unexpected; but he has always been civil to

    me, and I don't see why I should spoil his sport. For anything I can

    tell, Miss Brooke may be happier with him than she would be with any

    other man."

    "Humphrey! I have no patience with you. You know you would rather

    dine under the hedge than with Casaubon alone. You have nothing to say

    to each other."

    "What has that to do with Miss Brooke's marrying him? She does not do

    it for my amusement."

    "He has got no good red blood in his body," said Sir James.

    "No. Somebody put a drop under a magnifying-glass and it was all

    semicolons and parentheses," said Mrs. Cadwallader.

    "Why does he not bring out his book, instead of marrying," said Sir

    James, with a disgust which he held warranted by the sound feeling of

    an English layman.

    "Oh, he dreams footnotes, and they run away with all his brains. They

    say, when he was a little boy, he made an abstract of 'Hop o' my

    Thumb,' and he has been making abstracts ever since. Ugh! And that is

    the man Humphrey goes on saying that a woman may be happy with."

    "Well, he is what Miss Brooke likes," said the Rector. "I don't

    profess to understand every young lady's taste."

    "But if she were your own daughter?" said Sir James.

    "That would be a different affair. She is not my daughter, and I

    don't feel called upon to interfere. Casaubon is as good as most of

    us. He is a scholarly clergyman, and creditable to the cloth. Some

    Radical fellow speechifying at Middlemarch said Casaubon was the

    learned straw-chopping incumbent, and Freke was the brick-and-mortar

    incumbent, and I was the angling incumbent. And upon my word, I don't

    see that one is worse or better than the other." The Rector ended with

    his silent laugh. He always saw the joke of any satire against

    himself. His conscience was large and easy, like the rest of him: it

    did only what it could do without any trouble.

    Clearly, there would be no interference with Miss Brooke's marriage

    through Mr. Cadwallader; and Sir James felt with some sadness that she

    was to have perfect liberty of misjudgment. It was a sign of his good

    disposition that he did not slacken at all in his intention of carrying

    out Dorothea's design of the cottages. Doubtless this persistence was

    the best course for his own dignity: but pride only helps us to be

    generous; it never makes us so, any more than vanity makes us witty.

    She was now enough aware of Sir James's position with regard to her, to

    appreciate the rectitude of his perseverance in a landlord's duty, to

    which he had at first been urged by a lover's complaisance, and her

    pleasure in it was great enough to count for something even in her

    present happiness. Perhaps she gave to Sir James Chettam's cottages

    all the interest she could spare from Mr. Casaubon, or rather from the

    symphony of hopeful dreams, admiring trust, and passionate self

    devotion which that learned gentleman had set playing in her soul.

    Hence it happened that in the good baronet's succeeding visits, while

    he was beginning to pay small attentions to Celia, he found himself

    talking with more and more pleasure to Dorothea. She was perfectly

    unconstrained and without irritation towards him now, and he was

    gradually discovering the delight there is in frank kindness and

    companionship between a man and a woman who have no passion to hide or



    1st Gent. An ancient land in ancient oracles
    Is called "law-thirsty": all the struggle there
    Was after order and a perfect rule.
    Pray, where lie such lands now? . . .
    2d Gent. Why, where they lay of old—in human souls.

    Mr. Casaubon's behavior about settlements was highly satisfactory to

    Mr. Brooke, and the preliminaries of marriage rolled smoothly along,

    shortening the weeks of courtship. The betrothed bride must see her

    future home, and dictate any changes that she would like to have made

    there. A woman dictates before marriage in order that she may have an

    appetite for submission afterwards. And certainly, the mistakes that

    we male and female mortals make when we have our own way might fairly

    raise some wonder that we are so fond of it.

    On a gray but dry November morning Dorothea drove to Lowick in company

    with her uncle and Celia. Mr. Casaubon's home was the manor-house.

    Close by, visible from some parts of the garden, was the little church,

    with the old parsonage opposite. In the beginning of his career, Mr.

    Casaubon had only held the living, but the death of his brother had put

    him in possession of the manor also. It had a small park, with a fine

    old oak here and there, and an avenue of limes towards the southwest

    front, with a sunk fence between park and pleasure-ground, so that from

    the drawing-room windows the glance swept uninterruptedly along a slope

    of greensward till the limes ended in a level of corn and pastures,

    which often seemed to melt into a lake under the setting sun. This was

    the happy side of the house, for the south and east looked rather

    melancholy even under the brightest morning. The grounds here were

    more confined, the flower-beds showed no very careful tendance, and

    large clumps of trees, chiefly of sombre yews, had risen high, not ten

    yards from the windows. The building, of greenish stone, was in the

    old English style, not ugly, but small-windowed and melancholy-looking:

    the sort of house that must have children, many flowers, open windows,

    and little vistas of bright things, to make it seem a joyous home. In

    this latter end of autumn, with a sparse remnant of yellow leaves

    falling slowly athwart the dark evergreens in a stillness without

    sunshine, the house too had an air of autumnal decline, and Mr.

    Casaubon, when he presented himself, had no bloom that could be thrown

    into relief by that background.

    "Oh dear!" Celia said to herself, "I am sure Freshitt Hall would have

    been pleasanter than this." She thought of the white freestone, the

    pillared portico, and the terrace full of flowers, Sir James smiling

    above them like a prince issuing from his enchantment in a rose-bush,

    with a handkerchief swiftly metamorphosed from the most delicately

    odorous petals—Sir James, who talked so agreeably, always about things

    which had common-sense in them, and not about learning! Celia had

    those light young feminine tastes which grave and weatherworn gentlemen

    sometimes prefer in a wife; but happily Mr. Casaubon's bias had been

    different, for he would have had no chance with Celia.

    Dorothea, on the contrary, found the house and grounds all that she

    could wish: the dark book-shelves in the long library, the carpets and

    curtains with colors subdued by time, the curious old maps and

    bird's-eye views on the walls of the corridor, with here and there an

    old vase below, had no oppression for her, and seemed more cheerful

    than the easts and pictures at the Grange, which her uncle had long ago

    brought home from his travels—they being probably among the ideas he

    had taken in at one time. To poor Dorothea these severe classical

    nudities and smirking Renaissance-Correggiosities were painfully

    inexplicable, staring into the midst of her Puritanic conceptions: she

    had never been taught how she could bring them into any sort of

    relevance with her life. But the owners of Lowick apparently had not

    been travellers, and Mr. Casaubon's studies of the past were not

    carried on by means of such aids.

    Dorothea walked about the house with delightful emotion. Everything

    seemed hallowed to her: this was to be the home of her wifehood, and

    she looked up with eyes full of confidence to Mr. Casaubon when he drew

    her attention specially to some actual arrangement and asked her if she

    would like an alteration. All appeals to her taste she met gratefully,

    but saw nothing to alter. His efforts at exact courtesy and formal

    tenderness had no defect for her. She filled up all blanks with

    unmanifested perfections, interpreting him as she interpreted the works

    of Providence, and accounting for seeming discords by her own deafness

    to the higher harmonies. And there are many blanks left in the weeks

    of courtship which a loving faith fills with happy assurance.

    "Now, my dear Dorothea, I wish you to favor me by pointing out which

    room you would like to have as your boudoir," said Mr. Casaubon,

    showing that his views of the womanly nature were sufficiently large to

    include that requirement.

    "It is very kind of you to think of that," said Dorothea, "but I assure

    you I would rather have all those matters decided for me. I shall be

    much happier to take everything as it is—just as you have been used to

    have it, or as you will yourself choose it to be. I have no motive for

    wishing anything else."

    "Oh, Dodo," said Celia, "will you not have the bow-windowed room


    Mr. Casaubon led the way thither. The bow-window looked down the

    avenue of limes; the furniture was all of a faded blue, and there were

    miniatures of ladies and gentlemen with powdered hair hanging in a

    group. A piece of tapestry over a door also showed a blue-green world

    with a pale stag in it. The chairs and tables were thin-legged and

    easy to upset. It was a room where one might fancy the ghost of a

    tight-laced lady revisiting the scene of her embroidery. A light

    bookcase contained duodecimo volumes of polite literature in calf,

    completing the furniture.

    "Yes," said Mr. Brooke, "this would be a pretty room with some new

    hangings, sofas, and that sort of thing. A little bare now."

    "No, uncle," said Dorothea, eagerly. "Pray do not speak of altering

    anything. There are so many other things in the world that want

    altering—I like to take these things as they are. And you like them

    as they are, don't you?" she added, looking at Mr. Casaubon. "Perhaps

    this was your mother's room when she was young."

    "It was," he said, with his slow bend of the head.

    "This is your mother," said Dorothea, who had turned to examine the

    group of miniatures. "It is like the tiny one you brought me; only, I

    should think, a better portrait. And this one opposite, who is this?"

    "Her elder sister. They were, like you and your sister, the only two

    children of their parents, who hang above them, you see."

    "The sister is pretty," said Celia, implying that she thought less

    favorably of Mr. Casaubon's mother. It was a new opening to Celia's

    imagination, that he came of a family who had all been young in their

    time—the ladies wearing necklaces.

    "It is a peculiar face," said Dorothea, looking closely. "Those deep

    gray eyes rather near together—and the delicate irregular nose with a

    sort of ripple in it—and all the powdered curls hanging backward.

    Altogether it seems to me peculiar rather than pretty. There is not

    even a family likeness between her and your mother."

    "No. And they were not alike in their lot."

    "You did not mention her to me," said Dorothea.

    "My aunt made an unfortunate marriage. I never saw her."

    Dorothea wondered a little, but felt that it would be indelicate just

    then to ask for any information which Mr. Casaubon did not proffer, and

    she turned to the window to admire the view. The sun had lately

    pierced the gray, and the avenue of limes cast shadows.

    "Shall we not walk in the garden now?" said Dorothea.

    "And you would like to see the church, you know," said Mr. Brooke. "It

    is a droll little church. And the village. It all lies in a

    nut-shell. By the way, it will suit you, Dorothea; for the cottages are

    like a row of alms-houses—little gardens, gilly-flowers, that sort of


    "Yes, please," said Dorothea, looking at Mr. Casaubon, "I should like

    to see all that." She had got nothing from him more graphic about the

    Lowick cottages than that they were "not bad."

    They were soon on a gravel walk which led chiefly between grassy

    borders and clumps of trees, this being the nearest way to the church,

    Mr. Casaubon said. At the little gate leading into the churchyard

    there was a pause while Mr. Casaubon went to the parsonage close by to

    fetch a key. Celia, who had been hanging a little in the rear, came up

    presently, when she saw that Mr. Casaubon was gone away, and said in

    her easy staccato, which always seemed to contradict the suspicion of

    any malicious intent—

    "Do you know, Dorothea, I saw some one quite young coming up one of the


    "Is that astonishing, Celia?"

    "There may be a young gardener, you know—why not?" said Mr. Brooke.

    "I told Casaubon he should change his gardener."

    "No, not a gardener," said Celia; "a gentleman with a sketch-book. He

    had light-brown curls. I only saw his back. But he was quite young."

    "The curate's son, perhaps," said Mr. Brooke. "Ah, there is Casaubon

    again, and Tucker with him. He is going to introduce Tucker. You

    don't know Tucker yet."

    Mr. Tucker was the middle-aged curate, one of the "inferior clergy,"

    who are usually not wanting in sons. But after the introduction, the

    conversation did not lead to any question about his family, and the

    startling apparition of youthfulness was forgotten by every one but

    Celia. She inwardly declined to believe that the light-brown curls and

    slim figure could have any relationship to Mr. Tucker, who was just as

    old and musty-looking as she would have expected Mr. Casaubon's curate

    to be; doubtless an excellent man who would go to heaven (for Celia

    wished not to be unprincipled), but the corners of his mouth were so

    unpleasant. Celia thought with some dismalness of the time she should

    have to spend as bridesmaid at Lowick, while the curate had probably no

    pretty little children whom she could like, irrespective of principle.

    Mr. Tucker was invaluable in their walk; and perhaps Mr. Casaubon had

    not been without foresight on this head, the curate being able to

    answer all Dorothea's questions about the villagers and the other

    parishioners. Everybody, he assured her, was well off in Lowick: not a

    cottager in those double cottages at a low rent but kept a pig, and the

    strips of garden at the back were well tended. The small boys wore

    excellent corduroy, the girls went out as tidy servants, or did a

    little straw-plaiting at home: no looms here, no Dissent; and though

    the public disposition was rather towards laying by money than towards

    spirituality, there was not much vice. The speckled fowls were so

    numerous that Mr. Brooke observed, "Your farmers leave some barley for

    the women to glean, I see. The poor folks here might have a fowl in

    their pot, as the good French king used to wish for all his people.

    The French eat a good many fowls—skinny fowls, you know."

    "I think it was a very cheap wish of his," said Dorothea, indignantly.

    "Are kings such monsters that a wish like that must be reckoned a royal


    "And if he wished them a skinny fowl," said Celia, "that would not be

    nice. But perhaps he wished them to have fat fowls."

    "Yes, but the word has dropped out of the text, or perhaps was

    subauditum; that is, present in the king's mind, but not uttered," said

    Mr. Casaubon, smiling and bending his head towards Celia, who

    immediately dropped backward a little, because she could not bear Mr.

    Casaubon to blink at her.

    Dorothea sank into silence on the way back to the house. She felt some

    disappointment, of which she was yet ashamed, that there was nothing

    for her to do in Lowick; and in the next few minutes her mind had

    glanced over the possibility, which she would have preferred, of

    finding that her home would be in a parish which had a larger share of

    the world's misery, so that she might have had more active duties in

    it. Then, recurring to the future actually before her, she made a

    picture of more complete devotion to Mr. Casaubon's aims in which she

    would await new duties. Many such might reveal themselves to the

    higher knowledge gained by her in that companionship.

    Mr. Tucker soon left them, having some clerical work which would not

    allow him to lunch at the Hall; and as they were re-entering the garden

    through the little gate, Mr. Casaubon said—

    "You seem a little sad, Dorothea. I trust you are pleased with what

    you have seen."

    "I am feeling something which is perhaps foolish and wrong," answered

    Dorothea, with her usual openness—"almost wishing that the people

    wanted more to be done for them here. I have known so few ways of

    making my life good for anything. Of course, my notions of usefulness

    must be narrow. I must learn new ways of helping people."

    "Doubtless," said Mr. Casaubon. "Each position has its corresponding

    duties. Yours, I trust, as the mistress of Lowick, will not leave any

    yearning unfulfilled."

    "Indeed, I believe that," said Dorothea, earnestly. "Do not suppose

    that I am sad."

    "That is well. But, if you are not tired, we will take another way to

    the house than that by which we came."

    Dorothea was not at all tired, and a little circuit was made towards a

    fine yew-tree, the chief hereditary glory of the grounds on this side

    of the house. As they approached it, a figure, conspicuous on a dark

    background of evergreens, was seated on a bench, sketching the old

    tree. Mr. Brooke, who was walking in front with Celia, turned his

    head, and said—

    "Who is that youngster, Casaubon?"

    They had come very near when Mr. Casaubon answered—

    "That is a young relative of mine, a second cousin: the grandson, in

    fact," he added, looking at Dorothea, "of the lady whose portrait you

    have been noticing, my aunt Julia."

    The young man had laid down his sketch-book and risen. His bushy

    light-brown curls, as well as his youthfulness, identified him at once

    with Celia's apparition.

    "Dorothea, let me introduce to you my cousin, Mr. Ladislaw. Will, this

    is Miss Brooke."

    The cousin was so close now, that, when he lifted his hat, Dorothea

    could see a pair of gray eyes rather near together, a delicate

    irregular nose with a little ripple in it, and hair falling backward;

    but there was a mouth and chin of a more prominent, threatening aspect

    than belonged to the type of the grandmother's miniature. Young

    Ladislaw did not feel it necessary to smile, as if he were charmed with

    this introduction to his future second cousin and her relatives; but

    wore rather a pouting air of discontent.

    "You are an artist, I see," said Mr. Brooke, taking up the sketch-book

    and turning it over in his unceremonious fashion.

    "No, I only sketch a little. There is nothing fit to be seen there,"

    said young Ladislaw, coloring, perhaps with temper rather than modesty.

    "Oh, come, this is a nice bit, now. I did a little in this way myself

    at one time, you know. Look here, now; this is what I call a nice

    thing, done with what we used to call brio." Mr. Brooke held out

    towards the two girls a large colored sketch of stony ground and trees,

    with a pool.

    "I am no judge of these things," said Dorothea, not coldly, but with an

    eager deprecation of the appeal to her. "You know, uncle, I never see

    the beauty of those pictures which you say are so much praised. They

    are a language I do not understand. I suppose there is some relation

    between pictures and nature which I am too ignorant to feel—just as

    you see what a Greek sentence stands for which means nothing to me."

    Dorothea looked up at Mr. Casaubon, who bowed his head towards her,

    while Mr. Brooke said, smiling nonchalantly—

    "Bless me, now, how different people are! But you had a bad style of

    teaching, you know—else this is just the thing for girls—sketching,

    fine art and so on. But you took to drawing plans; you don't

    understand morbidezza, and that kind of thing. You will come to my

    house, I hope, and I will show you what I did in this way," he

    continued, turning to young Ladislaw, who had to be recalled from his

    preoccupation in observing Dorothea. Ladislaw had made up his mind

    that she must be an unpleasant girl, since she was going to marry

    Casaubon, and what she said of her stupidity about pictures would have

    confirmed that opinion even if he had believed her. As it was, he took

    her words for a covert judgment, and was certain that she thought his

    sketch detestable. There was too much cleverness in her apology: she

    was laughing both at her uncle and himself. But what a voice! It was

    like the voice of a soul that had once lived in an AEolian harp. This

    must be one of Nature's inconsistencies. There could be no sort of

    passion in a girl who would marry Casaubon. But he turned from her,

    and bowed his thanks for Mr. Brooke's invitation.

    "We will turn over my Italian engravings together," continued that

    good-natured man. "I have no end of those things, that I have laid by

    for years. One gets rusty in this part of the country, you know. Not

    you, Casaubon; you stick to your studies; but my best ideas get

    undermost—out of use, you know. You clever young men must guard

    against indolence. I was too indolent, you know: else I might have

    been anywhere at one time."

    "That is a seasonable admonition," said Mr. Casaubon; "but now we will

    pass on to the house, lest the young ladies should be tired of


    When their backs were turned, young Ladislaw sat down to go on with his

    sketching, and as he did so his face broke into an expression of

    amusement which increased as he went on drawing, till at last he threw

    back his head and laughed aloud. Partly it was the reception of his

    own artistic production that tickled him; partly the notion of his

    grave cousin as the lover of that girl; and partly Mr. Brooke's

    definition of the place he might have held but for the impediment of

    indolence. Mr. Will Ladislaw's sense of the ludicrous lit up his

    features very agreeably: it was the pure enjoyment of comicality, and

    had no mixture of sneering and self-exaltation.

    "What is your nephew going to do with himself, Casaubon?" said Mr.

    Brooke, as they went on.

    "My cousin, you mean—not my nephew."

    "Yes, yes, cousin. But in the way of a career, you know."

    "The answer to that question is painfully doubtful. On leaving Rugby

    he declined to go to an English university, where I would gladly have

    placed him, and chose what I must consider the anomalous course of

    studying at Heidelberg. And now he wants to go abroad again, without

    any special object, save the vague purpose of what he calls culture,

    preparation for he knows not what. He declines to choose a profession."

    "He has no means but what you furnish, I suppose."

    "I have always given him and his friends reason to understand that I

    would furnish in moderation what was necessary for providing him with a

    scholarly education, and launching him respectably. I am-therefore

    bound to fulfil the expectation so raised," said Mr. Casaubon, putting

    his conduct in the light of mere rectitude: a trait of delicacy which

    Dorothea noticed with admiration.

    "He has a thirst for travelling; perhaps he may turn out a Bruce or a

    Mungo Park," said Mr. Brooke. "I had a notion of that myself at one


    "No, he has no bent towards exploration, or the enlargement of our

    geognosis: that would be a special purpose which I could recognize with

    some approbation, though without felicitating him on a career which so

    often ends in premature and violent death. But so far is he from

    having any desire for a more accurate knowledge of the earth's surface,

    that he said he should prefer not to know the sources of the Nile, and

    that there should be some unknown regions preserved as hunting grounds

    for the poetic imagination."

    "Well, there is something in that, you know," said Mr. Brooke, who had

    certainly an impartial mind.

    "It is, I fear, nothing more than a part of his general inaccuracy and

    indisposition to thoroughness of all kinds, which would be a bad augury

    for him in any profession, civil or sacred, even were he so far

    submissive to ordinary rule as to choose one."

    "Perhaps he has conscientious scruples founded on his own unfitness,"

    said Dorothea, who was interesting herself in finding a favorable

    explanation. "Because the law and medicine should be very serious

    professions to undertake, should they not? People's lives and fortunes

    depend on them."

    "Doubtless; but I fear that my young relative Will Ladislaw is chiefly

    determined in his aversion to these callings by a dislike to steady

    application, and to that kind of acquirement which is needful

    instrumentally, but is not charming or immediately inviting to

    self-indulgent taste. I have insisted to him on what Aristotle has

    stated with admirable brevity, that for the achievement of any work

    regarded as an end there must be a prior exercise of many energies or

    acquired facilities of a secondary order, demanding patience. I have

    pointed to my own manuscript volumes, which represent the toil of years

    preparatory to a work not yet accomplished. But in vain. To careful

    reasoning of this kind he replies by calling himself Pegasus, and every

    form of prescribed work 'harness.'"

    Celia laughed. She was surprised to find that Mr. Casaubon could say

    something quite amusing.

    "Well, you know, he may turn out a Byron, a Chatterton, a

    Churchill—that sort of thing—there's no telling," said Mr. Brooke.

    "Shall you let him go to Italy, or wherever else he wants to go?"

    "Yes; I have agreed to furnish him with moderate supplies for a year or

    so; he asks no more. I shall let him be tried by the test of freedom."

    "That is very kind of you," said Dorothea, looking up at Mr. Casaubon

    with delight. "It is noble. After all, people may really have in them

    some vocation which is not quite plain to themselves, may they not?

    They may seem idle and weak because they are growing. We should be

    very patient with each other, I think."

    "I suppose it is being engaged to be married that has made you think

    patience good," said Celia, as soon as she and Dorothea were alone

    together, taking off their wrappings.

    "You mean that I am very impatient, Celia."

    "Yes; when people don't do and say just what you like." Celia had

    become less afraid of "saying things" to Dorothea since this

    engagement: cleverness seemed to her more pitiable than ever.


    "He had catched a great cold, had he had no other clothes
    to wear than the skin of a bear not yet killed."—FULLER.

    Young Ladislaw did not pay that visit to which Mr. Brooke had invited

    him, and only six days afterwards Mr. Casaubon mentioned that his young

    relative had started for the Continent, seeming by this cold vagueness

    to waive inquiry. Indeed, Will had declined to fix on any more precise

    destination than the entire area of Europe. Genius, he held, is

    necessarily intolerant of fetters: on the one hand it must have the

    utmost play for its spontaneity; on the other, it may confidently await

    those messages from the universe which summon it to its peculiar work,

    only placing itself in an attitude of receptivity towards all sublime

    chances. The attitudes of receptivity are various, and Will had

    sincerely tried many of them. He was not excessively fond of wine, but

    he had several times taken too much, simply as an experiment in that

    form of ecstasy; he had fasted till he was faint, and then supped on

    lobster; he had made himself ill with doses of opium. Nothing greatly

    original had resulted from these measures; and the effects of the opium

    had convinced him that there was an entire dissimilarity between his

    constitution and De Quincey's. The superadded circumstance which would

    evolve the genius had not yet come; the universe had not yet beckoned.

    Even Caesar's fortune at one time was, but a grand presentiment. We

    know what a masquerade all development is, and what effective shapes

    may be disguised in helpless embryos.—In fact, the world is full of

    hopeful analogies and handsome dubious eggs called possibilities. Will

    saw clearly enough the pitiable instances of long incubation producing

    no chick, and but for gratitude would have laughed at Casaubon, whose

    plodding application, rows of note-books, and small taper of learned

    theory exploring the tossed ruins of the world, seemed to enforce a

    moral entirely encouraging to Will's generous reliance on the

    intentions of the universe with regard to himself. He held that

    reliance to be a mark of genius; and certainly it is no mark to the

    contrary; genius consisting neither in self-conceit nor in humility,

    but in a power to make or do, not anything in general, but something in

    particular. Let him start for the Continent, then, without our

    pronouncing on his future. Among all forms of mistake, prophecy is the

    most gratuitous.

    But at present this caution against a too hasty judgment interests me

    more in relation to Mr. Casaubon than to his young cousin. If to

    Dorothea Mr. Casaubon had been the mere occasion which had set alight

    the fine inflammable material of her youthful illusions, does it follow

    that he was fairly represented in the minds of those less impassioned

    personages who have hitherto delivered their judgments concerning him?

    I protest against any absolute conclusion, any prejudice derived from

    Mrs. Cadwallader's contempt for a neighboring clergyman's alleged

    greatness of soul, or Sir James Chettam's poor opinion of his rival's

    legs,—from Mr. Brooke's failure to elicit a companion's ideas, or from

    Celia's criticism of a middle-aged scholar's personal appearance. I am

    not sure that the greatest man of his age, if ever that solitary

    superlative existed, could escape these unfavorable reflections of

    himself in various small mirrors; and even Milton, looking for his

    portrait in a spoon, must submit to have the facial angle of a bumpkin.

    Moreover, if Mr. Casaubon, speaking for himself, has rather a chilling

    rhetoric, it is not therefore certain that there is no good work or

    fine feeling in him. Did not an immortal physicist and interpreter of

    hieroglyphs write detestable verses? Has the theory of the solar

    system been advanced by graceful manners and conversational tact?

    Suppose we turn from outside estimates of a man, to wonder, with keener

    interest, what is the report of his own consciousness about his doings

    or capacity: with what hindrances he is carrying on his daily labors;

    what fading of hopes, or what deeper fixity of self-delusion the years

    are marking off within him; and with what spirit he wrestles against

    universal pressure, which will one day be too heavy for him, and bring

    his heart to its final pause. Doubtless his lot is important in his

    own eyes; and the chief reason that we think he asks too large a place

    in our consideration must be our want of room for him, since we refer

    him to the Divine regard with perfect confidence; nay, it is even held

    sublime for our neighbor to expect the utmost there, however little he

    may have got from us. Mr. Casaubon, too, was the centre of his own

    world; if he was liable to think that others were providentially made

    for him, and especially to consider them in the light of their fitness

    for the author of a "Key to all Mythologies," this trait is not quite

    alien to us, and, like the other mendicant hopes of mortals, claims

    some of our pity.

    Certainly this affair of his marriage with Miss Brooke touched him more

    nearly than it did any one of the persons who have hitherto shown their

    disapproval of it, and in the present stage of things I feel more

    tenderly towards his experience of success than towards the

    disappointment of the amiable Sir James. For in truth, as the day

    fixed for his marriage came nearer, Mr. Casaubon did not find his

    spirits rising; nor did the contemplation of that matrimonial garden

    scene, where, as all experience showed, the path was to be bordered

    with flowers, prove persistently more enchanting to him than the

    accustomed vaults where he walked taper in hand. He did not confess to

    himself, still less could he have breathed to another, his surprise

    that though he had won a lovely and noble-hearted girl he had not won

    delight,—which he had also regarded as an object to be found by

    search. It is true that he knew all the classical passages implying

    the contrary; but knowing classical passages, we find, is a mode of

    motion, which explains why they leave so little extra force for their

    personal application.

    Poor Mr. Casaubon had imagined that his long studious bachelorhood had

    stored up for him a compound interest of enjoyment, and that large

    drafts on his affections would not fail to be honored; for we all of

    us, grave or light, get our thoughts entangled in metaphors, and act

    fatally on the strength of them. And now he was in danger of being

    saddened by the very conviction that his circumstances were unusually

    happy: there was nothing external by which he could account for a

    certain blankness of sensibility which came over him just when his

    expectant gladness should have been most lively, just when he exchanged

    the accustomed dulness of his Lowick library for his visits to the

    Grange. Here was a weary experience in which he was as utterly

    condemned to loneliness as in the despair which sometimes threatened

    him while toiling in the morass of authorship without seeming nearer to

    the goal. And his was that worst loneliness which would shrink from

    sympathy. He could not but wish that Dorothea should think him not

    less happy than the world would expect her successful suitor to be; and

    in relation to his authorship he leaned on her young trust and

    veneration, he liked to draw forth her fresh interest in listening, as

    a means of encouragement to himself: in talking to her he presented all

    his performance and intention with the reflected confidence of the

    pedagogue, and rid himself for the time of that chilling ideal audience

    which crowded his laborious uncreative hours with the vaporous pressure

    of Tartarean shades.

    For to Dorothea, after that toy-box history of the world adapted to

    young ladies which had made the chief part of her education, Mr.

    Casaubon's talk about his great book was full of new vistas; and this

    sense of revelation, this surprise of a nearer introduction to Stoics

    and Alexandrians, as people who had ideas not totally unlike her own,

    kept in abeyance for the time her usual eagerness for a binding theory

    which could bring her own life and doctrine into strict connection with

    that amazing past, and give the remotest sources of knowledge some

    bearing on her actions. That more complete teaching would come—Mr.

    Casaubon would tell her all that: she was looking forward to higher

    initiation in ideas, as she was looking forward to marriage, and

    blending her dim conceptions of both. It would be a great mistake to

    suppose that Dorothea would have cared about any share in Mr.

    Casaubon's learning as mere accomplishment; for though opinion in the

    neighborhood of Freshitt and Tipton had pronounced her clever, that

    epithet would not have described her to circles in whose more precise

    vocabulary cleverness implies mere aptitude for knowing and doing,

    apart from character. All her eagerness for acquirement lay within

    that full current of sympathetic motive in which her ideas and impulses

    were habitually swept along. She did not want to deck herself with

    knowledge—to wear it loose from the nerves and blood that fed her

    action; and if she had written a book she must have done it as Saint

    Theresa did, under the command of an authority that constrained her

    conscience. But something she yearned for by which her life might be

    filled with action at once rational and ardent; and since the time was

    gone by for guiding visions and spiritual directors, since prayer

    heightened yearning but not instruction, what lamp was there but

    knowledge? Surely learned men kept the only oil; and who more learned

    than Mr. Casaubon?

    Thus in these brief weeks Dorothea's joyous grateful expectation was

    unbroken, and however her lover might occasionally be conscious of

    flatness, he could never refer it to any slackening of her affectionate


    The season was mild enough to encourage the project of extending the

    wedding journey as far as Rome, and Mr. Casaubon was anxious for this

    because he wished to inspect some manuscripts in the Vatican.

    "I still regret that your sister is not to accompany us," he said one

    morning, some time after it had been ascertained that Celia objected to

    go, and that Dorothea did not wish for her companionship. "You will

    have many lonely hours, Dorotheas, for I shall be constrained to make

    the utmost use of my time during our stay in Rome, and I should feel

    more at liberty if you had a companion."

    The words "I should feel more at liberty" grated on Dorothea. For the

    first time in speaking to Mr. Casaubon she colored from annoyance.

    "You must have misunderstood me very much," she said, "if you think I

    should not enter into the value of your time—if you think that I

    should not willingly give up whatever interfered with your using it to

    the best purpose."

    "That is very amiable in you, my dear Dorothea," said Mr. Casaubon, not

    in the least noticing that she was hurt; "but if you had a lady as your

    companion, I could put you both under the care of a cicerone, and we

    could thus achieve two purposes in the same space of time."

    "I beg you will not refer to this again," said Dorothea, rather

    haughtily. But immediately she feared that she was wrong, and turning

    towards him she laid her hand on his, adding in a different tone, "Pray

    do not be anxious about me. I shall have so much to think of when I am

    alone. And Tantripp will be a sufficient companion, just to take care

    of me. I could not bear to have Celia: she would be miserable."

    It was time to dress. There was to be a dinner-party that day, the

    last of the parties which were held at the Grange as proper

    preliminaries to the wedding, and Dorothea was glad of a reason for

    moving away at once on the sound of the bell, as if she needed more

    than her usual amount of preparation. She was ashamed of being

    irritated from some cause she could not define even to herself; for

    though she had no intention to be untruthful, her reply had not touched

    the real hurt within her. Mr. Casaubon's words had been quite

    reasonable, yet they had brought a vague instantaneous sense of

    aloofness on his part.

    "Surely I am in a strangely selfish weak state of mind," she said to

    herself. "How can I have a husband who is so much above me without

    knowing that he needs me less than I need him?"

    Having convinced herself that Mr. Casaubon was altogether right, she

    recovered her equanimity, and was an agreeable image of serene dignity

    when she came into the drawing-room in her silver-gray dress—the

    simple lines of her dark-brown hair parted over her brow and coiled

    massively behind, in keeping with the entire absence from her manner

    and expression of all search after mere effect. Sometimes when

    Dorothea was in company, there seemed to be as complete an air of

    repose about her as if she had been a picture of Santa Barbara looking

    out from her tower into the clear air; but these intervals of quietude

    made the energy of her speech and emotion the more remarked when some

    outward appeal had touched her.

    She was naturally the subject of many observations this evening, for

    the dinner-party was large and rather more miscellaneous as to the male

    portion than any which had been held at the Grange since Mr. Brooke's

    nieces had resided with him, so that the talking was done in duos and

    trios more or less inharmonious. There was the newly elected mayor of

    Middlemarch, who happened to be a manufacturer; the philanthropic

    banker his brother-in-law, who predominated so much in the town that

    some called him a Methodist, others a hypocrite, according to the

    resources of their vocabulary; and there were various professional men.

    In fact, Mrs. Cadwallader said that Brooke was beginning to treat the

    Middlemarchers, and that she preferred the farmers at the tithe-dinner,

    who drank her health unpretentiously, and were not ashamed of their

    grandfathers' furniture. For in that part of the country, before

    reform had done its notable part in developing the political

    consciousness, there was a clearer distinction of ranks and a dimmer

    distinction of parties; so that Mr. Brooke's miscellaneous invitations

    seemed to belong to that general laxity which came from his inordinate

    travel and habit of taking too much in the form of ideas.

    Already, as Miss Brooke passed out of the dining-room, opportunity was

    found for some interjectional "asides."

    "A fine woman, Miss Brooke! an uncommonly fine woman, by God!" said Mr.

    Standish, the old lawyer, who had been so long concerned with the

    landed gentry that he had become landed himself, and used that oath in

    a deep-mouthed manner as a sort of armorial bearings, stamping the

    speech of a man who held a good position.

    Mr. Bulstrode, the banker, seemed to be addressed, but that gentleman

    disliked coarseness and profanity, and merely bowed. The remark was

    taken up by Mr. Chichely, a middle-aged bachelor and coursing

    celebrity, who had a complexion something like an Easter egg, a few

    hairs carefully arranged, and a carriage implying the consciousness of

    a distinguished appearance.

    "Yes, but not my style of woman: I like a woman who lays herself out a

    little more to please us. There should be a little filigree about a

    woman—something of the coquette. A man likes a sort of challenge.

    The more of a dead set she makes at you the better."

    "There's some truth in that," said Mr. Standish, disposed to be genial.

    "And, by God, it's usually the way with them. I suppose it answers

    some wise ends: Providence made them so, eh, Bulstrode?"

    "I should be disposed to refer coquetry to another source," said Mr.

    Bulstrode. "I should rather refer it to the devil."

    "Ay, to be sure, there should be a little devil in a woman," said Mr.

    Chichely, whose study of the fair sex seemed to have been detrimental

    to his theology. "And I like them blond, with a certain gait, and a

    swan neck. Between ourselves, the mayor's daughter is more to my taste

    than Miss Brooke or Miss Celia either. If I were a marrying man I

    should choose Miss Vincy before either of them."

    "Well, make up, make up," said Mr. Standish, jocosely; "you see the

    middle-aged fellows early the day."

    Mr. Chichely shook his head with much meaning: he was not going to

    incur the certainty of being accepted by the woman he would choose.

    The Miss Vincy who had the honor of being Mr. Chichely's ideal was of

    course not present; for Mr. Brooke, always objecting to go too far,

    would not have chosen that his nieces should meet the daughter of a

    Middlemarch manufacturer, unless it were on a public occasion. The

    feminine part of the company included none whom Lady Chettam or Mrs.

    Cadwallader could object to; for Mrs. Renfrew, the colonel's widow, was

    not only unexceptionable in point of breeding, but also interesting on

    the ground of her complaint, which puzzled the doctors, and seemed

    clearly a case wherein the fulness of professional knowledge might need

    the supplement of quackery. Lady Chettam, who attributed her own

    remarkable health to home-made bitters united with constant medical

    attendance, entered with much exercise of the imagination into Mrs.

    Renfrew's account of symptoms, and into the amazing futility in her

    case of all, strengthening medicines.

    "Where can all the strength of those medicines go, my dear?" said the

    mild but stately dowager, turning to Mrs. Cadwallader reflectively,

    when Mrs. Renfrew's attention was called away.

    "It strengthens the disease," said the Rector's wife, much too

    well-born not to be an amateur in medicine. "Everything depends on the

    constitution: some people make fat, some blood, and some bile—that's

    my view of the matter; and whatever they take is a sort of grist to the


    "Then she ought to take medicines that would reduce—reduce the

    disease, you know, if you are right, my dear. And I think what you say

    is reasonable."

    "Certainly it is reasonable. You have two sorts of potatoes, fed on

    the same soil. One of them grows more and more watery—"

    "Ah! like this poor Mrs. Renfrew—that is what I think. Dropsy! There

    is no swelling yet—it is inward. I should say she ought to take

    drying medicines, shouldn't you?—or a dry hot-air bath. Many things

    might be tried, of a drying nature."

    "Let her try a certain person's pamphlets," said Mrs. Cadwallader in an

    undertone, seeing the gentlemen enter. "He does not want drying."

    "Who, my dear?" said Lady Chettam, a charming woman, not so quick as to

    nullify the pleasure of explanation.

    "The bridegroom—Casaubon. He has certainly been drying up faster since

    the engagement: the flame of passion, I suppose."

    "I should think he is far from having a good constitution," said Lady

    Chettam, with a still deeper undertone. "And then his studies—so very

    dry, as you say."

    "Really, by the side of Sir James, he looks like a death's head skinned

    over for the occasion. Mark my words: in a year from this time that

    girl will hate him. She looks up to him as an oracle now, and

    by-and-by she will be at the other extreme. All flightiness!"

    "How very shocking! I fear she is headstrong. But tell me—you know

    all about him—is there anything very bad? What is the truth?"

    "The truth? he is as bad as the wrong physic—nasty to take, and sure

    to disagree."

    "There could not be anything worse than that," said Lady Chettam, with

    so vivid a conception of the physic that she seemed to have learned

    something exact about Mr. Casaubon's disadvantages. "However, James

    will hear nothing against Miss Brooke. He says she is the mirror of

    women still."

    "That is a generous make-believe of his. Depend upon it, he likes

    little Celia better, and she appreciates him. I hope you like my

    little Celia?"

    "Certainly; she is fonder of geraniums, and seems more docile, though

    not so fine a figure. But we were talking of physic. Tell me about

    this new young surgeon, Mr. Lydgate. I am told he is wonderfully

    clever: he certainly looks it—a fine brow indeed."

    "He is a gentleman. I heard him talking to Humphrey. He talks well."

    "Yes. Mr. Brooke says he is one of the Lydgates of Northumberland,

    really well connected. One does not expect it in a practitioner of

    that kind. For my own part, I like a medical man more on a footing

    with the servants; they are often all the cleverer. I assure you I

    found poor Hicks's judgment unfailing; I never knew him wrong. He was

    coarse and butcher-like, but he knew my constitution. It was a loss to

    me his going off so suddenly. Dear me, what a very animated

    conversation Miss Brooke seems to be having with this Mr. Lydgate!"

    "She is talking cottages and hospitals with him," said Mrs.

    Cadwallader, whose ears and power of interpretation were quick. "I

    believe he is a sort of philanthropist, so Brooke is sure to take him


    "James," said Lady Chettam when her son came near, "bring Mr. Lydgate

    and introduce him to me. I want to test him."

    The affable dowager declared herself delighted with this opportunity of

    making Mr. Lydgate's acquaintance, having heard of his success in

    treating fever on a new plan.

    Mr. Lydgate had the medical accomplishment of looking perfectly grave

    whatever nonsense was talked to him, and his dark steady eyes gave him

    impressiveness as a listener. He was as little as possible like the

    lamented Hicks, especially in a certain careless refinement about his

    toilet and utterance. Yet Lady Chettam gathered much confidence in

    him. He confirmed her view of her own constitution as being peculiar,

    by admitting that all constitutions might be called peculiar, and he

    did not deny that hers might be more peculiar than others. He did not

    approve of a too lowering system, including reckless cupping, nor, on

    the other hand, of incessant port wine and bark. He said "I think so"

    with an air of so much deference accompanying the insight of agreement,

    that she formed the most cordial opinion of his talents.

    "I am quite pleased with your protege," she said to Mr. Brooke before

    going away.

    "My protege?—dear me!—who is that?" said Mr. Brooke.

    "This young Lydgate, the new doctor. He seems to me to understand his

    profession admirably."

    "Oh, Lydgate! he is not my protege, you know; only I knew an uncle of

    his who sent me a letter about him. However, I think he is likely to

    be first-rate—has studied in Paris, knew Broussais; has ideas, you

    know—wants to raise the profession."

    "Lydgate has lots of ideas, quite new, about ventilation and diet, that

    sort of thing," resumed Mr. Brooke, after he had handed out Lady

    Chettam, and had returned to be civil to a group of Middlemarchers.

    "Hang it, do you think that is quite sound?—upsetting The old

    treatment, which has made Englishmen what they are?" said Mr. Standish.

    "Medical knowledge is at a low ebb among us," said Mr. Bulstrode, who

    spoke in a subdued tone, and had rather a sickly air. "I, for my part,

    hail the advent of Mr. Lydgate. I hope to find good reason for

    confiding the new hospital to his management."

    "That is all very fine," replied Mr. Standish, who was not fond of Mr.

    Bulstrode; "if you like him to try experiments on your hospital

    patients, and kill a few people for charity I have no objection. But I

    am not going to hand money out of my purse to have experiments tried on

    me. I like treatment that has been tested a little."

    "Well, you know, Standish, every dose you take is an experiment-an

    experiment, you know," said Mr. Brooke, nodding towards the lawyer.

    "Oh, if you talk in that sense!" said Mr. Standish, with as much

    disgust at such non-legal quibbling as a man can well betray towards a

    valuable client.

    "I should be glad of any treatment that would cure me without reducing

    me to a skeleton, like poor Grainger," said Mr. Vincy, the mayor, a

    florid man, who would have served for a study of flesh in striking

    contrast with the Franciscan tints of Mr. Bulstrode. "It's an

    uncommonly dangerous thing to be left without any padding against the

    shafts of disease, as somebody said,—and I think it a very good

    expression myself."

    Mr. Lydgate, of course, was out of hearing. He had quitted the party

    early, and would have thought it altogether tedious but for the novelty

    of certain introductions, especially the introduction to Miss Brooke,

    whose youthful bloom, with her approaching marriage to that faded

    scholar, and her interest in matters socially useful, gave her the

    piquancy of an unusual combination.

    "She is a good creature—that fine girl—but a little too earnest," he

    thought. "It is troublesome to talk to such women. They are always

    wanting reasons, yet they are too ignorant to understand the merits of

    any question, and usually fall back on their moral sense to settle

    things after their own taste."

    Evidently Miss Brooke was not Mr. Lydgate's style of woman any more

    than Mr. Chichely's. Considered, indeed, in relation to the latter,

    whose mind was matured, she was altogether a mistake, and calculated to

    shock his trust in final causes, including the adaptation of fine young

    women to purplefaced bachelors. But Lydgate was less ripe, and might

    possibly have experience before him which would modify his opinion as

    to the most excellent things in woman.

    Miss Brooke, however, was not again seen by either of these gentlemen

    under her maiden name. Not long after that dinner-party she had become

    Mrs. Casaubon, and was on her way to Rome.


    "But deeds and language such as men do use,
    And persons such as comedy would choose,
    When she would show an image of the times,
    And sport with human follies, not with crimes."

    Lydgate, in fact, was already conscious of being fascinated by a woman

    strikingly different from Miss Brooke: he did not in the least suppose

    that he had lost his balance and fallen in love, but he had said of

    that particular woman, "She is grace itself; she is perfectly lovely

    and accomplished. That is what a woman ought to be: she ought to

    produce the effect of exquisite music." Plain women he regarded as he

    did the other severe facts of life, to be faced with philosophy and

    investigated by science. But Rosamond Vincy seemed to have the true

    melodic charm; and when a man has seen the woman whom he would have

    chosen if he had intended to marry speedily, his remaining a bachelor

    will usually depend on her resolution rather than on his. Lydgate

    believed that he should not marry for several years: not marry until he

    had trodden out a good clear path for himself away from the broad road

    which was quite ready made. He had seen Miss Vincy above his horizon

    almost as long as it had taken Mr. Casaubon to become engaged and

    married: but this learned gentleman was possessed of a fortune; he had

    assembled his voluminous notes, and had made that sort of reputation

    which precedes performance,—often the larger part of a man's fame. He

    took a wife, as we have seen, to adorn the remaining quadrant of his

    course, and be a little moon that would cause hardly a calculable

    perturbation. But Lydgate was young, poor, ambitious. He had his

    half-century before him instead of behind him, and he had come to

    Middlemarch bent on doing many things that were not directly fitted to

    make his fortune or even secure him a good income. To a man under such

    circumstances, taking a wife is something more than a question of

    adornment, however highly he may rate this; and Lydgate was disposed to

    give it the first place among wifely functions. To his taste, guided

    by a single conversation, here was the point on which Miss Brooke would

    be found wanting, notwithstanding her undeniable beauty. She did not

    look at things from the proper feminine angle. The society of such

    women was about as relaxing as going from your work to teach the second

    form, instead of reclining in a paradise with sweet laughs for

    bird-notes, and blue eyes for a heaven.

    Certainly nothing at present could seem much less important to Lydgate

    than the turn of Miss Brooke's mind, or to Miss Brooke than the

    qualities of the woman who had attracted this young surgeon. But any

    one watching keenly the stealthy convergence of human lots, sees a slow

    preparation of effects from one life on another, which tells like a

    calculated irony on the indifference or the frozen stare with which we

    look at our unintroduced neighbor. Destiny stands by sarcastic with

    our dramatis personae folded in her hand.

    Old provincial society had its share of this subtle movement: had not

    only its striking downfalls, its brilliant young professional dandies

    who ended by living up an entry with a drab and six children for their

    establishment, but also those less marked vicissitudes which are

    constantly shifting the boundaries of social intercourse, and begetting

    new consciousness of interdependence. Some slipped a little downward,

    some got higher footing: people denied aspirates, gained wealth, and

    fastidious gentlemen stood for boroughs; some were caught in political

    currents, some in ecclesiastical, and perhaps found themselves

    surprisingly grouped in consequence; while a few personages or families

    that stood with rocky firmness amid all this fluctuation, were slowly

    presenting new aspects in spite of solidity, and altering with the

    double change of self and beholder. Municipal town and rural parish

    gradually made fresh threads of connection—gradually, as the old

    stocking gave way to the savings-bank, and the worship of the solar

    guinea became extinct; while squires and baronets, and even lords who

    had once lived blamelessly afar from the civic mind, gathered the

    faultiness of closer acquaintanceship. Settlers, too, came from

    distant counties, some with an alarming novelty of skill, others with

    an offensive advantage in cunning. In fact, much the same sort of

    movement and mixture went on in old England as we find in older

    Herodotus, who also, in telling what had been, thought it well to take

    a woman's lot for his starting-point; though Io, as a maiden apparently

    beguiled by attractive merchandise, was the reverse of Miss Brooke, and

    in this respect perhaps bore more resemblance to Rosamond Vincy, who

    had excellent taste in costume, with that nymph-like figure and pure

    blindness which give the largest range to choice in the flow and color

    of drapery. But these things made only part of her charm. She was

    admitted to be the flower of Mrs. Lemon's school, the chief school in

    the county, where the teaching included all that was demanded in the

    accomplished female—even to extras, such as the getting in and out of

    a carriage. Mrs. Lemon herself had always held up Miss Vincy as an

    example: no pupil, she said, exceeded that young lady for mental

    acquisition and propriety of speech, while her musical execution was

    quite exceptional. We cannot help the way in which people speak of us,

    and probably if Mrs. Lemon had undertaken to describe Juliet or Imogen,

    these heroines would not have seemed poetical. The first vision of

    Rosamond would have been enough with most judges to dispel any

    prejudice excited by Mrs. Lemon's praise.

    Lydgate could not be long in Middlemarch without having that agreeable

    vision, or even without making the acquaintance of the Vincy family;

    for though Mr. Peacock, whose practice he had paid something to enter

    on, had not been their doctor (Mrs. Vincy not liking the lowering

    system adopted by him), he had many patients among their connections

    and acquaintances. For who of any consequence in Middlemarch was not

    connected or at least acquainted with the Vincys? They were old

    manufacturers, and had kept a good house for three generations, in

    which there had naturally been much intermarrying with neighbors more

    or less decidedly genteel. Mr. Vincy's sister had made a wealthy match

    in accepting Mr. Bulstrode, who, however, as a man not born in the

    town, and altogether of dimly known origin, was considered to have done

    well in uniting himself with a real Middlemarch family; on the other

    hand, Mr. Vincy had descended a little, having taken an innkeeper's

    daughter. But on this side too there was a cheering sense of money;

    for Mrs. Vincy's sister had been second wife to rich old Mr.

    Featherstone, and had died childless years ago, so that her nephews and

    nieces might be supposed to touch the affections of the widower. And

    it happened that Mr. Bulstrode and Mr. Featherstone, two of Peacock's

    most important patients, had, from different causes, given an

    especially good reception to his successor, who had raised some

    partisanship as well as discussion. Mr. Wrench, medical attendant to

    the Vincy family, very early had grounds for thinking lightly of

    Lydgate's professional discretion, and there was no report about him

    which was not retailed at the Vincys', where visitors were frequent.

    Mr. Vincy was more inclined to general good-fellowship than to taking

    sides, but there was no need for him to be hasty in making any new man

    acquaintance. Rosamond silently wished that her father would invite

    Mr. Lydgate. She was tired of the faces and figures she had always

    been used to—the various irregular profiles and gaits and turns of

    phrase distinguishing those Middlemarch young men whom she had known as

    boys. She had been at school with girls of higher position, whose

    brothers, she felt sure, it would have been possible for her to be more

    interested in, than in these inevitable Middlemarch companions. But

    she would not have chosen to mention her wish to her father; and he,

    for his part, was in no hurry on the subject. An alderman about to be

    mayor must by-and-by enlarge his dinner-parties, but at present there

    were plenty of guests at his well-spread table.

    That table often remained covered with the relics of the family

    breakfast long after Mr. Vincy had gone with his second son to the

    warehouse, and when Miss Morgan was already far on in morning lessons

    with the younger girls in the schoolroom. It awaited the family

    laggard, who found any sort of inconvenience (to others) less

    disagreeable than getting up when he was called. This was the case one

    morning of the October in which we have lately seen Mr. Casaubon

    visiting the Grange; and though the room was a little overheated with

    the fire, which had sent the spaniel panting to a remote corner,

    Rosamond, for some reason, continued to sit at her embroidery longer

    than usual, now and then giving herself a little shake, and laying her

    work on her knee to contemplate it with an air of hesitating weariness.

    Her mamma, who had returned from an excursion to the kitchen, sat on

    the other side of the small work-table with an air of more entire

    placidity, until, the clock again giving notice that it was going to

    strike, she looked up from the lace-mending which was occupying her

    plump fingers and rang the bell.

    "Knock at Mr. Fred's door again, Pritchard, and tell him it has struck

    half-past ten."

    This was said without any change in the radiant good-humor of Mrs.

    Vincy's face, in which forty-five years had delved neither angles nor

    parallels; and pushing back her pink capstrings, she let her work rest

    on her lap, while she looked admiringly at her daughter.

    "Mamma," said Rosamond, "when Fred comes down I wish you would not let

    him have red herrings. I cannot bear the smell of them all over the

    house at this hour of the morning."

    "Oh, my dear, you are so hard on your brothers! It is the only fault I

    have to find with you. You are the sweetest temper in the world, but

    you are so tetchy with your brothers."

    "Not tetchy, mamma: you never hear me speak in an unladylike way."

    "Well, but you want to deny them things."

    "Brothers are so unpleasant."

    "Oh, my dear, you must allow for young men. Be thankful if they have

    good hearts. A woman must learn to put up with little things. You

    will be married some day."

    "Not to any one who is like Fred."

    "Don't decry your own brother, my dear. Few young men have less

    against them, although he couldn't take his degree—I'm sure I can't

    understand why, for he seems to me most clever. And you know yourself

    he was thought equal to the best society at college. So particular as

    you are, my dear, I wonder you are not glad to have such a gentlemanly

    young man for a brother. You are always finding fault with Bob because

    he is not Fred."

    "Oh no, mamma, only because he is Bob."

    "Well, my dear, you will not find any Middlemarch young man who has not

    something against him."

    "But"—here Rosamond's face broke into a smile which suddenly revealed

    two dimples. She herself thought unfavorably of these dimples and

    smiled little in general society. "But I shall not marry any

    Middlemarch young man."

    "So it seems, my love, for you have as good as refused the pick of

    them; and if there's better to be had, I'm sure there's no girl better

    deserves it."

    "Excuse me, mamma—I wish you would not say, 'the pick of them.'"

    "Why, what else are they?"

    "I mean, mamma, it is rather a vulgar expression."

    "Very likely, my dear; I never was a good speaker. What should I say?"

    "The best of them."

    "Why, that seems just as plain and common. If I had had time to think,

    I should have said, 'the most superior young men.' But with your

    education you must know."

    "What must Rosy know, mother?" said Mr. Fred, who had slid in

    unobserved through the half-open door while the ladies were bending

    over their work, and now going up to the fire stood with his back

    towards it, warming the soles of his slippers.

    "Whether it's right to say 'superior young men,'" said Mrs. Vincy,

    ringing the bell.

    "Oh, there are so many superior teas and sugars now. Superior is

    getting to be shopkeepers' slang."

    "Are you beginning to dislike slang, then?" said Rosamond, with mild


    "Only the wrong sort. All choice of words is slang. It marks a class."

    "There is correct English: that is not slang."

    "I beg your pardon: correct English is the slang of prigs who write

    history and essays. And the strongest slang of all is the slang of


    "You will say anything, Fred, to gain your point."

    "Well, tell me whether it is slang or poetry to call an ox a


    "Of course you can call it poetry if you like."

    "Aha, Miss Rosy, you don't know Homer from slang. I shall invent a new

    game; I shall write bits of slang and poetry on slips, and give them to

    you to separate."

    "Dear me, how amusing it is to hear young people talk!" said Mrs.

    Vincy, with cheerful admiration.

    "Have you got nothing else for my breakfast, Pritchard?" said Fred, to

    the servant who brought in coffee and buttered toast; while he walked

    round the table surveying the ham, potted beef, and other cold

    remnants, with an air of silent rejection, and polite forbearance from

    signs of disgust.

    "Should you like eggs, sir?"

    "Eggs, no! Bring me a grilled bone."

    "Really, Fred," said Rosamond, when the servant had left the room, "if

    you must have hot things for breakfast, I wish you would come down

    earlier. You can get up at six o'clock to go out hunting; I cannot

    understand why you find it so difficult to get up on other mornings."

    "That is your want of understanding, Rosy. I can get up to go hunting

    because I like it."

    "What would you think of me if I came down two hours after every one

    else and ordered grilled bone?"

    "I should think you were an uncommonly fast young lady," said Fred,

    eating his toast with the utmost composure.

    "I cannot see why brothers are to make themselves disagreeable, any

    more than sisters."

    "I don't make myself disagreeable; it is you who find me so.

    Disagreeable is a word that describes your feelings and not my actions."

    "I think it describes the smell of grilled bone."

    "Not at all. It describes a sensation in your little nose associated

    with certain finicking notions which are the classics of Mrs. Lemon's

    school. Look at my mother; you don't see her objecting to everything

    except what she does herself. She is my notion of a pleasant woman."

    "Bless you both, my dears, and don't quarrel," said Mrs. Vincy, with

    motherly cordiality. "Come, Fred, tell us all about the new doctor.

    How is your uncle pleased with him?"

    "Pretty well, I think. He asks Lydgate all sorts of questions and then

    screws up his face while he hears the answers, as if they were pinching

    his toes. That's his way. Ah, here comes my grilled bone."

    "But how came you to stay out so late, my dear? You only said you were

    going to your uncle's."

    "Oh, I dined at Plymdale's. We had whist. Lydgate was there too."

    "And what do you think of him? He is very gentlemanly, I suppose.

    They say he is of excellent family—his relations quite county people."

    "Yes," said Fred. "There was a Lydgate at John's who spent no end of

    money. I find this man is a second cousin of his. But rich men may

    have very poor devils for second cousins."

    "It always makes a difference, though, to be of good family," said

    Rosamond, with a tone of decision which showed that she had thought on

    this subject. Rosamond felt that she might have been happier if she

    had not been the daughter of a Middlemarch manufacturer. She disliked

    anything which reminded her that her mother's father had been an

    innkeeper. Certainly any one remembering the fact might think that

    Mrs. Vincy had the air of a very handsome good-humored landlady,

    accustomed to the most capricious orders of gentlemen.

    "I thought it was odd his name was Tertius," said the bright-faced

    matron, "but of course it's a name in the family. But now, tell us

    exactly what sort of man he is."

    "Oh, tallish, dark, clever—talks well—rather a prig, I think."

    "I never can make out what you mean by a prig," said Rosamond.

    "A fellow who wants to show that he has opinions."

    "Why, my dear, doctors must have opinions," said Mrs. Vincy. "What are

    they there for else?"

    "Yes, mother, the opinions they are paid for. But a prig is a fellow

    who is always making you a present of his opinions."

    "I suppose Mary Garth admires Mr. Lydgate," said Rosamond, not without

    a touch of innuendo.

    "Really, I can't say." said Fred, rather glumly, as he left the table,

    and taking up a novel which he had brought down with him, threw himself

    into an arm-chair. "If you are jealous of her, go oftener to Stone

    Court yourself and eclipse her."

    "I wish you would not be so vulgar, Fred. If you have finished, pray

    ring the bell."

    "It is true, though—what your brother says, Rosamond," Mrs. Vincy

    began, when the servant had cleared the table. "It is a thousand

    pities you haven't patience to go and see your uncle more, so proud of

    you as he is, and wanted you to live with him. There's no knowing what

    he might have done for you as well as for Fred. God knows, I'm fond of

    having you at home with me, but I can part with my children for their

    good. And now it stands to reason that your uncle Featherstone will do

    something for Mary Garth."

    "Mary Garth can bear being at Stone Court, because she likes that

    better than being a governess," said Rosamond, folding up her work. "I

    would rather not have anything left to me if I must earn it by enduring

    much of my uncle's cough and his ugly relations."

    "He can't be long for this world, my dear; I wouldn't hasten his end,

    but what with asthma and that inward complaint, let us hope there is

    something better for him in another. And I have no ill-will toward's

    Mary Garth, but there's justice to be thought of. And Mr.

    Featherstone's first wife brought him no money, as my sister did. Her

    nieces and nephews can't have so much claim as my sister's. And I must

    say I think Mary Garth a dreadful plain girl—more fit for a governess."

    "Every one would not agree with you there, mother," said Fred, who

    seemed to be able to read and listen too.

    "Well, my dear," said Mrs. Vincy, wheeling skilfully, "if she had

    some fortune left her,—a man marries his wife's relations, and the

    Garths are so poor, and live in such a small way. But I shall leave

    you to your studies, my dear; for I must go and do some shopping."

    "Fred's studies are not very deep," said Rosamond, rising with her

    mamma, "he is only reading a novel."

    "Well, well, by-and-by he'll go to his Latin and things," said Mrs.

    Vincy, soothingly, stroking her son's head. "There's a fire in the

    smoking-room on purpose. It's your father's wish, you know—Fred, my

    dear—and I always tell him you will be good, and go to college again

    to take your degree."

    Fred drew his mother's hand down to his lips, but said nothing.

    "I suppose you are not going out riding to-day?" said Rosamond,

    lingering a little after her mamma was gone.

    "No; why?"

    "Papa says I may have the chestnut to ride now."

    "You can go with me to-morrow, if you like. Only I am going to Stone

    Court, remember."

    "I want to ride so much, it is indifferent to me where we go." Rosamond

    really wished to go to Stone Court, of all other places.

    "Oh, I say, Rosy," said Fred, as she was passing out of the room, "if

    you are going to the piano, let me come and play some airs with you."

    "Pray do not ask me this morning."

    "Why not this morning?"

    "Really, Fred, I wish you would leave off playing the flute. A man

    looks very silly playing the flute. And you play so out of tune."

    "When next any one makes love to you, Miss Rosamond, I will tell him

    how obliging you are."

    "Why should you expect me to oblige you by hearing you play the flute,

    any more than I should expect you to oblige me by not playing it?"

    "And why should you expect me to take you out riding?"

    This question led to an adjustment, for Rosamond had set her mind on

    that particular ride.

    So Fred was gratified with nearly an hour's practice of "Ar hyd y nos,"

    "Ye banks and braes," and other favorite airs from his "Instructor on

    the Flute;" a wheezy performance, into which he threw much ambition and

    an irrepressible hopefulness.


    "He had more tow on his distaffe
    Than Gerveis knew."

    The ride to Stone Court, which Fred and Rosamond took the next morning,

    lay through a pretty bit of midland landscape, almost all meadows and

    pastures, with hedgerows still allowed to grow in bushy beauty and to

    spread out coral fruit for the birds. Little details gave each field a

    particular physiognomy, dear to the eyes that have looked on them from

    childhood: the pool in the corner where the grasses were dank and trees

    leaned whisperingly; the great oak shadowing a bare place in

    mid-pasture; the high bank where the ash-trees grew; the sudden slope

    of the old marl-pit making a red background for the burdock; the

    huddled roofs and ricks of the homestead without a traceable way of

    approach; the gray gate and fences against the depths of the bordering

    wood; and the stray hovel, its old, old thatch full of mossy hills and

    valleys with wondrous modulations of light and shadow such as we travel

    far to see in later life, and see larger, but not more beautiful.

    These are the things that make the gamut of joy in landscape to

    midland-bred souls—the things they toddled among, or perhaps learned

    by heart standing between their father's knees while he drove leisurely.

    But the road, even the byroad, was excellent; for Lowick, as we have

    seen, was not a parish of muddy lanes and poor tenants; and it was into

    Lowick parish that Fred and Rosamond entered after a couple of miles'

    riding. Another mile would bring them to Stone Court, and at the end

    of the first half, the house was already visible, looking as if it had

    been arrested in its growth toward a stone mansion by an unexpected

    budding of farm-buildings on its left flank, which had hindered it from

    becoming anything more than the substantial dwelling of a gentleman

    farmer. It was not the less agreeable an object in the distance for

    the cluster of pinnacled corn-ricks which balanced the fine row of

    walnuts on the right.

    Presently it was possible to discern something that might be a gig on

    the circular drive before the front door.

    "Dear me," said Rosamond, "I hope none of my uncle's horrible relations

    are there."

    "They are, though. That is Mrs. Waule's gig—the last yellow gig left,

    I should think. When I see Mrs. Waule in it, I understand how yellow

    can have been worn for mourning. That gig seems to me more funereal

    than a hearse. But then Mrs. Waule always has black crape on. How

    does she manage it, Rosy? Her friends can't always be dying."

    "I don't know at all. And she is not in the least evangelical," said

    Rosamond, reflectively, as if that religious point of view would have

    fully accounted for perpetual crape. "And, not poor," she added, after

    a moment's pause.

    "No, by George! They are as rich as Jews, those Waules and

    Featherstones; I mean, for people like them, who don't want to spend

    anything. And yet they hang about my uncle like vultures, and are

    afraid of a farthing going away from their side of the family. But I

    believe he hates them all."

    The Mrs. Waule who was so far from being admirable in the eyes of these

    distant connections, had happened to say this very morning (not at all

    with a defiant air, but in a low, muffled, neutral tone, as of a voice

    heard through cotton wool) that she did not wish "to enjoy their good

    opinion." She was seated, as she observed, on her own brother's hearth,

    and had been Jane Featherstone five-and-twenty years before she had

    been Jane Waule, which entitled her to speak when her own brother's

    name had been made free with by those who had no right to it.

    "What are you driving at there?" said Mr. Featherstone, holding his

    stick between his knees and settling his wig, while he gave her a

    momentary sharp glance, which seemed to react on him like a draught of

    cold air and set him coughing.

    Mrs. Waule had to defer her answer till he was quiet again, till Mary

    Garth had supplied him with fresh syrup, and he had begun to rub the

    gold knob of his stick, looking bitterly at the fire. It was a bright

    fire, but it made no difference to the chill-looking purplish tint of

    Mrs. Waule's face, which was as neutral as her voice; having mere

    chinks for eyes, and lips that hardly moved in speaking.

    "The doctors can't master that cough, brother. It's just like what I

    have; for I'm your own sister, constitution and everything. But, as I

    was saying, it's a pity Mrs. Vincy's family can't be better conducted."

    "Tchah! you said nothing o' the sort. You said somebody had made free

    with my name."

    "And no more than can be proved, if what everybody says is true. My

    brother Solomon tells me it's the talk up and down in Middlemarch how

    unsteady young Vincy is, and has been forever gambling at billiards

    since home he came."

    "Nonsense! What's a game at billiards? It's a good gentlemanly game;

    and young Vincy is not a clodhopper. If your son John took to

    billiards, now, he'd make a fool of himself."

    "Your nephew John never took to billiards or any other game, brother,

    and is far from losing hundreds of pounds, which, if what everybody

    says is true, must be found somewhere else than out of Mr. Vincy the

    father's pocket. For they say he's been losing money for years, though

    nobody would think so, to see him go coursing and keeping open house as

    they do. And I've heard say Mr. Bulstrode condemns Mrs. Vincy beyond

    anything for her flightiness, and spoiling her children so."

    "What's Bulstrode to me? I don't bank with him."

    "Well, Mrs. Bulstrode is Mr. Vincy's own sister, and they do say that

    Mr. Vincy mostly trades on the Bank money; and you may see yourself,

    brother, when a woman past forty has pink strings always flying, and

    that light way of laughing at everything, it's very unbecoming. But

    indulging your children is one thing, and finding money to pay their

    debts is another. And it's openly said that young Vincy has raised

    money on his expectations. I don't say what expectations. Miss Garth

    hears me, and is welcome to tell again. I know young people hang


    "No, thank you, Mrs. Waule," said Mary Garth. "I dislike hearing

    scandal too much to wish to repeat it."

    Mr. Featherstone rubbed the knob of his stick and made a brief

    convulsive show of laughter, which had much the same genuineness as an

    old whist-player's chuckle over a bad hand. Still looking at the fire,

    he said—

    "And who pretends to say Fred Vincy hasn't got expectations? Such a

    fine, spirited fellow is like enough to have 'em."

    There was a slight pause before Mrs. Waule replied, and when she did

    so, her voice seemed to be slightly moistened with tears, though her

    face was still dry.

    "Whether or no, brother, it is naturally painful to me and my brother

    Solomon to hear your name made free with, and your complaint being such

    as may carry you off sudden, and people who are no more Featherstones

    than the Merry-Andrew at the fair, openly reckoning on your property

    coming to them. And me your own sister, and Solomon your own

    brother! And if that's to be it, what has it pleased the Almighty to

    make families for?" Here Mrs. Waule's tears fell, but with moderation.

    "Come, out with it, Jane!" said Mr. Featherstone, looking at her. "You

    mean to say, Fred Vincy has been getting somebody to advance him money

    on what he says he knows about my will, eh?"

    "I never said so, brother" (Mrs. Waule's voice had again become dry and

    unshaken). "It was told me by my brother Solomon last night when he

    called coming from market to give me advice about the old wheat, me

    being a widow, and my son John only three-and-twenty, though steady

    beyond anything. And he had it from most undeniable authority, and not

    one, but many."

    "Stuff and nonsense! I don't believe a word of it. It's all a got-up

    story. Go to the window, missy; I thought I heard a horse. See if the

    doctor's coming."

    "Not got up by me, brother, nor yet by Solomon, who, whatever else he

    may be—and I don't deny he has oddities—has made his will and parted

    his property equal between such kin as he's friends with; though, for

    my part, I think there are times when some should be considered more

    than others. But Solomon makes it no secret what he means to do."

    "The more fool he!" said Mr. Featherstone, with some difficulty;

    breaking into a severe fit of coughing that required Mary Garth to

    stand near him, so that she did not find out whose horses they were

    which presently paused stamping on the gravel before the door.

    Before Mr. Featherstone's cough was quiet, Rosamond entered, bearing up

    her riding-habit with much grace. She bowed ceremoniously to Mrs.

    Waule, who said stiffly, "How do you do, miss?" smiled and nodded

    silently to Mary, and remained standing till the coughing should cease,

    and allow her uncle to notice her.

    "Heyday, miss!" he said at last, "you have a fine color. Where's Fred?"

    "Seeing about the horses. He will be in presently."

    "Sit down, sit down. Mrs. Waule, you'd better go."

    Even those neighbors who had called Peter Featherstone an old fox, had

    never accused him of being insincerely polite, and his sister was quite

    used to the peculiar absence of ceremony with which he marked his sense

    of blood-relationship. Indeed, she herself was accustomed to think that

    entire freedom from the necessity of behaving agreeably was included in

    the Almighty's intentions about families. She rose slowly without any

    sign of resentment, and said in her usual muffled monotone, "Brother, I

    hope the new doctor will be able to do something for you. Solomon says

    there's great talk of his cleverness. I'm sure it's my wish you should

    be spared. And there's none more ready to nurse you than your own

    sister and your own nieces, if you'd only say the word. There's

    Rebecca, and Joanna, and Elizabeth, you know."

    "Ay, ay, I remember—you'll see I've remembered 'em all—all dark and

    ugly. They'd need have some money, eh? There never was any beauty in

    the women of our family; but the Featherstones have always had some

    money, and the Waules too. Waule had money too. A warm man was Waule.

    Ay, ay; money's a good egg; and if you 've got money to leave behind

    you, lay it in a warm nest. Good-by, Mrs. Waule." Here Mr.

    Featherstone pulled at both sides of his wig as if he wanted to deafen

    himself, and his sister went away ruminating on this oracular speech of

    his. Notwithstanding her jealousy of the Vincys and of Mary Garth,

    there remained as the nethermost sediment in her mental shallows a

    persuasion that her brother Peter Featherstone could never leave his

    chief property away from his blood-relations:—else, why had the

    Almighty carried off his two wives both childless, after he had gained

    so much by manganese and things, turning up when nobody expected

    it?—and why was there a Lowick parish church, and the Waules and

    Powderells all sitting in the same pew for generations, and the

    Featherstone pew next to them, if, the Sunday after her brother Peter's

    death, everybody was to know that the property was gone out of the

    family? The human mind has at no period accepted a moral chaos; and so

    preposterous a result was not strictly conceivable. But we are

    frightened at much that is not strictly conceivable.

    When Fred came in the old man eyed him with a peculiar twinkle, which

    the younger had often had reason to interpret as pride in the

    satisfactory details of his appearance.

    "You two misses go away," said Mr. Featherstone. "I want to speak to


    "Come into my room, Rosamond, you will not mind the cold for a little

    while," said Mary. The two girls had not only known each other in

    childhood, but had been at the same provincial school together (Mary as

    an articled pupil), so that they had many memories in common, and liked

    very well to talk in private. Indeed, this tete-a-tete was one of

    Rosamond's objects in coming to Stone Court.

    Old Featherstone would not begin the dialogue till the door had been

    closed. He continued to look at Fred with the same twinkle and with

    one of his habitual grimaces, alternately screwing and widening his

    mouth; and when he spoke, it was in a low tone, which might be taken

    for that of an informer ready to be bought off, rather than for the

    tone of an offended senior. He was not a man to feel any strong moral

    indignation even on account of trespasses against himself. It was

    natural that others should want to get an advantage over him, but then,

    he was a little too cunning for them.

    "So, sir, you've been paying ten per cent for money which you've

    promised to pay off by mortgaging my land when I'm dead and gone, eh?

    You put my life at a twelvemonth, say. But I can alter my will yet."

    Fred blushed. He had not borrowed money in that way, for excellent

    reasons. But he was conscious of having spoken with some confidence

    (perhaps with more than he exactly remembered) about his prospect of

    getting Featherstone's land as a future means of paying present debts.

    "I don't know what you refer to, sir. I have certainly never borrowed

    any money on such an insecurity. Please do explain."

    "No, sir, it's you must explain. I can alter my will yet, let me tell

    you. I'm of sound mind—can reckon compound interest in my head, and

    remember every fool's name as well as I could twenty years ago. What

    the deuce? I'm under eighty. I say, you must contradict this story."

    "I have contradicted it, sir," Fred answered, with a touch of

    impatience, not remembering that his uncle did not verbally

    discriminate contradicting from disproving, though no one was further

    from confounding the two ideas than old Featherstone, who often

    wondered that so many fools took his own assertions for proofs. "But I

    contradict it again. The story is a silly lie."

    "Nonsense! you must bring dockiments. It comes from authority."

    "Name the authority, and make him name the man of whom I borrowed the

    money, and then I can disprove the story."

    "It's pretty good authority, I think—a man who knows most of what goes

    on in Middlemarch. It's that fine, religious, charitable uncle o'

    yours. Come now!" Here Mr. Featherstone had his peculiar inward shake

    which signified merriment.

    "Mr. Bulstrode?"

    "Who else, eh?"

    "Then the story has grown into this lie out of some sermonizing words

    he may have let fall about me. Do they pretend that he named the man

    who lent me the money?"

    "If there is such a man, depend upon it Bulstrode knows him. But,

    supposing you only tried to get the money lent, and didn't get

    it—Bulstrode 'ud know that too. You bring me a writing from Bulstrode

    to say he doesn't believe you've ever promised to pay your debts out o'

    my land. Come now!"

    Mr. Featherstone's face required its whole scale of grimaces as a

    muscular outlet to his silent triumph in the soundness of his faculties.

    Fred felt himself to be in a disgusting dilemma.

    "You must be joking, sir. Mr. Bulstrode, like other men, believes

    scores of things that are not true, and he has a prejudice against me.

    I could easily get him to write that he knew no facts in proof of the

    report you speak of, though it might lead to unpleasantness. But I

    could hardly ask him to write down what he believes or does not believe

    about me." Fred paused an instant, and then added, in politic appeal to

    his uncle's vanity, "That is hardly a thing for a gentleman to ask."

    But he was disappointed in the result.

    "Ay, I know what you mean. You'd sooner offend me than Bulstrode. And

    what's he?—he's got no land hereabout that ever I heard tell of. A

    speckilating fellow! He may come down any day, when the devil leaves

    off backing him. And that's what his religion means: he wants God

    A'mighty to come in. That's nonsense! There's one thing I made out

    pretty clear when I used to go to church—and it's this: God A'mighty

    sticks to the land. He promises land, and He gives land, and He makes

    chaps rich with corn and cattle. But you take the other side. You

    like Bulstrode and speckilation better than Featherstone and land."

    "I beg your pardon, sir," said Fred, rising, standing with his back to

    the fire and beating his boot with his whip. "I like neither Bulstrode

    nor speculation." He spoke rather sulkily, feeling himself stalemated.

    "Well, well, you can do without me, that's pretty clear," said old

    Featherstone, secretly disliking the possibility that Fred would show

    himself at all independent. "You neither want a bit of land to make a

    squire of you instead of a starving parson, nor a lift of a hundred

    pound by the way. It's all one to me. I can make five codicils if I

    like, and I shall keep my bank-notes for a nest-egg. It's all one to


    Fred colored again. Featherstone had rarely given him presents of

    money, and at this moment it seemed almost harder to part with the

    immediate prospect of bank-notes than with the more distant prospect of

    the land.

    "I am not ungrateful, sir. I never meant to show disregard for any

    kind intentions you might have towards me. On the contrary."

    "Very good. Then prove it. You bring me a letter from Bulstrode

    saying he doesn't believe you've been cracking and promising to pay

    your debts out o' my land, and then, if there's any scrape you've got

    into, we'll see if I can't back you a bit. Come now! That's a

    bargain. Here, give me your arm. I'll try and walk round the room."

    Fred, in spite of his irritation, had kindness enough in him to be a

    little sorry for the unloved, unvenerated old man, who with his

    dropsical legs looked more than usually pitiable in walking. While

    giving his arm, he thought that he should not himself like to be an old

    fellow with his constitution breaking up; and he waited

    good-temperedly, first before the window to hear the wonted remarks

    about the guinea-fowls and the weather-cock, and then before the scanty

    book-shelves, of which the chief glories in dark calf were Josephus,

    Culpepper, Klopstock's "Messiah," and several volumes of the

    "Gentleman's Magazine."

    "Read me the names o' the books. Come now! you're a college man."

    Fred gave him the titles.

    "What did missy want with more books? What must you be bringing her

    more books for?"

    "They amuse her, sir. She is very fond of reading."

    "A little too fond," said Mr. Featherstone, captiously. "She was for

    reading when she sat with me. But I put a stop to that. She's got the

    newspaper to read out loud. That's enough for one day, I should think.

    I can't abide to see her reading to herself. You mind and not bring

    her any more books, do you hear?"

    "Yes, sir, I hear." Fred had received this order before, and had

    secretly disobeyed it. He intended to disobey it again.

    "Ring the bell," said Mr. Featherstone; "I want missy to come down."

    Rosamond and Mary had been talking faster than their male friends.

    They did not think of sitting down, but stood at the toilet-table near

    the window while Rosamond took off her hat, adjusted her veil, and

    applied little touches of her finger-tips to her hair—hair of

    infantine fairness, neither flaxen nor yellow. Mary Garth seemed all

    the plainer standing at an angle between the two nymphs—the one in the

    glass, and the one out of it, who looked at each other with eyes of

    heavenly blue, deep enough to hold the most exquisite meanings an

    ingenious beholder could put into them, and deep enough to hide the

    meanings of the owner if these should happen to be less exquisite.

    Only a few children in Middlemarch looked blond by the side of

    Rosamond, and the slim figure displayed by her riding-habit had

    delicate undulations. In fact, most men in Middlemarch, except her

    brothers, held that Miss Vincy was the best girl in the world, and some

    called her an angel. Mary Garth, on the contrary, had the aspect of an

    ordinary sinner: she was brown; her curly dark hair was rough and

    stubborn; her stature was low; and it would not be true to declare, in

    satisfactory antithesis, that she had all the virtues. Plainness has

    its peculiar temptations and vices quite as much as beauty; it is apt

    either to feign amiability, or, not feigning it, to show all the

    repulsiveness of discontent: at any rate, to be called an ugly thing in

    contrast with that lovely creature your companion, is apt to produce

    some effect beyond a sense of fine veracity and fitness in the phrase.

    At the age of two-and-twenty Mary had certainly not attained that

    perfect good sense and good principle which are usually recommended to

    the less fortunate girl, as if they were to be obtained in quantities

    ready mixed, with a flavor of resignation as required. Her shrewdness

    had a streak of satiric bitterness continually renewed and never

    carried utterly out of sight, except by a strong current of gratitude

    towards those who, instead of telling her that she ought to be

    contented, did something to make her so. Advancing womanhood had

    tempered her plainness, which was of a good human sort, such as the

    mothers of our race have very commonly worn in all latitudes under a

    more or less becoming headgear. Rembrandt would have painted her with

    pleasure, and would have made her broad features look out of the canvas

    with intelligent honesty. For honesty, truth-telling fairness, was

    Mary's reigning virtue: she neither tried to create illusions, nor

    indulged in them for her own behoof, and when she was in a good mood

    she had humor enough in her to laugh at herself. When she and Rosamond

    happened both to be reflected in the glass, she said, laughingly—

    "What a brown patch I am by the side of you, Rosy! You are the most

    unbecoming companion."

    "Oh no! No one thinks of your appearance, you are so sensible and

    useful, Mary. Beauty is of very little consequence in reality," said

    Rosamond, turning her head towards Mary, but with eyes swerving towards

    the new view of her neck in the glass.

    "You mean my beauty," said Mary, rather sardonically.

    Rosamond thought, "Poor Mary, she takes the kindest things ill." Aloud

    she said, "What have you been doing lately?"

    "I? Oh, minding the house—pouring out syrup—pretending to be amiable

    and contented—learning to have a bad opinion of everybody."

    "It is a wretched life for you."

    "No," said Mary, curtly, with a little toss of her head. "I think my

    life is pleasanter than your Miss Morgan's."

    "Yes; but Miss Morgan is so uninteresting, and not young."

    "She is interesting to herself, I suppose; and I am not at all sure

    that everything gets easier as one gets older."

    "No," said Rosamond, reflectively; "one wonders what such people do,

    without any prospect. To be sure, there is religion as a support.

    But," she added, dimpling, "it is very different with you, Mary. You

    may have an offer."

    "Has any one told you he means to make me one?"

    "Of course not. I mean, there is a gentleman who may fall in love with

    you, seeing you almost every day."

    A certain change in Mary's face was chiefly determined by the resolve

    not to show any change.

    "Does that always make people fall in love?" she answered, carelessly;

    "it seems to me quite as often a reason for detesting each other."

    "Not when they are interesting and agreeable. I hear that Mr. Lydgate

    is both."

    "Oh, Mr. Lydgate!" said Mary, with an unmistakable lapse into

    indifference. "You want to know something about him," she added, not

    choosing to indulge Rosamond's indirectness.

    "Merely, how you like him."

    "There is no question of liking at present. My liking always wants

    some little kindness to kindle it. I am not magnanimous enough to like

    people who speak to me without seeming to see me."

    "Is he so haughty?" said Rosamond, with heightened satisfaction. "You

    know that he is of good family?"

    "No; he did not give that as a reason."

    "Mary! you are the oddest girl. But what sort of looking man is he?

    Describe him to me."

    "How can one describe a man? I can give you an inventory: heavy

    eyebrows, dark eyes, a straight nose, thick dark hair, large solid

    white hands—and—let me see—oh, an exquisite cambric

    pocket-handkerchief. But you will see him. You know this is about the

    time of his visits."

    Rosamond blushed a little, but said, meditatively, "I rather like a

    haughty manner. I cannot endure a rattling young man."

    "I did not tell you that Mr. Lydgate was haughty; but il y en a pour

    tous les gouts, as little Mamselle used to say, and if any girl can

    choose the particular sort of conceit she would like, I should think it

    is you, Rosy."

    "Haughtiness is not conceit; I call Fred conceited."

    "I wish no one said any worse of him. He should be more careful. Mrs.

    Waule has been telling uncle that Fred is very unsteady." Mary spoke

    from a girlish impulse which got the better of her judgment. There was

    a vague uneasiness associated with the word "unsteady" which she hoped

    Rosamond might say something to dissipate. But she purposely abstained

    from mentioning Mrs. Waule's more special insinuation.

    "Oh, Fred is horrid!" said Rosamond. She would not have allowed

    herself so unsuitable a word to any one but Mary.

    "What do you mean by horrid?"

    "He is so idle, and makes papa so angry, and says he will not take


    "I think Fred is quite right."

    "How can you say he is quite right, Mary? I thought you had more sense

    of religion."

    "He is not fit to be a clergyman."

    "But he ought to be fit."—"Well, then, he is not what he ought to be.

    I know some other people who are in the same case."

    "But no one approves of them. I should not like to marry a clergyman;

    but there must be clergymen."

    "It does not follow that Fred must be one."

    "But when papa has been at the expense of educating him for it! And

    only suppose, if he should have no fortune left him?"

    "I can suppose that very well," said Mary, dryly.

    "Then I wonder you can defend Fred," said Rosamond, inclined to push

    this point.

    "I don't defend him," said Mary, laughing; "I would defend any parish

    from having him for a clergyman."

    "But of course if he were a clergyman, he must be different."

    "Yes, he would be a great hypocrite; and he is not that yet."

    "It is of no use saying anything to you, Mary. You always take Fred's


    "Why should I not take his part?" said Mary, lighting up. "He would

    take mine. He is the only person who takes the least trouble to oblige


    "You make me feel very uncomfortable, Mary," said Rosamond, with her

    gravest mildness; "I would not tell mamma for the world."

    "What would you not tell her?" said Mary, angrily.

    "Pray do not go into a rage, Mary," said Rosamond, mildly as ever.

    "If your mamma is afraid that Fred will make me an offer, tell her that

    I would not marry him if he asked me. But he is not going to do so,

    that I am aware. He certainly never has asked me."

    "Mary, you are always so violent."

    "And you are always so exasperating."

    "I? What can you blame me for?"

    "Oh, blameless people are always the most exasperating. There is the

    bell—I think we must go down."

    "I did not mean to quarrel," said Rosamond, putting on her hat.

    "Quarrel? Nonsense; we have not quarrelled. If one is not to get into

    a rage sometimes, what is the good of being friends?"

    "Am I to repeat what you have said?" "Just as you please. I never say

    what I am afraid of having repeated. But let us go down."

    Mr. Lydgate was rather late this morning, but the visitors stayed long

    enough to see him; for Mr. Featherstone asked Rosamond to sing to him,

    and she herself was so kind as to propose a second favorite song of

    his—"Flow on, thou shining river"—after she had sung "Home, sweet

    home" (which she detested). This hard-headed old Overreach approved of

    the sentimental song, as the suitable garnish for girls, and also as

    fundamentally fine, sentiment being the right thing for a song.

    Mr. Featherstone was still applauding the last performance, and

    assuring missy that her voice was as clear as a blackbird's, when Mr.

    Lydgate's horse passed the window.

    His dull expectation of the usual disagreeable routine with an aged

    patient—who can hardly believe that medicine would not "set him up" if

    the doctor were only clever enough—added to his general disbelief in

    Middlemarch charms, made a doubly effective background to this vision

    of Rosamond, whom old Featherstone made haste ostentatiously to

    introduce as his niece, though he had never thought it worth while to

    speak of Mary Garth in that light. Nothing escaped Lydgate in

    Rosamond's graceful behavior: how delicately she waived the notice

    which the old man's want of taste had thrust upon her by a quiet

    gravity, not showing her dimples on the wrong occasion, but showing

    them afterwards in speaking to Mary, to whom she addressed herself with

    so much good-natured interest, that Lydgate, after quickly examining

    Mary more fully than he had done before, saw an adorable kindness in

    Rosamond's eyes. But Mary from some cause looked rather out of temper.

    "Miss Rosy has been singing me a song—you've nothing to say against

    that, eh, doctor?" said Mr. Featherstone. "I like it better than your


    "That has made me forget how the time was going," said Rosamond, rising

    to reach her hat, which she had laid aside before singing, so that her

    flower-like head on its white stem was seen in perfection above-her

    riding-habit. "Fred, we must really go."

    "Very good," said Fred, who had his own reasons for not being in the

    best spirits, and wanted to get away.

    "Miss Vincy is a musician?" said Lydgate, following her with his eyes.

    (Every nerve and muscle in Rosamond was adjusted to the consciousness

    that she was being looked at. She was by nature an actress of parts

    that entered into her physique: she even acted her own character, and

    so well, that she did not know it to be precisely her own.)

    "The best in Middlemarch, I'll be bound," said Mr. Featherstone, "let

    the next be who she will. Eh, Fred? Speak up for your sister."

    "I'm afraid I'm out of court, sir. My evidence would be good for


    "Middlemarch has not a very high standard, uncle," said Rosamond, with

    a pretty lightness, going towards her whip, which lay at a distance.

    Lydgate was quick in anticipating her. He reached the whip before she

    did, and turned to present it to her. She bowed and looked at him: he

    of course was looking at her, and their eyes met with that peculiar

    meeting which is never arrived at by effort, but seems like a sudden

    divine clearance of haze. I think Lydgate turned a little paler than

    usual, but Rosamond blushed deeply and felt a certain astonishment.

    After that, she was really anxious to go, and did not know what sort of

    stupidity her uncle was talking of when she went to shake hands with


    Yet this result, which she took to be a mutual impression, called

    falling in love, was just what Rosamond had contemplated beforehand.

    Ever since that important new arrival in Middlemarch she had woven a

    little future, of which something like this scene was the necessary

    beginning. Strangers, whether wrecked and clinging to a raft, or duly

    escorted and accompanied by portmanteaus, have always had a

    circumstantial fascination for the virgin mind, against which native

    merit has urged itself in vain. And a stranger was absolutely

    necessary to Rosamond's social romance, which had always turned on a

    lover and bridegroom who was not a Middlemarcher, and who had no

    connections at all like her own: of late, indeed, the construction

    seemed to demand that he should somehow be related to a baronet. Now

    that she and the stranger had met, reality proved much more moving than

    anticipation, and Rosamond could not doubt that this was the great

    epoch of her life. She judged of her own symptoms as those of

    awakening love, and she held it still more natural that Mr. Lydgate

    should have fallen in love at first sight of her. These things

    happened so often at balls, and why not by the morning light, when the

    complexion showed all the better for it? Rosamond, though no older

    than Mary, was rather used to being fallen in love with; but she, for

    her part, had remained indifferent and fastidiously critical towards

    both fresh sprig and faded bachelor. And here was Mr. Lydgate suddenly

    corresponding to her ideal, being altogether foreign to Middlemarch,

    carrying a certain air of distinction congruous with good family, and

    possessing connections which offered vistas of that middle-class

    heaven, rank; a man of talent, also, whom it would be especially

    delightful to enslave: in fact, a man who had touched her nature quite

    newly, and brought a vivid interest into her life which was better than

    any fancied "might-be" such as she was in the habit of opposing to the


    Thus, in riding home, both the brother and the sister were preoccupied

    and inclined to be silent. Rosamond, whose basis for her structure had

    the usual airy slightness, was of remarkably detailed and realistic

    imagination when the foundation had been once presupposed; and before

    they had ridden a mile she was far on in the costume and introductions

    of her wedded life, having determined on her house in Middlemarch, and

    foreseen the visits she would pay to her husband's high-bred relatives

    at a distance, whose finished manners she could appropriate as

    thoroughly as she had done her school accomplishments, preparing

    herself thus for vaguer elevations which might ultimately come. There

    was nothing financial, still less sordid, in her previsions: she cared

    about what were considered refinements, and not about the money that

    was to pay for them.

    Fred's mind, on the other hand, was busy with an anxiety which even his

    ready hopefulness could not immediately quell. He saw no way of

    eluding Featherstone's stupid demand without incurring consequences

    which he liked less even than the task of fulfilling it. His father

    was already out of humor with him, and would be still more so if he

    were the occasion of any additional coolness between his own family and

    the Bulstrodes. Then, he himself hated having to go and speak to his

    uncle Bulstrode, and perhaps after drinking wine he had said many

    foolish things about Featherstone's property, and these had been

    magnified by report. Fred felt that he made a wretched figure as a

    fellow who bragged about expectations from a queer old miser like

    Featherstone, and went to beg for certificates at his bidding.

    But—those expectations! He really had them, and he saw no agreeable

    alternative if he gave them up; besides, he had lately made a debt

    which galled him extremely, and old Featherstone had almost bargained

    to pay it off. The whole affair was miserably small: his debts were

    small, even his expectations were not anything so very magnificent.

    Fred had known men to whom he would have been ashamed of confessing the

    smallness of his scrapes. Such ruminations naturally produced a streak

    of misanthropic bitterness. To be born the son of a Middlemarch

    manufacturer, and inevitable heir to nothing in particular, while such

    men as Mainwaring and Vyan—certainly life was a poor business, when a

    spirited young fellow, with a good appetite for the best of everything,

    had so poor an outlook.

    It had not occurred to Fred that the introduction of Bulstrode's name

    in the matter was a fiction of old Featherstone's; nor could this have

    made any difference to his position. He saw plainly enough that the

    old man wanted to exercise his power by tormenting him a little, and

    also probably to get some satisfaction out of seeing him on unpleasant

    terms with Bulstrode. Fred fancied that he saw to the bottom of his

    uncle Featherstone's soul, though in reality half what he saw there was

    no more than the reflex of his own inclinations. The difficult task of

    knowing another soul is not for young gentlemen whose consciousness is

    chiefly made up of their own wishes.

    Fred's main point of debate with himself was, whether he should tell

    his father, or try to get through the affair without his father's

    knowledge. It was probably Mrs. Waule who had been talking about him;

    and if Mary Garth had repeated Mrs. Waule's report to Rosamond, it

    would be sure to reach his father, who would as surely question him

    about it. He said to Rosamond, as they slackened their pace—

    "Rosy, did Mary tell you that Mrs. Waule had said anything about me?"

    "Yes, indeed, she did."


    "That you were very unsteady."

    "Was that all?"

    "I should think that was enough, Fred."

    "You are sure she said no more?"

    "Mary mentioned nothing else. But really, Fred, I think you ought to

    be ashamed."

    "Oh, fudge! Don't lecture me. What did Mary say about it?"

    "I am not obliged to tell you. You care so very much what Mary says,

    and you are too rude to allow me to speak."

    "Of course I care what Mary says. She is the best girl I know."

    "I should never have thought she was a girl to fall in love with."

    "How do you know what men would fall in love with? Girls never know."

    "At least, Fred, let me advise you not to fall in love with her, for

    she says she would not marry you if you asked her."

    "She might have waited till I did ask her."

    "I knew it would nettle you, Fred."

    "Not at all. She would not have said so if you had not provoked her."

    Before reaching home, Fred concluded that he would tell the whole

    affair as simply as possible to his father, who might perhaps take on

    himself the unpleasant business of speaking to Bulstrode.

    BOOK II.



    1st Gent. How class your man?—as better than the most,
    Or, seeming better, worse beneath that cloak?
    As saint or knave, pilgrim or hypocrite?
    2d Gent. Nay, tell me how you class your wealth of books
    The drifted relics of all time.
    As well sort them at once by size and livery:
    Vellum, tall copies, and the common calf
    Will hardly cover more diversity
    Than all your labels cunningly devised
    To class your unread authors.

    In consequence of what he had heard from Fred, Mr. Vincy determined to

    speak with Mr. Bulstrode in his private room at the Bank at half-past

    one, when he was usually free from other callers. But a visitor had

    come in at one o'clock, and Mr. Bulstrode had so much to say to him,

    that there was little chance of the interview being over in half an

    hour. The banker's speech was fluent, but it was also copious, and he

    used up an appreciable amount of time in brief meditative pauses. Do

    not imagine his sickly aspect to have been of the yellow, black-haired

    sort: he had a pale blond skin, thin gray-besprinkled brown hair,

    light-gray eyes, and a large forehead. Loud men called his subdued

    tone an undertone, and sometimes implied that it was inconsistent with

    openness; though there seems to be no reason why a loud man should not

    be given to concealment of anything except his own voice, unless it can

    be shown that Holy Writ has placed the seat of candor in the lungs.

    Mr. Bulstrode had also a deferential bending attitude in listening, and

    an apparently fixed attentiveness in his eyes which made those persons

    who thought themselves worth hearing infer that he was seeking the

    utmost improvement from their discourse. Others, who expected to make

    no great figure, disliked this kind of moral lantern turned on them.

    If you are not proud of your cellar, there is no thrill of satisfaction

    in seeing your guest hold up his wine-glass to the light and look

    judicial. Such joys are reserved for conscious merit. Hence Mr.

    Bulstrode's close attention was not agreeable to the publicans and

    sinners in Middlemarch; it was attributed by some to his being a

    Pharisee, and by others to his being Evangelical. Less superficial

    reasoners among them wished to know who his father and grandfather

    were, observing that five-and-twenty years ago nobody had ever heard of

    a Bulstrode in Middlemarch. To his present visitor, Lydgate, the

    scrutinizing look was a matter of indifference: he simply formed an

    unfavorable opinion of the banker's constitution, and concluded that he

    had an eager inward life with little enjoyment of tangible things.

    "I shall be exceedingly obliged if you will look in on me here

    occasionally, Mr. Lydgate," the banker observed, after a brief pause.

    "If, as I dare to hope, I have the privilege of finding you a valuable

    coadjutor in the interesting matter of hospital management, there will

    be many questions which we shall need to discuss in private. As to the

    new hospital, which is nearly finished, I shall consider what you have

    said about the advantages of the special destination for fevers. The

    decision will rest with me, for though Lord Medlicote has given the

    land and timber for the building, he is not disposed to give his

    personal attention to the object."

    "There are few things better worth the pains in a provincial town like

    this," said Lydgate. "A fine fever hospital in addition to the old

    infirmary might be the nucleus of a medical school here, when once we

    get our medical reforms; and what would do more for medical education

    than the spread of such schools over the country? A born provincial

    man who has a grain of public spirit as well as a few ideas, should do

    what he can to resist the rush of everything that is a little better

    than common towards London. Any valid professional aims may often find

    a freer, if not a richer field, in the provinces."

    One of Lydgate's gifts was a voice habitually deep and sonorous, yet

    capable of becoming very low and gentle at the right moment. About his

    ordinary bearing there was a certain fling, a fearless expectation of

    success, a confidence in his own powers and integrity much fortified by

    contempt for petty obstacles or seductions of which he had had no

    experience. But this proud openness was made lovable by an expression

    of unaffected good-will. Mr. Bulstrode perhaps liked him the better for

    the difference between them in pitch and manners; he certainly liked

    him the better, as Rosamond did, for being a stranger in Middlemarch.

    One can begin so many things with a new person!—even begin to be a

    better man.

    "I shall rejoice to furnish your zeal with fuller opportunities," Mr.

    Bulstrode answered; "I mean, by confiding to you the superintendence of

    my new hospital, should a maturer knowledge favor that issue, for I am

    determined that so great an object shall not be shackled by our two

    physicians. Indeed, I am encouraged to consider your advent to this

    town as a gracious indication that a more manifest blessing is now to

    be awarded to my efforts, which have hitherto been much with stood.

    With regard to the old infirmary, we have gained the initial point—I

    mean your election. And now I hope you will not shrink from incurring

    a certain amount of jealousy and dislike from your professional

    brethren by presenting yourself as a reformer."

    "I will not profess bravery," said Lydgate, smiling, "but I acknowledge

    a good deal of pleasure in fighting, and I should not care for my

    profession, if I did not believe that better methods were to be found

    and enforced there as well as everywhere else."

    "The standard of that profession is low in Middlemarch, my dear sir,"

    said the banker. "I mean in knowledge and skill; not in social status,

    for our medical men are most of them connected with respectable

    townspeople here. My own imperfect health has induced me to give some

    attention to those palliative resources which the divine mercy has

    placed within our reach. I have consulted eminent men in the

    metropolis, and I am painfully aware of the backwardness under which

    medical treatment labors in our provincial districts."

    "Yes;—with our present medical rules and education, one must be

    satisfied now and then to meet with a fair practitioner. As to all the

    higher questions which determine the starting-point of a diagnosis—as

    to the philosophy of medial evidence—any glimmering of these can only

    come from a scientific culture of which country practitioners have

    usually no more notion than the man in the moon."

    Mr. Bulstrode, bending and looking intently, found the form which

    Lydgate had given to his agreement not quite suited to his

    comprehension. Under such circumstances a judicious man changes the

    topic and enters on ground where his own gifts may be more useful.

    "I am aware," he said, "that the peculiar bias of medical ability is

    towards material means. Nevertheless, Mr. Lydgate, I hope we shall not

    vary in sentiment as to a measure in which you are not likely to be

    actively concerned, but in which your sympathetic concurrence may be an

    aid to me. You recognize, I hope; the existence of spiritual interests

    in your patients?"

    "Certainly I do. But those words are apt to cover different meanings

    to different minds."

    "Precisely. And on such subjects wrong teaching is as fatal as no

    teaching. Now a point which I have much at heart to secure is a new

    regulation as to clerical attendance at the old infirmary. The

    building stands in Mr. Farebrother's parish. You know Mr. Farebrother?"

    "I have seen him. He gave me his vote. I must call to thank him. He

    seems a very bright pleasant little fellow. And I understand he is a


    "Mr. Farebrother, my dear sir, is a man deeply painful to contemplate.

    I suppose there is not a clergyman in this country who has greater

    talents." Mr. Bulstrode paused and looked meditative.

    "I have not yet been pained by finding any excessive talent in

    Middlemarch," said Lydgate, bluntly.

    "What I desire," Mr. Bulstrode continued, looking still more serious,

    "is that Mr. Farebrother's attendance at the hospital should be

    superseded by the appointment of a chaplain—of Mr. Tyke, in fact—and

    that no other spiritual aid should be called in."

    "As a medial man I could have no opinion on such a point unless I knew

    Mr. Tyke, and even then I should require to know the cases in which he

    was applied." Lydgate smiled, but he was bent on being circumspect.

    "Of course you cannot enter fully into the merits of this measure at

    present. But"—here Mr. Bulstrode began to speak with a more chiselled

    emphasis—"the subject is likely to be referred to the medical board of

    the infirmary, and what I trust I may ask of you is, that in virtue of

    the cooperation between us which I now look forward to, you will not,

    so far as you are concerned, be influenced by my opponents in this


    "I hope I shall have nothing to do with clerical disputes," said

    Lydgate. "The path I have chosen is to work well in my own profession."

    "My responsibility, Mr. Lydgate, is of a broader kind. With me,

    indeed, this question is one of sacred accountableness; whereas with my

    opponents, I have good reason to say that it is an occasion for

    gratifying a spirit of worldly opposition. But I shall not therefore

    drop one iota of my convictions, or cease to identify myself with that

    truth which an evil generation hates. I have devoted myself to this

    object of hospital-improvement, but I will boldly confess to you, Mr.

    Lydgate, that I should have no interest in hospitals if I believed that

    nothing more was concerned therein than the cure of mortal diseases. I

    have another ground of action, and in the face of persecution I will

    not conceal it."

    Mr. Bulstrode's voice had become a loud and agitated whisper as he said

    the last words.

    "There we certainly differ," said Lydgate. But he was not sorry that

    the door was now opened, and Mr. Vincy was announced. That florid

    sociable personage was become more interesting to him since he had seen

    Rosamond. Not that, like her, he had been weaving any future in which

    their lots were united; but a man naturally remembers a charming girl

    with pleasure, and is willing to dine where he may see her again.

    Before he took leave, Mr. Vincy had given that invitation which he had

    been "in no hurry about," for Rosamond at breakfast had mentioned that

    she thought her uncle Featherstone had taken the new doctor into great


    Mr. Bulstrode, alone with his brother-in-law, poured himself out a

    glass of water, and opened a sandwich-box.

    "I cannot persuade you to adopt my regimen, Vincy?"

    "No, no; I've no opinion of that system. Life wants padding," said Mr.

    Vincy, unable to omit his portable theory. "However," he went on,

    accenting the word, as if to dismiss all irrelevance, "what I came here

    to talk about was a little affair of my young scapegrace, Fred's."

    "That is a subject on which you and I are likely to take quite as

    different views as on diet, Vincy."

    "I hope not this time." (Mr. Vincy was resolved to be good-humored.)

    "The fact is, it's about a whim of old Featherstone's. Somebody has

    been cooking up a story out of spite, and telling it to the old man, to

    try to set him against Fred. He's very fond of Fred, and is likely to

    do something handsome for him; indeed he has as good as told Fred that

    he means to leave him his land, and that makes other people jealous."

    "Vincy, I must repeat, that you will not get any concurrence from me as

    to the course you have pursued with your eldest son. It was entirely

    from worldly vanity that you destined him for the Church: with a family

    of three sons and four daughters, you were not warranted in devoting

    money to an expensive education which has succeeded in nothing but in

    giving him extravagant idle habits. You are now reaping the


    To point out other people's errors was a duty that Mr. Bulstrode rarely

    shrank from, but Mr. Vincy was not equally prepared to be patient.

    When a man has the immediate prospect of being mayor, and is ready, in

    the interests of commerce, to take up a firm attitude on politics

    generally, he has naturally a sense of his importance to the framework

    of things which seems to throw questions of private conduct into the

    background. And this particular reproof irritated him more than any

    other. It was eminently superfluous to him to be told that he was

    reaping the consequences. But he felt his neck under Bulstrode's yoke;

    and though he usually enjoyed kicking, he was anxious to refrain from

    that relief.

    "As to that, Bulstrode, it's no use going back. I'm not one of your

    pattern men, and I don't pretend to be. I couldn't foresee everything

    in the trade; there wasn't a finer business in Middlemarch than ours,

    and the lad was clever. My poor brother was in the Church, and would

    have done well—had got preferment already, but that stomach fever took

    him off: else he might have been a dean by this time. I think I was

    justified in what I tried to do for Fred. If you come to religion, it

    seems to me a man shouldn't want to carve out his meat to an ounce

    beforehand:—one must trust a little to Providence and be generous.

    It's a good British feeling to try and raise your family a little: in

    my opinion, it's a father's duty to give his sons a fine chance."

    "I don't wish to act otherwise than as your best friend, Vincy, when I

    say that what you have been uttering just now is one mass of

    worldliness and inconsistent folly."

    "Very well," said Mr. Vincy, kicking in spite of resolutions, "I never

    professed to be anything but worldly; and, what's more, I don't see

    anybody else who is not worldly. I suppose you don't conduct business

    on what you call unworldly principles. The only difference I see is

    that one worldliness is a little bit honester than another."

    "This kind of discussion is unfruitful, Vincy," said Mr. Bulstrode,

    who, finishing his sandwich, had thrown himself back in his chair, and

    shaded his eyes as if weary. "You had some more particular business."

    "Yes, yes. The long and short of it is, somebody has told old

    Featherstone, giving you as the authority, that Fred has been borrowing

    or trying to borrow money on the prospect of his land. Of course you

    never said any such nonsense. But the old fellow will insist on it

    that Fred should bring him a denial in your handwriting; that is, just

    a bit of a note saying you don't believe a word of such stuff, either

    of his having borrowed or tried to borrow in such a fool's way. I

    suppose you can have no objection to do that."

    "Pardon me. I have an objection. I am by no means sure that your son,

    in his recklessness and ignorance—I will use no severer word—has not

    tried to raise money by holding out his future prospects, or even that

    some one may not have been foolish enough to supply him on so vague a

    presumption: there is plenty of such lax money-lending as of other

    folly in the world."

    "But Fred gives me his honor that he has never borrowed money on the

    pretence of any understanding about his uncle's land. He is not a

    liar. I don't want to make him better than he is. I have blown him up

    well—nobody can say I wink at what he does. But he is not a liar.

    And I should have thought—but I may be wrong—that there was no

    religion to hinder a man from believing the best of a young fellow,

    when you don't know worse. It seems to me it would be a poor sort of

    religion to put a spoke in his wheel by refusing to say you don't

    believe such harm of him as you've got no good reason to believe."

    "I am not at all sure that I should be befriending your son by

    smoothing his way to the future possession of Featherstone's property.

    I cannot regard wealth as a blessing to those who use it simply as a

    harvest for this world. You do not like to hear these things, Vincy,

    but on this occasion I feel called upon to tell you that I have no

    motive for furthering such a disposition of property as that which you

    refer to. I do not shrink from saying that it will not tend to your

    son's eternal welfare or to the glory of God. Why then should you

    expect me to pen this kind of affidavit, which has no object but to

    keep up a foolish partiality and secure a foolish bequest?"

    "If you mean to hinder everybody from having money but saints and

    evangelists, you must give up some profitable partnerships, that's all

    I can say," Mr. Vincy burst out very bluntly. "It may be for the glory

    of God, but it is not for the glory of the Middlemarch trade, that

    Plymdale's house uses those blue and green dyes it gets from the

    Brassing manufactory; they rot the silk, that's all I know about it.

    Perhaps if other people knew so much of the profit went to the glory of

    God, they might like it better. But I don't mind so much about that—I

    could get up a pretty row, if I chose."

    Mr. Bulstrode paused a little before he answered. "You pain me very

    much by speaking in this way, Vincy. I do not expect you to understand

    my grounds of action—it is not an easy thing even to thread a path for

    principles in the intricacies of the world—still less to make the

    thread clear for the careless and the scoffing. You must remember, if

    you please, that I stretch my tolerance towards you as my wife's

    brother, and that it little becomes you to complain of me as

    withholding material help towards the worldly position of your family.

    I must remind you that it is not your own prudence or judgment that has

    enabled you to keep your place in the trade."

    "Very likely not; but you have been no loser by my trade yet," said Mr.

    Vincy, thoroughly nettled (a result which was seldom much retarded by

    previous resolutions). "And when you married Harriet, I don't see how

    you could expect that our families should not hang by the same nail.

    If you've changed your mind, and want my family to come down in the

    world, you'd better say so. I've never changed; I'm a plain Churchman

    now, just as I used to be before doctrines came up. I take the world

    as I find it, in trade and everything else. I'm contented to be no

    worse than my neighbors. But if you want us to come down in the world,

    say so. I shall know better what to do then."

    "You talk unreasonably. Shall you come down in the world for want of

    this letter about your son?"

    "Well, whether or not, I consider it very unhandsome of you to refuse

    it. Such doings may be lined with religion, but outside they have a

    nasty, dog-in-the-manger look. You might as well slander Fred: it

    comes pretty near to it when you refuse to say you didn't set a slander

    going. It's this sort of thing—this tyrannical spirit, wanting to

    play bishop and banker everywhere—it's this sort of thing makes a

    man's name stink."

    "Vincy, if you insist on quarrelling with me, it will be exceedingly

    painful to Harriet as well as myself," said Mr. Bulstrode, with a

    trifle more eagerness and paleness than usual.

    "I don't want to quarrel. It's for my interest—and perhaps for yours

    too—that we should be friends. I bear you no grudge; I think no worse

    of you than I do of other people. A man who half starves himself, and

    goes the length in family prayers, and so on, that you do, believes in

    his religion whatever it may be: you could turn over your capital just

    as fast with cursing and swearing:—plenty of fellows do. You like to

    be master, there's no denying that; you must be first chop in heaven,

    else you won't like it much. But you're my sister's husband, and we

    ought to stick together; and if I know Harriet, she'll consider it your

    fault if we quarrel because you strain at a gnat in this way, and

    refuse to do Fred a good turn. And I don't mean to say I shall bear it

    well. I consider it unhandsome."

    Mr. Vincy rose, began to button his great-coat, and looked steadily at

    his brother-in-law, meaning to imply a demand for a decisive answer.

    This was not the first time that Mr. Bulstrode had begun by admonishing

    Mr. Vincy, and had ended by seeing a very unsatisfactory reflection of

    himself in the coarse unflattering mirror which that manufacturer's

    mind presented to the subtler lights and shadows of his fellow-men; and

    perhaps his experience ought to have warned him how the scene would

    end. But a full-fed fountain will be generous with its waters even in

    the rain, when they are worse than useless; and a fine fount of

    admonition is apt to be equally irrepressible.

    It was not in Mr. Bulstrode's nature to comply directly in consequence

    of uncomfortable suggestions. Before changing his course, he always

    needed to shape his motives and bring them into accordance with his

    habitual standard. He said, at last—

    "I will reflect a little, Vincy. I will mention the subject to

    Harriet. I shall probably send you a letter."

    "Very well. As soon as you can, please. I hope it will all be settled

    before I see you to-morrow."


    "Follows here the strict receipt
    For that sauce to dainty meat,
    Named Idleness, which many eat
    By preference, and call it sweet:
    First watch for morsels, like a hound
    Mix well with buffets, stir them round
    With good thick oil of flatteries,
    And froth with mean self-lauding lies.
    Serve warm: the vessels you must choose
    To keep it in are dead men's shoes."

    Mr. Bulstrode's consultation of Harriet seemed to have had the effect

    desired by Mr. Vincy, for early the next morning a letter came which

    Fred could carry to Mr. Featherstone as the required testimony.

    The old gentleman was staying in bed on account of the cold weather,

    and as Mary Garth was not to be seen in the sitting-room, Fred went

    up-stairs immediately and presented the letter to his uncle, who,

    propped up comfortably on a bed-rest, was not less able than usual to

    enjoy his consciousness of wisdom in distrusting and frustrating

    mankind. He put on his spectacles to read the letter, pursing up his

    lips and drawing down their corners.

    "Under the circumstances I will not decline to state my

    conviction—tchah! what fine words the fellow puts! He's as fine as an

    auctioneer—that your son Frederic has not obtained any advance of

    money on bequests promised by Mr. Featherstone—promised? who said I

    had ever promised? I promise nothing—I shall make codicils as long as

    I like—and that considering the nature of such a proceeding, it is

    unreasonable to presume that a young man of sense and character would

    attempt it—ah, but the gentleman doesn't say you are a young man of

    sense and character, mark you that, sir!—As to my own concern with any

    report of such a nature, I distinctly affirm that I never made any

    statement to the effect that your son had borrowed money on any

    property that might accrue to him on Mr. Featherstone's demise—bless

    my heart! 'property'—accrue—demise! Lawyer Standish is nothing to

    him. He couldn't speak finer if he wanted to borrow. Well," Mr.

    Featherstone here looked over his spectacles at Fred, while he handed

    back the letter to him with a contemptuous gesture, "you don't suppose

    I believe a thing because Bulstrode writes it out fine, eh?"

    Fred colored. "You wished to have the letter, sir. I should think it

    very likely that Mr. Bulstrode's denial is as good as the authority

    which told you what he denies."

    "Every bit. I never said I believed either one or the other. And now

    what d' you expect?" said Mr. Featherstone, curtly, keeping on his

    spectacles, but withdrawing his hands under his wraps.

    "I expect nothing, sir." Fred with difficulty restrained himself from

    venting his irritation. "I came to bring you the letter. If you like

    I will bid you good morning."

    "Not yet, not yet. Ring the bell; I want missy to come."

    It was a servant who came in answer to the bell.

    "Tell missy to come!" said Mr. Featherstone, impatiently. "What

    business had she to go away?" He spoke in the same tone when Mary came.

    "Why couldn't you sit still here till I told you to go? I want my

    waistcoat now. I told you always to put it on the bed."

    Mary's eyes looked rather red, as if she had been crying. It was clear

    that Mr. Featherstone was in one of his most snappish humors this

    morning, and though Fred had now the prospect of receiving the

    much-needed present of money, he would have preferred being free to

    turn round on the old tyrant and tell him that Mary Garth was too good

    to be at his beck. Though Fred had risen as she entered the room, she

    had barely noticed him, and looked as if her nerves were quivering with

    the expectation that something would be thrown at her. But she never

    had anything worse than words to dread. When she went to reach the

    waistcoat from a peg, Fred went up to her and said, "Allow me."

    "Let it alone! You bring it, missy, and lay it down here," said Mr.

    Featherstone. "Now you go away again till I call you," he added, when

    the waistcoat was laid down by him. It was usual with him to season

    his pleasure in showing favor to one person by being especially

    disagreeable to another, and Mary was always at hand to furnish the

    condiment. When his own relatives came she was treated better. Slowly

    he took out a bunch of keys from the waistcoat pocket, and slowly he

    drew forth a tin box which was under the bed-clothes.

    "You expect I am going to give you a little fortune, eh?" he said,

    looking above his spectacles and pausing in the act of opening the lid.

    "Not at all, sir. You were good enough to speak of making me a present

    the other day, else, of course, I should not have thought of the

    matter." But Fred was of a hopeful disposition, and a vision had

    presented itself of a sum just large enough to deliver him from a

    certain anxiety. When Fred got into debt, it always seemed to him

    highly probable that something or other—he did not necessarily

    conceive what—would come to pass enabling him to pay in due time. And

    now that the providential occurrence was apparently close at hand, it

    would have been sheer absurdity to think that the supply would be short

    of the need: as absurd as a faith that believed in half a miracle for

    want of strength to believe in a whole one.

    The deep-veined hands fingered many bank-notes-one after the other,

    laying them down flat again, while Fred leaned back in his chair,

    scorning to look eager. He held himself to be a gentleman at heart,

    and did not like courting an old fellow for his money. At last, Mr.

    Featherstone eyed him again over his spectacles and presented him with

    a little sheaf of notes: Fred could see distinctly that there were but

    five, as the less significant edges gaped towards him. But then, each

    might mean fifty pounds. He took them, saying—

    "I am very much obliged to you, sir," and was going to roll them up

    without seeming to think of their value. But this did not suit Mr.

    Featherstone, who was eying him intently.

    "Come, don't you think it worth your while to count 'em? You take

    money like a lord; I suppose you lose it like one."

    "I thought I was not to look a gift-horse in the mouth, sir. But I

    shall be very happy to count them."

    Fred was not so happy, however, after he had counted them. For they

    actually presented the absurdity of being less than his hopefulness had

    decided that they must be. What can the fitness of things mean, if not

    their fitness to a man's expectations? Failing this, absurdity and

    atheism gape behind him. The collapse for Fred was severe when he

    found that he held no more than five twenties, and his share in the

    higher education of this country did not seem to help him.

    Nevertheless he said, with rapid changes in his fair complexion—

    "It is very handsome of you, sir."

    "I should think it is," said Mr. Featherstone, locking his box and

    replacing it, then taking off his spectacles deliberately, and at

    length, as if his inward meditation had more deeply convinced him,

    repeating, "I should think it handsome."

    "I assure you, sir, I am very grateful," said Fred, who had had time to

    recover his cheerful air.

    "So you ought to be. You want to cut a figure in the world, and I

    reckon Peter Featherstone is the only one you've got to trust to." Here

    the old man's eyes gleamed with a curiously mingled satisfaction in the

    consciousness that this smart young fellow relied upon him, and that

    the smart young fellow was rather a fool for doing so.

    "Yes, indeed: I was not born to very splendid chances. Few men have

    been more cramped than I have been," said Fred, with some sense of

    surprise at his own virtue, considering how hardly he was dealt with.

    "It really seems a little too bad to have to ride a broken-winded

    hunter, and see men, who, are not half such good judges as yourself,

    able to throw away any amount of money on buying bad bargains."

    "Well, you can buy yourself a fine hunter now. Eighty pound is enough

    for that, I reckon—and you'll have twenty pound over to get yourself

    out of any little scrape," said Mr. Featherstone, chuckling slightly.

    "You are very good, sir," said Fred, with a fine sense of contrast

    between the words and his feeling.

    "Ay, rather a better uncle than your fine uncle Bulstrode. You won't

    get much out of his spekilations, I think. He's got a pretty strong

    string round your father's leg, by what I hear, eh?"

    "My father never tells me anything about his affairs, sir."

    "Well, he shows some sense there. But other people find 'em out

    without his telling. He'll never have much to leave you: he'll

    most-like die without a will—he's the sort of man to do it—let 'em

    make him mayor of Middlemarch as much as they like. But you won't get

    much by his dying without a will, though you are the eldest son."

    Fred thought that Mr. Featherstone had never been so disagreeable

    before. True, he had never before given him quite so much money at


    "Shall I destroy this letter of Mr. Bulstrode's, sir?" said Fred,

    rising with the letter as if he would put it in the fire.

    "Ay, ay, I don't want it. It's worth no money to me."

    Fred carried the letter to the fire, and thrust the poker through it

    with much zest. He longed to get out of the room, but he was a little

    ashamed before his inner self, as well as before his uncle, to run away

    immediately after pocketing the money. Presently, the farm-bailiff

    came up to give his master a report, and Fred, to his unspeakable

    relief, was dismissed with the injunction to come again soon.

    He had longed not only to be set free from his uncle, but also to find

    Mary Garth. She was now in her usual place by the fire, with sewing in

    her hands and a book open on the little table by her side. Her eyelids

    had lost some of their redness now, and she had her usual air of


    "Am I wanted up-stairs?" she said, half rising as Fred entered.

    "No; I am only dismissed, because Simmons is gone up."

    Mary sat down again, and resumed her work. She was certainly treating

    him with more indifference than usual: she did not know how

    affectionately indignant he had felt on her behalf up-stairs.

    "May I stay here a little, Mary, or shall I bore you?"

    "Pray sit down," said Mary; "you will not be so heavy a bore as Mr.

    John Waule, who was here yesterday, and he sat down without asking my


    "Poor fellow! I think he is in love with you."

    "I am not aware of it. And to me it is one of the most odious things

    in a girl's life, that there must always be some supposition of falling

    in love coming between her and any man who is kind to her, and to whom

    she is grateful. I should have thought that I, at least, might have

    been safe from all that. I have no ground for the nonsensical vanity

    of fancying everybody who comes near me is in love with me."

    Mary did not mean to betray any feeling, but in spite of herself she

    ended in a tremulous tone of vexation.

    "Confound John Waule! I did not mean to make you angry. I didn't know

    you had any reason for being grateful to me. I forgot what a great

    service you think it if any one snuffs a candle for you." Fred also had

    his pride, and was not going to show that he knew what had called forth

    this outburst of Mary's.

    "Oh, I am not angry, except with the ways of the world. I do like to

    be spoken to as if I had common-sense. I really often feel as if I

    could understand a little more than I ever hear even from young

    gentlemen who have been to college." Mary had recovered, and she spoke

    with a suppressed rippling under-current of laughter pleasant to hear.

    "I don't care how merry you are at my expense this morning," said Fred,

    "I thought you looked so sad when you came up-stairs. It is a shame you

    should stay here to be bullied in that way."

    "Oh, I have an easy life—by comparison. I have tried being a teacher,

    and I am not fit for that: my mind is too fond of wandering on its own

    way. I think any hardship is better than pretending to do what one is

    paid for, and never really doing it. Everything here I can do as well

    as any one else could; perhaps better than some—Rosy, for example.

    Though she is just the sort of beautiful creature that is imprisoned

    with ogres in fairy tales."

    "Rosy!" cried Fred, in a tone of profound brotherly scepticism.

    "Come, Fred!" said Mary, emphatically; "you have no right to be so


    "Do you mean anything particular—just now?"

    "No, I mean something general—always."

    "Oh, that I am idle and extravagant. Well, I am not fit to be a poor

    man. I should not have made a bad fellow if I had been rich."

    "You would have done your duty in that state of life to which it has

    not pleased God to call you," said Mary, laughing.

    "Well, I couldn't do my duty as a clergyman, any more than you could do

    yours as a governess. You ought to have a little fellow-feeling there,


    "I never said you ought to be a clergyman. There are other sorts of

    work. It seems to me very miserable not to resolve on some course and

    act accordingly."

    "So I could, if—" Fred broke off, and stood up, leaning against the


    "If you were sure you should not have a fortune?"

    "I did not say that. You want to quarrel with me. It is too bad of

    you to be guided by what other people say about me."

    "How can I want to quarrel with you? I should be quarrelling with all

    my new books," said Mary, lifting the volume on the table. "However

    naughty you may be to other people, you are good to me."

    "Because I like you better than any one else. But I know you despise


    "Yes, I do—a little," said Mary, nodding, with a smile.

    "You would admire a stupendous fellow, who would have wise opinions

    about everything."

    "Yes, I should." Mary was sewing swiftly, and seemed provokingly

    mistress of the situation. When a conversation has taken a wrong turn

    for us, we only get farther and farther into the swamp of awkwardness.

    This was what Fred Vincy felt.

    "I suppose a woman is never in love with any one she has always

    known—ever since she can remember; as a man often is. It is always

    some new fellow who strikes a girl."

    "Let me see," said Mary, the corners of her mouth curling archly; "I

    must go back on my experience. There is Juliet—she seems an example

    of what you say. But then Ophelia had probably known Hamlet a long

    while; and Brenda Troil—she had known Mordaunt Merton ever since they

    were children; but then he seems to have been an estimable young man;

    and Minna was still more deeply in love with Cleveland, who was a

    stranger. Waverley was new to Flora MacIvor; but then she did not fall

    in love with him. And there are Olivia and Sophia Primrose, and

    Corinne—they may be said to have fallen in love with new men.

    Altogether, my experience is rather mixed."

    Mary looked up with some roguishness at Fred, and that look of hers was

    very dear to him, though the eyes were nothing more than clear windows

    where observation sat laughingly. He was certainly an affectionate

    fellow, and as he had grown from boy to man, he had grown in love with

    his old playmate, notwithstanding that share in the higher education of

    the country which had exalted his views of rank and income.

    "When a man is not loved, it is no use for him to say that he could be

    a better fellow—could do anything—I mean, if he were sure of being

    loved in return."

    "Not of the least use in the world for him to say he could be better.

    Might, could, would—they are contemptible auxiliaries."

    "I don't see how a man is to be good for much unless he has some one

    woman to love him dearly."

    "I think the goodness should come before he expects that."

    "You know better, Mary. Women don't love men for their goodness."

    "Perhaps not. But if they love them, they never think them bad."

    "It is hardly fair to say I am bad."

    "I said nothing at all about you."

    "I never shall be good for anything, Mary, if you will not say that you

    love me—if you will not promise to marry me—I mean, when I am able to


    "If I did love you, I would not marry you: I would certainly not

    promise ever to marry you."

    "I think that is quite wicked, Mary. If you love me, you ought to

    promise to marry me."

    "On the contrary, I think it would be wicked in me to marry you even if

    I did love you."

    "You mean, just as I am, without any means of maintaining a wife. Of

    course: I am but three-and-twenty."

    "In that last point you will alter. But I am not so sure of any other

    alteration. My father says an idle man ought not to exist, much less,

    be married."

    "Then I am to blow my brains out?"

    "No; on the whole I should think you would do better to pass your

    examination. I have heard Mr. Farebrother say it is disgracefully


    "That is all very fine. Anything is easy to him. Not that cleverness

    has anything to do with it. I am ten times cleverer than many men who


    "Dear me!" said Mary, unable to repress her sarcasm; "that accounts for

    the curates like Mr. Crowse. Divide your cleverness by ten, and the

    quotient—dear me!—is able to take a degree. But that only shows you

    are ten times more idle than the others."

    "Well, if I did pass, you would not want me to go into the Church?"

    "That is not the question—what I want you to do. You have a

    conscience of your own, I suppose. There! there is Mr. Lydgate. I

    must go and tell my uncle."

    "Mary," said Fred, seizing her hand as she rose; "if you will not give

    me some encouragement, I shall get worse instead of better."

    "I will not give you any encouragement," said Mary, reddening. "Your

    friends would dislike it, and so would mine. My father would think it

    a disgrace to me if I accepted a man who got into debt, and would not


    Fred was stung, and released her hand. She walked to the door, but

    there she turned and said: "Fred, you have always been so good, so

    generous to me. I am not ungrateful. But never speak to me in that

    way again."

    "Very well," said Fred, sulkily, taking up his hat and whip. His

    complexion showed patches of pale pink and dead white. Like many a

    plucked idle young gentleman, he was thoroughly in love, and with a

    plain girl, who had no money! But having Mr. Featherstone's land in

    the background, and a persuasion that, let Mary say what she would, she

    really did care for him, Fred was not utterly in despair.

    When he got home, he gave four of the twenties to his mother, asking

    her to keep them for him. "I don't want to spend that money, mother.

    I want it to pay a debt with. So keep it safe away from my fingers."

    "Bless you, my dear," said Mrs. Vincy. She doted on her eldest son and

    her youngest girl (a child of six), whom others thought her two

    naughtiest children. The mother's eyes are not always deceived in

    their partiality: she at least can best judge who is the tender,

    filial-hearted child. And Fred was certainly very fond of his mother.

    Perhaps it was his fondness for another person also that made him

    particularly anxious to take some security against his own liability to

    spend the hundred pounds. For the creditor to whom he owed a hundred

    and sixty held a firmer security in the shape of a bill signed by

    Mary's father.


    "Black eyes you have left, you say,
    Blue eyes fail to draw you;
    Yet you seem more rapt to-day,
    Than of old we saw you.

    "Oh, I track the fairest fair
    Through new haunts of pleasure;
    Footprints here and echoes there
    Guide me to my treasure:

    "Lo! she turns—immortal youth
    Wrought to mortal stature,
    Fresh as starlight's aged truth—
    Many-named Nature!"

    A great historian, as he insisted on calling himself, who had the

    happiness to be dead a hundred and twenty years ago, and so to take his

    place among the colossi whose huge legs our living pettiness is

    observed to walk under, glories in his copious remarks and digressions

    as the least imitable part of his work, and especially in those initial

    chapters to the successive books of his history, where he seems to

    bring his armchair to the proscenium and chat with us in all the lusty

    ease of his fine English. But Fielding lived when the days were longer

    (for time, like money, is measured by our needs), when summer

    afternoons were spacious, and the clock ticked slowly in the winter

    evenings. We belated historians must not linger after his example; and

    if we did so, it is probable that our chat would be thin and eager, as

    if delivered from a campstool in a parrot-house. I at least have so

    much to do in unraveling certain human lots, and seeing how they were

    woven and interwoven, that all the light I can command must be

    concentrated on this particular web, and not dispersed over that

    tempting range of relevancies called the universe.

    At present I have to make the new settler Lydgate better known to any

    one interested in him than he could possibly be even to those who had

    seen the most of him since his arrival in Middlemarch. For surely all

    must admit that a man may be puffed and belauded, envied, ridiculed,

    counted upon as a tool and fallen in love with, or at least selected as

    a future husband, and yet remain virtually unknown—known merely as a

    cluster of signs for his neighbors' false suppositions. There was a

    general impression, however, that Lydgate was not altogether a common

    country doctor, and in Middlemarch at that time such an impression was

    significant of great things being expected from him. For everybody's

    family doctor was remarkably clever, and was understood to have

    immeasurable skill in the management and training of the most skittish

    or vicious diseases. The evidence of his cleverness was of the higher

    intuitive order, lying in his lady-patients' immovable conviction, and

    was unassailable by any objection except that their intuitions were

    opposed by others equally strong; each lady who saw medical truth in

    Wrench and "the strengthening treatment" regarding Toller and "the

    lowering system" as medical perdition. For the heroic times of copious

    bleeding and blistering had not yet departed, still less the times of

    thorough-going theory, when disease in general was called by some bad

    name, and treated accordingly without shilly-shally—as if, for

    example, it were to be called insurrection, which must not be fired on

    with blank-cartridge, but have its blood drawn at once. The

    strengtheners and the lowerers were all "clever" men in somebody's

    opinion, which is really as much as can be said for any living talents.

    Nobody's imagination had gone so far as to conjecture that Mr. Lydgate

    could know as much as Dr. Sprague and Dr. Minchin, the two physicians,

    who alone could offer any hope when danger was extreme, and when the

    smallest hope was worth a guinea. Still, I repeat, there was a general

    impression that Lydgate was something rather more uncommon than any

    general practitioner in Middlemarch. And this was true. He was but

    seven-and-twenty, an age at which many men are not quite common—at

    which they are hopeful of achievement, resolute in avoidance, thinking

    that Mammon shall never put a bit in their mouths and get astride their

    backs, but rather that Mammon, if they have anything to do with him,

    shall draw their chariot.

    He had been left an orphan when he was fresh from a public school. His

    father, a military man, had made but little provision for three

    children, and when the boy Tertius asked to have a medical education,

    it seemed easier to his guardians to grant his request by apprenticing

    him to a country practitioner than to make any objections on the score

    of family dignity. He was one of the rarer lads who early get a

    decided bent and make up their minds that there is something particular

    in life which they would like to do for its own sake, and not because

    their fathers did it. Most of us who turn to any subject with love

    remember some morning or evening hour when we got on a high stool to

    reach down an untried volume, or sat with parted lips listening to a

    new talker, or for very lack of books began to listen to the voices

    within, as the first traceable beginning of our love. Something of

    that sort happened to Lydgate. He was a quick fellow, and when hot

    from play, would toss himself in a corner, and in five minutes be deep

    in any sort of book that he could lay his hands on: if it were Rasselas

    or Gulliver, so much the better, but Bailey's Dictionary would do, or

    the Bible with the Apocrypha in it. Something he must read, when he

    was not riding the pony, or running and hunting, or listening to the

    talk of men. All this was true of him at ten years of age; he had then

    read through "Chrysal, or the Adventures of a Guinea," which was

    neither milk for babes, nor any chalky mixture meant to pass for milk,

    and it had already occurred to him that books were stuff, and that life

    was stupid. His school studies had not much modified that opinion, for

    though he "did" his classics and mathematics, he was not pre-eminent in

    them. It was said of him, that Lydgate could do anything he liked, but

    he had certainly not yet liked to do anything remarkable. He was a

    vigorous animal with a ready understanding, but no spark had yet

    kindled in him an intellectual passion; knowledge seemed to him a very

    superficial affair, easily mastered: judging from the conversation of

    his elders, he had apparently got already more than was necessary for

    mature life. Probably this was not an exceptional result of expensive

    teaching at that period of short-waisted coats, and other fashions

    which have not yet recurred. But, one vacation, a wet day sent him to

    the small home library to hunt once more for a book which might have

    some freshness for him: in vain! unless, indeed, he took down a dusty

    row of volumes with gray-paper backs and dingy labels—the volumes of

    an old Cyclopaedia which he had never disturbed. It would at least be

    a novelty to disturb them. They were on the highest shelf, and he

    stood on a chair to get them down. But he opened the volume which he

    first took from the shelf: somehow, one is apt to read in a makeshift

    attitude, just where it might seem inconvenient to do so. The page he

    opened on was under the head of Anatomy, and the first passage that

    drew his eyes was on the valves of the heart. He was not much

    acquainted with valves of any sort, but he knew that valvae were

    folding-doors, and through this crevice came a sudden light startling

    him with his first vivid notion of finely adjusted mechanism in the

    human frame. A liberal education had of course left him free to read

    the indecent passages in the school classics, but beyond a general

    sense of secrecy and obscenity in connection with his internal

    structure, had left his imagination quite unbiassed, so that for

    anything he knew his brains lay in small bags at his temples, and he

    had no more thought of representing to himself how his blood circulated

    than how paper served instead of gold. But the moment of vocation had

    come, and before he got down from his chair, the world was made new to

    him by a presentiment of endless processes filling the vast spaces

    planked out of his sight by that wordy ignorance which he had supposed

    to be knowledge. From that hour Lydgate felt the growth of an

    intellectual passion.

    We are not afraid of telling over and over again how a man comes to

    fall in love with a woman and be wedded to her, or else be fatally

    parted from her. Is it due to excess of poetry or of stupidity that we

    are never weary of describing what King James called a woman's "makdom

    and her fairnesse," never weary of listening to the twanging of the old

    Troubadour strings, and are comparatively uninterested in that other

    kind of "makdom and fairnesse" which must be wooed with industrious

    thought and patient renunciation of small desires? In the story of

    this passion, too, the development varies: sometimes it is the glorious

    marriage, sometimes frustration and final parting. And not seldom the

    catastrophe is bound up with the other passion, sung by the

    Troubadours. For in the multitude of middle-aged men who go about

    their vocations in a daily course determined for them much in the same

    way as the tie of their cravats, there is always a good number who once

    meant to shape their own deeds and alter the world a little. The story

    of their coming to be shapen after the average and fit to be packed by

    the gross, is hardly ever told even in their consciousness; for perhaps

    their ardor in generous unpaid toil cooled as imperceptibly as the

    ardor of other youthful loves, till one day their earlier self walked

    like a ghost in its old home and made the new furniture ghastly.

    Nothing in the world more subtle than the process of their gradual

    change! In the beginning they inhaled it unknowingly: you and I may

    have sent some of our breath towards infecting them, when we uttered

    our conforming falsities or drew our silly conclusions: or perhaps it

    came with the vibrations from a woman's glance.

    Lydgate did not mean to be one of those failures, and there was the

    better hope of him because his scientific interest soon took the form

    of a professional enthusiasm: he had a youthful belief in his

    bread-winning work, not to be stifled by that initiation in makeshift

    called his 'prentice days; and he carried to his studies in London,

    Edinburgh, and Paris, the conviction that the medical profession as it

    might be was the finest in the world; presenting the most perfect

    interchange between science and art; offering the most direct alliance

    between intellectual conquest and the social good. Lydgate's nature

    demanded this combination: he was an emotional creature, with a

    flesh-and-blood sense of fellowship which withstood all the

    abstractions of special study. He cared not only for "cases," but for

    John and Elizabeth, especially Elizabeth.

    There was another attraction in his profession: it wanted reform, and

    gave a man an opportunity for some indignant resolve to reject its

    venal decorations and other humbug, and to be the possessor of genuine

    though undemanded qualifications. He went to study in Paris with the

    determination that when he came home again he would settle in some

    provincial town as a general practitioner, and resist the

    irrational severance between medical and surgical knowledge in the

    interest of his own scientific pursuits, as well as of the general

    advance: he would keep away from the range of London intrigues,

    jealousies, and social truckling, and win celebrity, however slowly, as

    Jenner had done, by the independent value of his work. For it must be

    remembered that this was a dark period; and in spite of venerable

    colleges which used great efforts to secure purity of knowledge by

    making it scarce, and to exclude error by a rigid exclusiveness in

    relation to fees and appointments, it happened that very ignorant young

    gentlemen were promoted in town, and many more got a legal right to

    practise over large areas in the country. Also, the high standard held

    up to the public mind by the College of Physicians, which gave its peculiar

    sanction to the expensive and highly rarefied medical instruction

    obtained by graduates of Oxford and Cambridge, did not hinder quackery

    from having an excellent time of it; for since professional practice

    chiefly consisted in giving a great many drugs, the public inferred

    that it might be better off with more drugs still, if they could only

    be got cheaply, and hence swallowed large cubic measures of physic

    prescribed by unscrupulous ignorance which had taken no degrees.

    Considering that statistics had not yet embraced a calculation as to

    the number of ignorant or canting doctors which absolutely must exist

    in the teeth of all changes, it seemed to Lydgate that a change in the

    units was the most direct mode of changing the numbers. He meant to be

    a unit who would make a certain amount of difference towards that

    spreading change which would one day tell appreciably upon the

    averages, and in the mean time have the pleasure of making an

    advantageous difference to the viscera of his own patients. But he did

    not simply aim at a more genuine kind of practice than was common. He

    was ambitious of a wider effect: he was fired with the possibility that

    he might work out the proof of an anatomical conception and make a link

    in the chain of discovery.

    Does it seem incongruous to you that a Middlemarch surgeon should dream

    of himself as a discoverer? Most of us, indeed, know little of the

    great originators until they have been lifted up among the

    constellations and already rule our fates. But that Herschel, for

    example, who "broke the barriers of the heavens"—did he not once play

    a provincial church-organ, and give music-lessons to stumbling

    pianists? Each of those Shining Ones had to walk on the earth among

    neighbors who perhaps thought much more of his gait and his garments

    than of anything which was to give him a title to everlasting fame:

    each of them had his little local personal history sprinkled with small

    temptations and sordid cares, which made the retarding friction of his

    course towards final companionship with the immortals. Lydgate was not

    blind to the dangers of such friction, but he had plenty of confidence

    in his resolution to avoid it as far as possible: being

    seven-and-twenty, he felt himself experienced. And he was not going to

    have his vanities provoked by contact with the showy worldly successes

    of the capital, but to live among people who could hold no rivalry with

    that pursuit of a great idea which was to be a twin object with the

    assiduous practice of his profession. There was fascination in the

    hope that the two purposes would illuminate each other: the careful

    observation and inference which was his daily work, the use of the lens

    to further his judgment in special cases, would further his thought as

    an instrument of larger inquiry. Was not this the typical pre-eminence

    of his profession? He would be a good Middlemarch doctor, and by that

    very means keep himself in the track of far-reaching investigation. On

    one point he may fairly claim approval at this particular stage of his

    career: he did not mean to imitate those philanthropic models who make

    a profit out of poisonous pickles to support themselves while they are

    exposing adulteration, or hold shares in a gambling-hell that they may

    have leisure to represent the cause of public morality. He intended to

    begin in his own case some particular reforms which were quite

    certainly within his reach, and much less of a problem than the

    demonstrating of an anatomical conception. One of these reforms was to

    act stoutly on the strength of a recent legal decision, and simply

    prescribe, without dispensing drugs or taking percentage from

    druggists. This was an innovation for one who had chosen to adopt the

    style of general practitioner in a country town, and would be felt as

    offensive criticism by his professional brethren. But Lydgate meant to

    innovate in his treatment also, and he was wise enough to see that the

    best security for his practising honestly according to his belief was

    to get rid of systematic temptations to the contrary.

    Perhaps that was a more cheerful time for observers and theorizers than

    the present; we are apt to think it the finest era of the world when

    America was beginning to be discovered, when a bold sailor, even if he

    were wrecked, might alight on a new kingdom; and about 1829 the dark

    territories of Pathology were a fine America for a spirited young

    adventurer. Lydgate was ambitious above all to contribute towards

    enlarging the scientific, rational basis of his profession. The more

    he became interested in special questions of disease, such as the

    nature of fever or fevers, the more keenly he felt the need for that

    fundamental knowledge of structure which just at the beginning of the

    century had been illuminated by the brief and glorious career of

    Bichat, who died when he was only one-and-thirty, but, like another

    Alexander, left a realm large enough for many heirs. That great

    Frenchman first carried out the conception that living bodies,

    fundamentally considered, are not associations of organs which can be

    understood by studying them first apart, and then as it were federally;

    but must be regarded as consisting of certain primary webs or tissues,

    out of which the various organs—brain, heart, lungs, and so on—are

    compacted, as the various accommodations of a house are built up in

    various proportions of wood, iron, stone, brick, zinc, and the rest,

    each material having its peculiar composition and proportions. No man,

    one sees, can understand and estimate the entire structure or its

    parts—what are its frailties and what its repairs, without knowing the

    nature of the materials. And the conception wrought out by Bichat,

    with his detailed study of the different tissues, acted necessarily on

    medical questions as the turning of gas-light would act on a dim,

    oil-lit street, showing new connections and hitherto hidden facts of

    structure which must be taken into account in considering the symptoms

    of maladies and the action of medicaments. But results which depend on

    human conscience and intelligence work slowly, and now at the end of

    1829, most medical practice was still strutting or shambling along the

    old paths, and there was still scientific work to be done which might

    have seemed to be a direct sequence of Bichat's. This great seer did

    not go beyond the consideration of the tissues as ultimate facts in the

    living organism, marking the limit of anatomical analysis; but it was

    open to another mind to say, have not these structures some common

    basis from which they have all started, as your sarsnet, gauze, net,

    satin, and velvet from the raw cocoon? Here would be another light, as

    of oxy-hydrogen, showing the very grain of things, and revising all

    former explanations. Of this sequence to Bichat's work, already

    vibrating along many currents of the European mind, Lydgate was

    enamoured; he longed to demonstrate the more intimate relations of

    living structure, and help to define men's thought more accurately

    after the true order. The work had not yet been done, but only

    prepared for those who knew how to use the preparation. What was the

    primitive tissue? In that way Lydgate put the question—not quite in

    the way required by the awaiting answer; but such missing of the right

    word befalls many seekers. And he counted on quiet intervals to be

    watchfully seized, for taking up the threads of investigation—on many

    hints to be won from diligent application, not only of the scalpel, but

    of the microscope, which research had begun to use again with new

    enthusiasm of reliance. Such was Lydgate's plan of his future: to do

    good small work for Middlemarch, and great work for the world.

    He was certainly a happy fellow at this time: to be seven-and-twenty,

    without any fixed vices, with a generous resolution that his action

    should be beneficent, and with ideas in his brain that made life

    interesting quite apart from the cultus of horseflesh and other mystic

    rites of costly observance, which the eight hundred pounds left him

    after buying his practice would certainly not have gone far in paying

    for. He was at a starting-point which makes many a man's career a fine

    subject for betting, if there were any gentlemen given to that

    amusement who could appreciate the complicated probabilities of an

    arduous purpose, with all the possible thwartings and furtherings of

    circumstance, all the niceties of inward balance, by which a man swims

    and makes his point or else is carried headlong. The risk would remain

    even with close knowledge of Lydgate's character; for character too is

    a process and an unfolding. The man was still in the making, as much

    as the Middlemarch doctor and immortal discoverer, and there were both

    virtues and faults capable of shrinking or expanding. The faults will

    not, I hope, be a reason for the withdrawal of your interest in him.

    Among our valued friends is there not some one or other who is a little

    too self-confident and disdainful; whose distinguished mind is a little

    spotted with commonness; who is a little pinched here and protuberant

    there with native prejudices; or whose better energies are liable to

    lapse down the wrong channel under the influence of transient

    solicitations? All these things might be alleged against Lydgate, but

    then, they are the periphrases of a polite preacher, who talks of Adam,

    and would not like to mention anything painful to the pew-renters. The

    particular faults from which these delicate generalities are distilled

    have distinguishable physiognomies, diction, accent, and grimaces;

    filling up parts in very various dramas. Our vanities differ as our

    noses do: all conceit is not the same conceit, but varies in

    correspondence with the minutiae of mental make in which one of us

    differs from another. Lydgate's conceit was of the arrogant sort,

    never simpering, never impertinent, but massive in its claims and

    benevolently contemptuous. He would do a great deal for noodles, being

    sorry for them, and feeling quite sure that they could have no power

    over him: he had thought of joining the Saint Simonians when he was in

    Paris, in order to turn them against some of their own doctrines. All

    his faults were marked by kindred traits, and were those of a man who

    had a fine baritone, whose clothes hung well upon him, and who even in

    his ordinary gestures had an air of inbred distinction. Where then lay

    the spots of commonness? says a young lady enamoured of that careless

    grace. How could there be any commonness in a man so well-bred, so

    ambitious of social distinction, so generous and unusual in his views

    of social duty? As easily as there may be stupidity in a man of genius

    if you take him unawares on the wrong subject, or as many a man who has

    the best will to advance the social millennium might be ill-inspired in

    imagining its lighter pleasures; unable to go beyond Offenbach's music,

    or the brilliant punning in the last burlesque. Lydgate's spots of

    commonness lay in the complexion of his prejudices, which, in spite of

    noble intention and sympathy, were half of them such as are found in

    ordinary men of the world: that distinction of mind which belonged to

    his intellectual ardor, did not penetrate his feeling and judgment

    about furniture, or women, or the desirability of its being known

    (without his telling) that he was better born than other country

    surgeons. He did not mean to think of furniture at present; but

    whenever he did so it was to be feared that neither biology nor schemes

    of reform would lift him above the vulgarity of feeling that there

    would be an incompatibility in his furniture not being of the best.

    As to women, he had once already been drawn headlong by impetuous

    folly, which he meant to be final, since marriage at some distant

    period would of course not be impetuous. For those who want to be

    acquainted with Lydgate it will be good to know what was that case of

    impetuous folly, for it may stand as an example of the fitful swerving

    of passion to which he was prone, together with the chivalrous kindness

    which helped to make him morally lovable. The story can be told

    without many words. It happened when he was studying in Paris, and

    just at the time when, over and above his other work, he was occupied

    with some galvanic experiments. One evening, tired with his

    experimenting, and not being able to elicit the facts he needed, he

    left his frogs and rabbits to some repose under their trying and

    mysterious dispensation of unexplained shocks, and went to finish his

    evening at the theatre of the Porte Saint Martin, where there was a

    melodrama which he had already seen several times; attracted, not by

    the ingenious work of the collaborating authors, but by an actress

    whose part it was to stab her lover, mistaking him for the

    evil-designing duke of the piece. Lydgate was in love with this

    actress, as a man is in love with a woman whom he never expects to

    speak to. She was a Provencale, with dark eyes, a Greek profile, and

    rounded majestic form, having that sort of beauty which carries a sweet

    matronliness even in youth, and her voice was a soft cooing. She had

    but lately come to Paris, and bore a virtuous reputation, her husband

    acting with her as the unfortunate lover. It was her acting which was

    "no better than it should be," but the public was satisfied. Lydgate's

    only relaxation now was to go and look at this woman, just as he might

    have thrown himself under the breath of the sweet south on a bank of

    violets for a while, without prejudice to his galvanism, to which he

    would presently return. But this evening the old drama had a new

    catastrophe. At the moment when the heroine was to act the stabbing of

    her lover, and he was to fall gracefully, the wife veritably stabbed

    her husband, who fell as death willed. A wild shriek pierced the

    house, and the Provencale fell swooning: a shriek and a swoon were

    demanded by the play, but the swooning too was real this time. Lydgate

    leaped and climbed, he hardly knew how, on to the stage, and was active

    in help, making the acquaintance of his heroine by finding a contusion

    on her head and lifting her gently in his arms. Paris rang with the

    story of this death:—was it a murder? Some of the actress's warmest

    admirers were inclined to believe in her guilt, and liked her the

    better for it (such was the taste of those times); but Lydgate was not

    one of these. He vehemently contended for her innocence, and the

    remote impersonal passion for her beauty which he had felt before, had

    passed now into personal devotion, and tender thought of her lot. The

    notion of murder was absurd: no motive was discoverable, the young

    couple being understood to dote on each other; and it was not

    unprecedented that an accidental slip of the foot should have brought

    these grave consequences. The legal investigation ended in Madame

    Laure's release. Lydgate by this time had had many interviews with

    her, and found her more and more adorable. She talked little; but that

    was an additional charm. She was melancholy, and seemed grateful; her

    presence was enough, like that of the evening light. Lydgate was madly

    anxious about her affection, and jealous lest any other man than

    himself should win it and ask her to marry him. But instead of

    reopening her engagement at the Porte Saint Martin, where she would

    have been all the more popular for the fatal episode, she left Paris

    without warning, forsaking her little court of admirers. Perhaps no

    one carried inquiry far except Lydgate, who felt that all science had

    come to a stand-still while he imagined the unhappy Laure, stricken by

    ever-wandering sorrow, herself wandering, and finding no faithful

    comforter. Hidden actresses, however, are not so difficult to find as

    some other hidden facts, and it was not long before Lydgate gathered

    indications that Laure had taken the route to Lyons. He found her at

    last acting with great success at Avignon under the same name, looking

    more majestic than ever as a forsaken wife carrying her child in her

    arms. He spoke to her after the play, was received with the usual

    quietude which seemed to him beautiful as clear depths of water, and

    obtained leave to visit her the next day; when he was bent on telling

    her that he adored her, and on asking her to marry him. He knew that

    this was like the sudden impulse of a madman—incongruous even with his

    habitual foibles. No matter! It was the one thing which he was

    resolved to do. He had two selves within him apparently, and they must

    learn to accommodate each other and bear reciprocal impediments.

    Strange, that some of us, with quick alternate vision, see beyond our

    infatuations, and even while we rave on the heights, behold the wide

    plain where our persistent self pauses and awaits us.

    To have approached Laure with any suit that was not reverentially

    tender would have been simply a contradiction of his whole feeling

    towards her.

    "You have come all the way from Paris to find me?" she said to him the

    next day, sitting before him with folded arms, and looking at him with

    eyes that seemed to wonder as an untamed ruminating animal wonders.

    "Are all Englishmen like that?"

    "I came because I could not live without trying to see you. You are

    lonely; I love you; I want you to consent to be my wife; I will wait,

    but I want you to promise that you will marry me—no one else."

    Laure looked at him in silence with a melancholy radiance from under

    her grand eyelids, until he was full of rapturous certainty, and knelt

    close to her knees.

    "I will tell you something," she said, in her cooing way, keeping her

    arms folded. "My foot really slipped."

    "I know, I know," said Lydgate, deprecatingly. "It was a fatal

    accident—a dreadful stroke of calamity that bound me to you the more."

    Again Laure paused a little and then said, slowly, "I meant to do it."

    Lydgate, strong man as he was, turned pale and trembled: moments seemed

    to pass before he rose and stood at a distance from her.

    "There was a secret, then," he said at last, even vehemently. "He was

    brutal to you: you hated him."

    "No! he wearied me; he was too fond: he would live in Paris, and not in

    my country; that was not agreeable to me."

    "Great God!" said Lydgate, in a groan of horror. "And you planned to

    murder him?"

    "I did not plan: it came to me in the play—I meant to do it."

    Lydgate stood mute, and unconsciously pressed his hat on while he

    looked at her. He saw this woman—the first to whom he had given his

    young adoration—amid the throng of stupid criminals.

    "You are a good young man," she said. "But I do not like husbands. I

    will never have another."

    Three days afterwards Lydgate was at his galvanism again in his Paris

    chambers, believing that illusions were at an end for him. He was

    saved from hardening effects by the abundant kindness of his heart and

    his belief that human life might be made better. But he had more

    reason than ever for trusting his judgment, now that it was so

    experienced; and henceforth he would take a strictly scientific view of

    woman, entertaining no expectations but such as were justified


    No one in Middlemarch was likely to have such a notion of Lydgate's

    past as has here been faintly shadowed, and indeed the respectable

    townsfolk there were not more given than mortals generally to any eager

    attempt at exactness in the representation to themselves of what did

    not come under their own senses. Not only young virgins of that town,

    but gray-bearded men also, were often in haste to conjecture how a new

    acquaintance might be wrought into their purposes, contented with very

    vague knowledge as to the way in which life had been shaping him for

    that instrumentality. Middlemarch, in fact, counted on swallowing

    Lydgate and assimilating him very comfortably.


    "All that in woman is adored
    In thy fair self I find—
    For the whole sex can but afford
    The handsome and the kind."

    The question whether Mr. Tyke should be appointed as salaried chaplain

    to the hospital was an exciting topic to the Middlemarchers; and

    Lydgate heard it discussed in a way that threw much light on the power

    exercised in the town by Mr. Bulstrode. The banker was evidently a

    ruler, but there was an opposition party, and even among his supporters

    there were some who allowed it to be seen that their support was a

    compromise, and who frankly stated their impression that the general

    scheme of things, and especially the casualties of trade, required you

    to hold a candle to the devil.

    Mr. Bulstrode's power was not due simply to his being a country banker,

    who knew the financial secrets of most traders in the town and could

    touch the springs of their credit; it was fortified by a beneficence

    that was at once ready and severe—ready to confer obligations, and

    severe in watching the result. He had gathered, as an industrious man

    always at his post, a chief share in administering the town charities,

    and his private charities were both minute and abundant. He would take

    a great deal of pains about apprenticing Tegg the shoemaker's son, and

    he would watch over Tegg's church-going; he would defend Mrs. Strype

    the washerwoman against Stubbs's unjust exaction on the score of her

    drying-ground, and he would himself scrutinize a calumny against Mrs.

    Strype. His private minor loans were numerous, but he would inquire

    strictly into the circumstances both before and after. In this way a

    man gathers a domain in his neighbors' hope and fear as well as

    gratitude; and power, when once it has got into that subtle region,

    propagates itself, spreading out of all proportion to its external

    means. It was a principle with Mr. Bulstrode to gain as much power as

    possible, that he might use it for the glory of God. He went through a

    great deal of spiritual conflict and inward argument in order to adjust

    his motives, and make clear to himself what God's glory required. But,

    as we have seen, his motives were not always rightly appreciated.

    There were many crass minds in Middlemarch whose reflective scales

    could only weigh things in the lump; and they had a strong suspicion

    that since Mr. Bulstrode could not enjoy life in their fashion, eating

    and drinking so little as he did, and worreting himself about

    everything, he must have a sort of vampire's feast in the sense of


    The subject of the chaplaincy came up at Mr. Vincy's table when Lydgate

    was dining there, and the family connection with Mr. Bulstrode did not,

    he observed, prevent some freedom of remark even on the part of the

    host himself, though his reasons against the proposed arrangement

    turned entirely on his objection to Mr. Tyke's sermons, which were all

    doctrine, and his preference for Mr. Farebrother, whose sermons were

    free from that taint. Mr. Vincy liked well enough the notion of the

    chaplain's having a salary, supposing it were given to Farebrother, who

    was as good a little fellow as ever breathed, and the best preacher

    anywhere, and companionable too.

    "What line shall you take, then?" said Mr. Chichely, the coroner, a

    great coursing comrade of Mr. Vincy's.

    "Oh, I'm precious glad I'm not one of the Directors now. I shall vote

    for referring the matter to the Directors and the Medical Board

    together. I shall roll some of my responsibility on your shoulders,

    Doctor," said Mr. Vincy, glancing first at Dr. Sprague, the senior

    physician of the town, and then at Lydgate who sat opposite. "You

    medical gentlemen must consult which sort of black draught you will

    prescribe, eh, Mr. Lydgate?"

    "I know little of either," said Lydgate; "but in general, appointments

    are apt to be made too much a question of personal liking. The fittest

    man for a particular post is not always the best fellow or the most

    agreeable. Sometimes, if you wanted to get a reform, your only way

    would be to pension off the good fellows whom everybody is fond of, and

    put them out of the question."

    Dr. Sprague, who was considered the physician of most "weight," though

    Dr. Minchin was usually said to have more "penetration," divested his

    large heavy face of all expression, and looked at his wine-glass while

    Lydgate was speaking. Whatever was not problematical and suspected

    about this young man—for example, a certain showiness as to foreign

    ideas, and a disposition to unsettle what had been settled and

    forgotten by his elders—was positively unwelcome to a physician whose

    standing had been fixed thirty years before by a treatise on

    Meningitis, of which at least one copy marked "own" was bound in calf.

    For my part I have some fellow-feeling with Dr. Sprague: one's

    self-satisfaction is an untaxed kind of property which it is very

    unpleasant to find deprecated.

    Lydgate's remark, however, did not meet the sense of the company. Mr.

    Vincy said, that if he could have his way, he would not put

    disagreeable fellows anywhere.

    "Hang your reforms!" said Mr. Chichely. "There's no greater humbug in

    the world. You never hear of a reform, but it means some trick to put

    in new men. I hope you are not one of the 'Lancet's' men, Mr.

    Lydgate—wanting to take the coronership out of the hands of the legal

    profession: your words appear to point that way."

    "I disapprove of Wakley," interposed Dr. Sprague, "no man more: he is

    an ill-intentioned fellow, who would sacrifice the respectability of

    the profession, which everybody knows depends on the London Colleges,

    for the sake of getting some notoriety for himself. There are men who

    don't mind about being kicked blue if they can only get talked about.

    But Wakley is right sometimes," the Doctor added, judicially. "I could

    mention one or two points in which Wakley is in the right."

    "Oh, well," said Mr. Chichely, "I blame no man for standing up in favor

    of his own cloth; but, coming to argument, I should like to know how a

    coroner is to judge of evidence if he has not had a legal training?"

    "In my opinion," said Lydgate, "legal training only makes a man more

    incompetent in questions that require knowledge a of another kind.

    People talk about evidence as if it could really be weighed in scales

    by a blind Justice. No man can judge what is good evidence on any

    particular subject, unless he knows that subject well. A lawyer is no

    better than an old woman at a post-mortem examination. How is he to

    know the action of a poison? You might as well say that scanning verse

    will teach you to scan the potato crops."

    "You are aware, I suppose, that it is not the coroner's business to

    conduct the post-mortem, but only to take the evidence of the medical

    witness?" said Mr. Chichely, with some scorn.

    "Who is often almost as ignorant as the coroner himself," said Lydgate.

    "Questions of medical jurisprudence ought not to be left to the chance

    of decent knowledge in a medical witness, and the coroner ought not to

    be a man who will believe that strychnine will destroy the coats of the

    stomach if an ignorant practitioner happens to tell him so."

    Lydgate had really lost sight of the fact that Mr. Chichely was his

    Majesty's coroner, and ended innocently with the question, "Don't you

    agree with me, Dr. Sprague?"

    "To a certain extent—with regard to populous districts, and in the

    metropolis," said the Doctor. "But I hope it will be long before this

    part of the country loses the services of my friend Chichely, even

    though it might get the best man in our profession to succeed him. I

    am sure Vincy will agree with me."

    "Yes, yes, give me a coroner who is a good coursing man," said Mr.

    Vincy, jovially. "And in my opinion, you're safest with a lawyer.

    Nobody can know everything. Most things are 'visitation of God.' And as

    to poisoning, why, what you want to know is the law. Come, shall we

    join the ladies?"

    Lydgate's private opinion was that Mr. Chichely might be the very

    coroner without bias as to the coats of the stomach, but he had not

    meant to be personal. This was one of the difficulties of moving in

    good Middlemarch society: it was dangerous to insist on knowledge as a

    qualification for any salaried office. Fred Vincy had called Lydgate a

    prig, and now Mr. Chichely was inclined to call him prick-eared;

    especially when, in the drawing-room, he seemed to be making himself

    eminently agreeable to Rosamond, whom he had easily monopolized in a

    tete-a-tete, since Mrs. Vincy herself sat at the tea-table. She

    resigned no domestic function to her daughter; and the matron's

    blooming good-natured face, with the two volatile pink strings floating

    from her fine throat, and her cheery manners to husband and children,

    was certainly among the great attractions of the Vincy

    house—attractions which made it all the easier to fall in love with

    the daughter. The tinge of unpretentious, inoffensive vulgarity in

    Mrs. Vincy gave more effect to Rosamond's refinement, which was beyond

    what Lydgate had expected.

    Certainly, small feet and perfectly turned shoulders aid the impression

    of refined manners, and the right thing said seems quite astonishingly

    right when it is accompanied with exquisite curves of lip and eyelid.

    And Rosamond could say the right thing; for she was clever with that

    sort of cleverness which catches every tone except the humorous.

    Happily she never attempted to joke, and this perhaps was the most

    decisive mark of her cleverness.

    She and Lydgate readily got into conversation. He regretted that he

    had not heard her sing the other day at Stone Court. The only pleasure

    he allowed himself during the latter part of his stay in Paris was to

    go and hear music.

    "You have studied music, probably?" said Rosamond.

    "No, I know the notes of many birds, and I know many melodies by ear;

    but the music that I don't know at all, and have no notion about,

    delights me—affects me. How stupid the world is that it does not make

    more use of such a pleasure within its reach!"

    "Yes, and you will find Middlemarch very tuneless. There are hardly

    any good musicians. I only know two gentlemen who sing at all well."

    "I suppose it is the fashion to sing comic songs in a rhythmic way,

    leaving you to fancy the tune—very much as if it were tapped on a


    "Ah, you have heard Mr. Bowyer," said Rosamond, with one of her rare

    smiles. "But we are speaking very ill of our neighbors."

    Lydgate was almost forgetting that he must carry on the conversation,

    in thinking how lovely this creature was, her garment seeming to be

    made out of the faintest blue sky, herself so immaculately blond, as if

    the petals of some gigantic flower had just opened and disclosed her;

    and yet with this infantine blondness showing so much ready,

    self-possessed grace. Since he had had the memory of Laure, Lydgate

    had lost all taste for large-eyed silence: the divine cow no longer

    attracted him, and Rosamond was her very opposite. But he recalled


    "You will let me hear some music to-night, I hope."

    "I will let you hear my attempts, if you like," said Rosamond. "Papa

    is sure to insist on my singing. But I shall tremble before you, who

    have heard the best singers in Paris. I have heard very little: I have

    only once been to London. But our organist at St. Peter's is a good

    musician, and I go on studying with him."

    "Tell me what you saw in London."

    "Very little." (A more naive girl would have said, "Oh, everything!"

    But Rosamond knew better.) "A few of the ordinary sights, such as raw

    country girls are always taken to."

    "Do you call yourself a raw country girl?" said Lydgate, looking at her

    with an involuntary emphasis of admiration, which made Rosamond blush

    with pleasure. But she remained simply serious, turned her long neck a

    little, and put up her hand to touch her wondrous hair-plaits—an

    habitual gesture with her as pretty as any movements of a kitten's paw.

    Not that Rosamond was in the least like a kitten: she was a sylph

    caught young and educated at Mrs. Lemon's.

    "I assure you my mind is raw," she said immediately; "I pass at

    Middlemarch. I am not afraid of talking to our old neighbors. But I

    am really afraid of you."

    "An accomplished woman almost always knows more than we men, though her

    knowledge is of a different sort. I am sure you could teach me a

    thousand things—as an exquisite bird could teach a bear if there were

    any common language between them. Happily, there is a common language

    between women and men, and so the bears can get taught."

    "Ah, there is Fred beginning to strum! I must go and hinder him from

    jarring all your nerves," said Rosamond, moving to the other side of

    the room, where Fred having opened the piano, at his father's desire,

    that Rosamond might give them some music, was parenthetically

    performing "Cherry Ripe!" with one hand. Able men who have passed

    their examinations will do these things sometimes, not less than the

    plucked Fred.

    "Fred, pray defer your practising till to-morrow; you will make Mr.

    Lydgate ill," said Rosamond. "He has an ear."

    Fred laughed, and went on with his tune to the end.

    Rosamond turned to Lydgate, smiling gently, and said, "You perceive,

    the bears will not always be taught."

    "Now then, Rosy!" said Fred, springing from the stool and twisting it

    upward for her, with a hearty expectation of enjoyment. "Some good

    rousing tunes first."

    Rosamond played admirably. Her master at Mrs. Lemon's school (close to

    a county town with a memorable history that had its relics in church

    and castle) was one of those excellent musicians here and there to be

    found in our provinces, worthy to compare with many a noted

    Kapellmeister in a country which offers more plentiful conditions of

    musical celebrity. Rosamond, with the executant's instinct, had seized

    his manner of playing, and gave forth his large rendering of noble

    music with the precision of an echo. It was almost startling, heard

    for the first time. A hidden soul seemed to be flowing forth from

    Rosamond's fingers; and so indeed it was, since souls live on in

    perpetual echoes, and to all fine expression there goes somewhere an

    originating activity, if it be only that of an interpreter. Lydgate

    was taken possession of, and began to believe in her as something

    exceptional. After all, he thought, one need not be surprised to find

    the rare conjunctions of nature under circumstances apparently

    unfavorable: come where they may, they always depend on conditions that

    are not obvious. He sat looking at her, and did not rise to pay her

    any compliments, leaving that to others, now that his admiration was


    Her singing was less remarkable, but also well trained, and sweet to

    hear as a chime perfectly in tune. It is true she sang "Meet me by

    moonlight," and "I've been roaming"; for mortals must share the

    fashions of their time, and none but the ancients can be always

    classical. But Rosamond could also sing "Black-eyed Susan" with

    effect, or Haydn's canzonets, or "Voi, che sapete," or "Batti,

    batti"—she only wanted to know what her audience liked.

    Her father looked round at the company, delighting in their admiration.

    Her mother sat, like a Niobe before her troubles, with her youngest

    little girl on her lap, softly beating the child's hand up and down in

    time to the music. And Fred, notwithstanding his general scepticism

    about Rosy, listened to her music with perfect allegiance, wishing he

    could do the same thing on his flute. It was the pleasantest family

    party that Lydgate had seen since he came to Middlemarch. The Vincys

    had the readiness to enjoy, the rejection of all anxiety, and the

    belief in life as a merry lot, which made a house exceptional in most

    county towns at that time, when Evangelicalism had cast a certain

    suspicion as of plague-infection over the few amusements which survived

    in the provinces. At the Vincys' there was always whist, and the

    card-tables stood ready now, making some of the company secretly

    impatient of the music. Before it ceased Mr. Farebrother came in—a

    handsome, broad-chested but otherwise small man, about forty, whose

    black was very threadbare: the brilliancy was all in his quick gray

    eyes. He came like a pleasant change in the light, arresting little

    Louisa with fatherly nonsense as she was being led out of the room by

    Miss Morgan, greeting everybody with some special word, and seeming to

    condense more talk into ten minutes than had been held all through the

    evening. He claimed from Lydgate the fulfilment of a promise to come

    and see him. "I can't let you off, you know, because I have some

    beetles to show you. We collectors feel an interest in every new man

    till he has seen all we have to show him."

    But soon he swerved to the whist-table, rubbing his hands and saying,

    "Come now, let us be serious! Mr. Lydgate? not play? Ah! you are too

    young and light for this kind of thing."

    Lydgate said to himself that the clergyman whose abilities were so

    painful to Mr. Bulstrode, appeared to have found an agreeable resort in

    this certainly not erudite household. He could half understand it: the

    good-humor, the good looks of elder and younger, and the provision for

    passing the time without any labor of intelligence, might make the

    house beguiling to people who had no particular use for their odd hours.

    Everything looked blooming and joyous except Miss Morgan, who was

    brown, dull, and resigned, and altogether, as Mrs. Vincy often said,

    just the sort of person for a governess. Lydgate did not mean to pay

    many such visits himself. They were a wretched waste of the evenings;

    and now, when he had talked a little more to Rosamond, he meant to

    excuse himself and go.

    "You will not like us at Middlemarch, I feel sure," she said, when the

    whist-players were settled. "We are very stupid, and you have been

    used to something quite different."

    "I suppose all country towns are pretty much alike," said Lydgate.

    "But I have noticed that one always believes one's own town to be more

    stupid than any other. I have made up my mind to take Middlemarch as

    it comes, and shall be much obliged if the town will take me in the

    same way. I have certainly found some charms in it which are much

    greater than I had expected."

    "You mean the rides towards Tipton and Lowick; every one is pleased

    with those," said Rosamond, with simplicity.

    "No, I mean something much nearer to me."

    Rosamond rose and reached her netting, and then said, "Do you care

    about dancing at all? I am not quite sure whether clever men ever


    "I would dance with you if you would allow me."

    "Oh!" said Rosamond, with a slight deprecatory laugh. "I was only

    going to say that we sometimes have dancing, and I wanted to know

    whether you would feel insulted if you were asked to come."

    "Not on the condition I mentioned."

    After this chat Lydgate thought that he was going, but on moving

    towards the whist-tables, he got interested in watching Mr.

    Farebrother's play, which was masterly, and also his face, which was a

    striking mixture of the shrewd and the mild. At ten o'clock supper was

    brought in (such were the customs of Middlemarch) and there was

    punch-drinking; but Mr. Farebrother had only a glass of water. He was

    winning, but there seemed to be no reason why the renewal of rubbers

    should end, and Lydgate at last took his leave.

    But as it was not eleven o'clock, he chose to walk in the brisk air

    towards the tower of St. Botolph's, Mr. Farebrother's church, which

    stood out dark, square, and massive against the starlight. It was the

    oldest church in Middlemarch; the living, however, was but a vicarage

    worth barely four hundred a-year. Lydgate had heard that, and he

    wondered now whether Mr. Farebrother cared about the money he won at

    cards; thinking, "He seems a very pleasant fellow, but Bulstrode may

    have his good reasons." Many things would be easier to Lydgate if it

    should turn out that Mr. Bulstrode was generally justifiable. "What is

    his religious doctrine to me, if he carries some good notions along

    with it? One must use such brains as are to be found."

    These were actually Lydgate's first meditations as he walked away from

    Mr. Vincy's, and on this ground I fear that many ladies will consider

    him hardly worthy of their attention. He thought of Rosamond and her

    music only in the second place; and though, when her turn came, he

    dwelt on the image of her for the rest of his walk, he felt no

    agitation, and had no sense that any new current had set into his life.

    He could not marry yet; he wished not to marry for several years; and

    therefore he was not ready to entertain the notion of being in love

    with a girl whom he happened to admire. He did admire Rosamond

    exceedingly; but that madness which had once beset him about Laure was

    not, he thought, likely to recur in relation to any other woman.

    Certainly, if falling in love had been at all in question, it would

    have been quite safe with a creature like this Miss Vincy, who had just

    the kind of intelligence one would desire in a woman—polished,

    refined, docile, lending itself to finish in all the delicacies of

    life, and enshrined in a body which expressed this with a force of

    demonstration that excluded the need for other evidence. Lydgate felt

    sure that if ever he married, his wife would have that feminine

    radiance, that distinctive womanhood which must be classed with flowers

    and music, that sort of beauty which by its very nature was virtuous,

    being moulded only for pure and delicate joys.

    But since he did not mean to marry for the next five years—his more

    pressing business was to look into Louis' new book on Fever, which he

    was specially interested in, because he had known Louis in Paris, and

    had followed many anatomical demonstrations in order to ascertain the

    specific differences of typhus and typhoid. He went home and read far

    into the smallest hour, bringing a much more testing vision of details

    and relations into this pathological study than he had ever thought it

    necessary to apply to the complexities of love and marriage, these

    being subjects on which he felt himself amply informed by literature,

    and that traditional wisdom which is handed down in the genial

    conversation of men. Whereas Fever had obscure conditions, and gave

    him that delightful labor of the imagination which is not mere

    arbitrariness, but the exercise of disciplined power—combining and

    constructing with the clearest eye for probabilities and the fullest

    obedience to knowledge; and then, in yet more energetic alliance with

    impartial Nature, standing aloof to invent tests by which to try its

    own work.

    Many men have been praised as vividly imaginative on the strength of

    their profuseness in indifferent drawing or cheap narration:—reports

    of very poor talk going on in distant orbs; or portraits of Lucifer

    coming down on his bad errands as a large ugly man with bat's wings and

    spurts of phosphorescence; or exaggerations of wantonness that seem to

    reflect life in a diseased dream. But these kinds of inspiration

    Lydgate regarded as rather vulgar and vinous compared with the

    imagination that reveals subtle actions inaccessible by any sort of

    lens, but tracked in that outer darkness through long pathways of

    necessary sequence by the inward light which is the last refinement of

    Energy, capable of bathing even the ethereal atoms in its ideally

    illuminated space. He for his part had tossed away all cheap

    inventions where ignorance finds itself able and at ease: he was

    enamoured of that arduous invention which is the very eye of research,

    provisionally framing its object and correcting it to more and more

    exactness of relation; he wanted to pierce the obscurity of those

    minute processes which prepare human misery and joy, those invisible

    thoroughfares which are the first lurking-places of anguish, mania, and

    crime, that delicate poise and transition which determine the growth of

    happy or unhappy consciousness.

    As he threw down his book, stretched his legs towards the embers in the

    grate, and clasped his hands at the back of his head, in that agreeable

    afterglow of excitement when thought lapses from examination of a

    specific object into a suffusive sense of its connections with all the

    rest of our existence—seems, as it were, to throw itself on its back

    after vigorous swimming and float with the repose of unexhausted

    strength—Lydgate felt a triumphant delight in his studies, and

    something like pity for those less lucky men who were not of his


    "If I had not taken that turn when I was a lad," he thought, "I might

    have got into some stupid draught-horse work or other, and lived always

    in blinkers. I should never have been happy in any profession that did

    not call forth the highest intellectual strain, and yet keep me in good

    warm contact with my neighbors. There is nothing like the medical

    profession for that: one can have the exclusive scientific life that

    touches the distance and befriend the old fogies in the parish too. It

    is rather harder for a clergyman: Farebrother seems to be an anomaly."

    This last thought brought back the Vincys and all the pictures of the

    evening. They floated in his mind agreeably enough, and as he took up

    his bed-candle his lips were curled with that incipient smile which is

    apt to accompany agreeable recollections. He was an ardent fellow, but

    at present his ardor was absorbed in love of his work and in the

    ambition of making his life recognized as a factor in the better life

    of mankind—like other heroes of science who had nothing but an obscure

    country practice to begin with.

    Poor Lydgate! or shall I say, Poor Rosamond! Each lived in a world of

    which the other knew nothing. It had not occurred to Lydgate that he

    had been a subject of eager meditation to Rosamond, who had neither any

    reason for throwing her marriage into distant perspective, nor any

    pathological studies to divert her mind from that ruminating habit,

    that inward repetition of looks, words, and phrases, which makes a

    large part in the lives of most girls. He had not meant to look at her

    or speak to her with more than the inevitable amount of admiration and

    compliment which a man must give to a beautiful girl; indeed, it seemed

    to him that his enjoyment of her music had remained almost silent, for

    he feared falling into the rudeness of telling her his great surprise

    at her possession of such accomplishment. But Rosamond had registered

    every look and word, and estimated them as the opening incidents of a

    preconceived romance—incidents which gather value from the foreseen

    development and climax. In Rosamond's romance it was not necessary to

    imagine much about the inward life of the hero, or of his serious

    business in the world: of course, he had a profession and was clever,

    as well as sufficiently handsome; but the piquant fact about Lydgate

    was his good birth, which distinguished him from all Middlemarch

    admirers, and presented marriage as a prospect of rising in rank and

    getting a little nearer to that celestial condition on earth in which

    she would have nothing to do with vulgar people, and perhaps at last

    associate with relatives quite equal to the county people who looked

    down on the Middlemarchers. It was part of Rosamond's cleverness to

    discern very subtly the faintest aroma of rank, and once when she had

    seen the Miss Brookes accompanying their uncle at the county assizes,

    and seated among the aristocracy, she had envied them, notwithstanding

    their plain dress.

    If you think it incredible that to imagine Lydgate as a man of family

    could cause thrills of satisfaction which had anything to do with the

    sense that she was in love with him, I will ask you to use your power

    of comparison a little more effectively, and consider whether red cloth

    and epaulets have never had an influence of that sort. Our passions do

    not live apart in locked chambers, but, dressed in their small wardrobe

    of notions, bring their provisions to a common table and mess together,

    feeding out of the common store according to their appetite.

    Rosamond, in fact, was entirely occupied not exactly with Tertius

    Lydgate as he was in himself, but with his relation to her; and it was

    excusable in a girl who was accustomed to hear that all young men

    might, could, would be, or actually were in love with her, to believe

    at once that Lydgate could be no exception. His looks and words meant

    more to her than other men's, because she cared more for them: she

    thought of them diligently, and diligently attended to that perfection

    of appearance, behavior, sentiments, and all other elegancies, which

    would find in Lydgate a more adequate admirer than she had yet been

    conscious of.

    For Rosamond, though she would never do anything that was disagreeable

    to her, was industrious; and now more than ever she was active in

    sketching her landscapes and market-carts and portraits of friends, in

    practising her music, and in being from morning till night her own

    standard of a perfect lady, having always an audience in her own

    consciousness, with sometimes the not unwelcome addition of a more

    variable external audience in the numerous visitors of the house. She

    found time also to read the best novels, and even the second best, and

    she knew much poetry by heart. Her favorite poem was "Lalla Rookh."

    "The best girl in the world! He will be a happy fellow who gets her!"

    was the sentiment of the elderly gentlemen who visited the Vincys; and

    the rejected young men thought of trying again, as is the fashion in

    country towns where the horizon is not thick with coming rivals. But

    Mrs. Plymdale thought that Rosamond had been educated to a ridiculous

    pitch, for what was the use of accomplishments which would be all laid

    aside as soon as she was married? While her aunt Bulstrode, who had a

    sisterly faithfulness towards her brother's family, had two sincere

    wishes for Rosamond—that she might show a more serious turn of mind,

    and that she might meet with a husband whose wealth corresponded to her



    "The clerkly person smiled and said
    Promise was a pretty maid,
    But being poor she died unwed."

    The Rev. Camden Farebrother, whom Lydgate went to see the next evening,

    lived in an old parsonage, built of stone, venerable enough to match

    the church which it looked out upon. All the furniture too in the

    house was old, but with another grade of age—that of Mr. Farebrother's

    father and grandfather. There were painted white chairs, with gilding

    and wreaths on them, and some lingering red silk damask with slits in

    it. There were engraved portraits of Lord Chancellors and other

    celebrated lawyers of the last century; and there were old pier-glasses

    to reflect them, as well as the little satin-wood tables and the sofas

    resembling a prolongation of uneasy chairs, all standing in relief

    against the dark wainscot. This was the physiognomy of the drawing-room

    into which Lydgate was shown; and there were three ladies to receive

    him, who were also old-fashioned, and of a faded but genuine

    respectability: Mrs. Farebrother, the Vicar's white-haired mother,

    befrilled and kerchiefed with dainty cleanliness, upright, quick-eyed,

    and still under seventy; Miss Noble, her sister, a tiny old lady of

    meeker aspect, with frills and kerchief decidedly more worn and mended;

    and Miss Winifred Farebrother, the Vicar's elder sister, well-looking

    like himself, but nipped and subdued as single women are apt to be who

    spend their lives in uninterrupted subjection to their elders. Lydgate

    had not expected to see so quaint a group: knowing simply that Mr.

    Farebrother was a bachelor, he had thought of being ushered into a

    snuggery where the chief furniture would probably be books and

    collections of natural objects. The Vicar himself seemed to wear

    rather a changed aspect, as most men do when acquaintances made

    elsewhere see them for the first time in their own homes; some indeed

    showing like an actor of genial parts disadvantageously cast for the

    curmudgeon in a new piece. This was not the case with Mr. Farebrother:

    he seemed a trifle milder and more silent, the chief talker being his

    mother, while he only put in a good-humored moderating remark here and

    there. The old lady was evidently accustomed to tell her company what

    they ought to think, and to regard no subject as quite safe without her

    steering. She was afforded leisure for this function by having all her

    little wants attended to by Miss Winifred. Meanwhile tiny Miss Noble

    carried on her arm a small basket, into which she diverted a bit of

    sugar, which she had first dropped in her saucer as if by mistake;

    looking round furtively afterwards, and reverting to her teacup with a

    small innocent noise as of a tiny timid quadruped. Pray think no ill

    of Miss Noble. That basket held small savings from her more portable

    food, destined for the children of her poor friends among whom she

    trotted on fine mornings; fostering and petting all needy creatures

    being so spontaneous a delight to her, that she regarded it much as if

    it had been a pleasant vice that she was addicted to. Perhaps she was

    conscious of being tempted to steal from those who had much that she

    might give to those who had nothing, and carried in her conscience the

    guilt of that repressed desire. One must be poor to know the luxury of


    Mrs. Farebrother welcomed the guest with a lively formality and

    precision. She presently informed him that they were not often in want

    of medical aid in that house. She had brought up her children to wear

    flannel and not to over-eat themselves, which last habit she considered

    the chief reason why people needed doctors. Lydgate pleaded for those

    whose fathers and mothers had over-eaten themselves, but Mrs.

    Farebrother held that view of things dangerous: Nature was more just

    than that; it would be easy for any felon to say that his ancestors

    ought to have been hanged instead of him. If those who had bad fathers

    and mothers were bad themselves, they were hanged for that. There was

    no need to go back on what you couldn't see.

    "My mother is like old George the Third," said the Vicar, "she objects

    to metaphysics."

    "I object to what is wrong, Camden. I say, keep hold of a few plain

    truths, and make everything square with them. When I was young, Mr.

    Lydgate, there never was any question about right and wrong. We knew

    our catechism, and that was enough; we learned our creed and our duty.

    Every respectable Church person had the same opinions. But now, if you

    speak out of the Prayer-book itself, you are liable to be contradicted."

    "That makes rather a pleasant time of it for those who like to maintain

    their own point," said Lydgate.

    "But my mother always gives way," said the Vicar, slyly.

    "No, no, Camden, you must not lead Mr. Lydgate into a mistake about

    me. I shall never show that disrespect to my parents, to give up what

    they taught me. Any one may see what comes of turning. If you change

    once, why not twenty times?"

    "A man might see good arguments for changing once, and not see them for

    changing again," said Lydgate, amused with the decisive old lady.

    "Excuse me there. If you go upon arguments, they are never wanting,

    when a man has no constancy of mind. My father never changed, and he

    preached plain moral sermons without arguments, and was a good man—few

    better. When you get me a good man made out of arguments, I will get

    you a good dinner with reading you the cookery-book. That's my opinion,

    and I think anybody's stomach will bear me out."

    "About the dinner certainly, mother," said Mr. Farebrother.

    "It is the same thing, the dinner or the man. I am nearly seventy, Mr.

    Lydgate, and I go upon experience. I am not likely to follow new

    lights, though there are plenty of them here as elsewhere. I say, they

    came in with the mixed stuffs that will neither wash nor wear. It was

    not so in my youth: a Churchman was a Churchman, and a clergyman, you

    might be pretty sure, was a gentleman, if nothing else. But now he may

    be no better than a Dissenter, and want to push aside my son on

    pretence of doctrine. But whoever may wish to push him aside, I am

    proud to say, Mr. Lydgate, that he will compare with any preacher in

    this kingdom, not to speak of this town, which is but a low standard to

    go by; at least, to my thinking, for I was born and bred at Exeter."

    "A mother is never partial," said Mr. Farebrother, smiling. "What do

    you think Tyke's mother says about him?"

    "Ah, poor creature! what indeed?" said Mrs. Farebrother, her sharpness

    blunted for the moment by her confidence in maternal judgments. "She

    says the truth to herself, depend upon it."

    "And what is the truth?" said Lydgate. "I am curious to know."

    "Oh, nothing bad at all," said Mr. Farebrother. "He is a zealous

    fellow: not very learned, and not very wise, I think—because I don't

    agree with him."

    "Why, Camden!" said Miss Winifred, "Griffin and his wife told me only

    to-day, that Mr. Tyke said they should have no more coals if they came

    to hear you preach."

    Mrs. Farebrother laid down her knitting, which she had resumed after

    her small allowance of tea and toast, and looked at her son as if to

    say "You hear that?" Miss Noble said, "Oh poor things! poor things!"

    in reference, probably, to the double loss of preaching and coal. But

    the Vicar answered quietly—

    "That is because they are not my parishioners. And I don't think my

    sermons are worth a load of coals to them."

    "Mr. Lydgate," said Mrs. Farebrother, who could not let this pass, "you

    don't know my son: he always undervalues himself. I tell him he is

    undervaluing the God who made him, and made him a most excellent


    "That must be a hint for me to take Mr. Lydgate away to my study,

    mother," said the Vicar, laughing. "I promised to show you my

    collection," he added, turning to Lydgate; "shall we go?"

    All three ladies remonstrated. Mr. Lydgate ought not to be hurried

    away without being allowed to accept another cup of tea: Miss Winifred

    had abundance of good tea in the pot. Why was Camden in such haste to

    take a visitor to his den? There was nothing but pickled vermin, and

    drawers full of blue-bottles and moths, with no carpet on the floor.

    Mr. Lydgate must excuse it. A game at cribbage would be far better.

    In short, it was plain that a vicar might be adored by his womankind as

    the king of men and preachers, and yet be held by them to stand in much

    need of their direction. Lydgate, with the usual shallowness of a

    young bachelor, wondered that Mr. Farebrother had not taught them


    "My mother is not used to my having visitors who can take any interest

    in my hobbies," said the Vicar, as he opened the door of his study,

    which was indeed as bare of luxuries for the body as the ladies had

    implied, unless a short porcelain pipe and a tobacco-box were to be


    "Men of your profession don't generally smoke," he said. Lydgate

    smiled and shook his head. "Nor of mine either, properly, I suppose.

    You will hear that pipe alleged against me by Bulstrode and Company.

    They don't know how pleased the devil would be if I gave it up."

    "I understand. You are of an excitable temper and want a sedative. I

    am heavier, and should get idle with it. I should rush into idleness,

    and stagnate there with all my might."

    "And you mean to give it all to your work. I am some ten or twelve

    years older than you, and have come to a compromise. I feed a weakness

    or two lest they should get clamorous. See," continued the Vicar,

    opening several small drawers, "I fancy I have made an exhaustive study

    of the entomology of this district. I am going on both with the fauna

    and flora; but I have at least done my insects well. We are singularly

    rich in orthoptera: I don't know whether—Ah! you have got hold of that

    glass jar—you are looking into that instead of my drawers. You don't

    really care about these things?"

    "Not by the side of this lovely anencephalous monster. I have never

    had time to give myself much to natural history. I was early bitten

    with an interest in structure, and it is what lies most directly in my

    profession. I have no hobby besides. I have the sea to swim in there."

    "Ah! you are a happy fellow," said Mr. Farebrother, turning on his heel

    and beginning to fill his pipe. "You don't know what it is to want

    spiritual tobacco—bad emendations of old texts, or small items about a

    variety of Aphis Brassicae, with the well-known signature of

    Philomicron, for the 'Twaddler's Magazine;' or a learned treatise on

    the entomology of the Pentateuch, including all the insects not

    mentioned, but probably met with by the Israelites in their passage

    through the desert; with a monograph on the Ant, as treated by Solomon,

    showing the harmony of the Book of Proverbs with the results of modern

    research. You don't mind my fumigating you?"

    Lydgate was more surprised at the openness of this talk than at its

    implied meaning—that the Vicar felt himself not altogether in the

    right vocation. The neat fitting-up of drawers and shelves, and the

    bookcase filled with expensive illustrated books on Natural History,

    made him think again of the winnings at cards and their destination.

    But he was beginning to wish that the very best construction of

    everything that Mr. Farebrother did should be the true one. The

    Vicar's frankness seemed not of the repulsive sort that comes from an

    uneasy consciousness seeking to forestall the judgment of others, but

    simply the relief of a desire to do with as little pretence as

    possible. Apparently he was not without a sense that his freedom of

    speech might seem premature, for he presently said—

    "I have not yet told you that I have the advantage of you, Mr. Lydgate,

    and know you better than you know me. You remember Trawley who shared

    your apartment at Paris for some time? I was a correspondent of his,

    and he told me a good deal about you. I was not quite sure when you

    first came that you were the same man. I was very glad when I found

    that you were. Only I don't forget that you have not had the like

    prologue about me."

    Lydgate divined some delicacy of feeling here, but did not half

    understand it. "By the way," he said, "what has become of Trawley? I

    have quite lost sight of him. He was hot on the French social systems,

    and talked of going to the Backwoods to found a sort of Pythagorean

    community. Is he gone?"

    "Not at all. He is practising at a German bath, and has married a rich


    "Then my notions wear the best, so far," said Lydgate, with a short

    scornful laugh. "He would have it, the medical profession was an

    inevitable system of humbug. I said, the fault was in the men—men who

    truckle to lies and folly. Instead of preaching against humbug outside

    the walls, it might be better to set up a disinfecting apparatus

    within. In short—I am reporting my own conversation—you may be sure

    I had all the good sense on my side."

    "Your scheme is a good deal more difficult to carry out than the

    Pythagorean community, though. You have not only got the old Adam in

    yourself against you, but you have got all those descendants of the

    original Adam who form the society around you. You see, I have paid

    twelve or thirteen years more than you for my knowledge of

    difficulties. But"—Mr. Farebrother broke off a moment, and then

    added, "you are eying that glass vase again. Do you want to make an

    exchange? You shall not have it without a fair barter."

    "I have some sea-mice—fine specimens—in spirits. And I will throw in

    Robert Brown's new thing—'Microscopic Observations on the Pollen of

    Plants'—if you don't happen to have it already."

    "Why, seeing how you long for the monster, I might ask a higher price.

    Suppose I ask you to look through my drawers and agree with me about

    all my new species?" The Vicar, while he talked in this way,

    alternately moved about with his pipe in his mouth, and returned to

    hang rather fondly over his drawers. "That would be good discipline,

    you know, for a young doctor who has to please his patients in

    Middlemarch. You must learn to be bored, remember. However, you shall

    have the monster on your own terms."

    "Don't you think men overrate the necessity for humoring everybody's

    nonsense, till they get despised by the very fools they humor?" said

    Lydgate, moving to Mr. Farebrother's side, and looking rather absently

    at the insects ranged in fine gradation, with names subscribed in

    exquisite writing. "The shortest way is to make your value felt, so

    that people must put up with you whether you flatter them or not."

    "With all my heart. But then you must be sure of having the value, and

    you must keep yourself independent. Very few men can do that. Either

    you slip out of service altogether, and become good for nothing, or you

    wear the harness and draw a good deal where your yoke-fellows pull you.

    But do look at these delicate orthoptera!"

    Lydgate had after all to give some scrutiny to each drawer, the Vicar

    laughing at himself, and yet persisting in the exhibition.

    "Apropos of what you said about wearing harness," Lydgate began, after

    they had sat down, "I made up my mind some time ago to do with as

    little of it as possible. That was why I determined not to try anything

    in London, for a good many years at least. I didn't like what I saw

    when I was studying there—so much empty bigwiggism, and obstructive

    trickery. In the country, people have less pretension to knowledge,

    and are less of companions, but for that reason they affect one's

    amour-propre less: one makes less bad blood, and can follow one's own

    course more quietly."

    "Yes—well—you have got a good start; you are in the right profession,

    the work you feel yourself most fit for. Some people miss that, and

    repent too late. But you must not be too sure of keeping your


    "You mean of family ties?" said Lydgate, conceiving that these might

    press rather tightly on Mr. Farebrother.

    "Not altogether. Of course they make many things more difficult. But

    a good wife—a good unworldly woman—may really help a man, and keep

    him more independent. There's a parishioner of mine—a fine fellow,

    but who would hardly have pulled through as he has done without his

    wife. Do you know the Garths? I think they were not Peacock's


    "No; but there is a Miss Garth at old Featherstone's, at Lowick."

    "Their daughter: an excellent girl."

    "She is very quiet—I have hardly noticed her."

    "She has taken notice of you, though, depend upon it."

    "I don't understand," said Lydgate; he could hardly say "Of course."

    "Oh, she gauges everybody. I prepared her for confirmation—she is a

    favorite of mine."

    Mr. Farebrother puffed a few moments in silence, Lydgate not caring to

    know more about the Garths. At last the Vicar laid down his pipe,

    stretched out his legs, and turned his bright eyes with a smile towards

    Lydgate, saying—

    "But we Middlemarchers are not so tame as you take us to be. We have

    our intrigues and our parties. I am a party man, for example, and

    Bulstrode is another. If you vote for me you will offend Bulstrode."

    "What is there against Bulstrode?" said Lydgate, emphatically.

    "I did not say there was anything against him except that. If you vote

    against him you will make him your enemy."

    "I don't know that I need mind about that," said Lydgate, rather

    proudly; "but he seems to have good ideas about hospitals, and he

    spends large sums on useful public objects. He might help me a good

    deal in carrying out my ideas. As to his religious notions—why, as

    Voltaire said, incantations will destroy a flock of sheep if

    administered with a certain quantity of arsenic. I look for the man

    who will bring the arsenic, and don't mind about his incantations."

    "Very good. But then you must not offend your arsenic-man. You will

    not offend me, you know," said Mr. Farebrother, quite unaffectedly. "I

    don't translate my own convenience into other people's duties. I am

    opposed to Bulstrode in many ways. I don't like the set he belongs to:

    they are a narrow ignorant set, and do more to make their neighbors

    uncomfortable than to make them better. Their system is a sort of

    worldly-spiritual cliqueism: they really look on the rest of mankind as

    a doomed carcass which is to nourish them for heaven. But," he added,

    smilingly, "I don't say that Bulstrode's new hospital is a bad thing;

    and as to his wanting to oust me from the old one—why, if he thinks me

    a mischievous fellow, he is only returning a compliment. And I am not

    a model clergyman—only a decent makeshift."

    Lydgate was not at all sure that the Vicar maligned himself. A model

    clergyman, like a model doctor, ought to think his own profession the

    finest in the world, and take all knowledge as mere nourishment to his

    moral pathology and therapeutics. He only said, "What reason does

    Bulstrode give for superseding you?"

    "That I don't teach his opinions—which he calls spiritual religion;

    and that I have no time to spare. Both statements are true. But then

    I could make time, and I should be glad of the forty pounds. That is

    the plain fact of the case. But let us dismiss it. I only wanted to

    tell you that if you vote for your arsenic-man, you are not to cut me

    in consequence. I can't spare you. You are a sort of circumnavigator

    come to settle among us, and will keep up my belief in the antipodes.

    Now tell me all about them in Paris."


    "Oh, sir, the loftiest hopes on earth
    Draw lots with meaner hopes: heroic breasts,
    Breathing bad air, ran risk of pestilence;
    Or, lacking lime-juice when they cross the Line,
    May languish with the scurvy."

    Some weeks passed after this conversation before the question of the

    chaplaincy gathered any practical import for Lydgate, and without

    telling himself the reason, he deferred the predetermination on which

    side he should give his vote. It would really have been a matter of

    total indifference to him—that is to say, he would have taken the more

    convenient side, and given his vote for the appointment of Tyke without

    any hesitation—if he had not cared personally for Mr. Farebrother.

    But his liking for the Vicar of St. Botolph's grew with growing

    acquaintanceship. That, entering into Lydgate's position as a

    new-comer who had his own professional objects to secure, Mr.

    Farebrother should have taken pains rather to warn off than to obtain

    his interest, showed an unusual delicacy and generosity, which

    Lydgate's nature was keenly alive to. It went along with other points

    of conduct in Mr. Farebrother which were exceptionally fine, and made

    his character resemble those southern landscapes which seem divided

    between natural grandeur and social slovenliness. Very few men could

    have been as filial and chivalrous as he was to the mother, aunt, and

    sister, whose dependence on him had in many ways shaped his life rather

    uneasily for himself; few men who feel the pressure of small needs are

    so nobly resolute not to dress up their inevitably self-interested

    desires in a pretext of better motives. In these matters he was

    conscious that his life would bear the closest scrutiny; and perhaps

    the consciousness encouraged a little defiance towards the critical

    strictness of persons whose celestial intimacies seemed not to improve

    their domestic manners, and whose lofty aims were not needed to account

    for their actions. Then, his preaching was ingenious and pithy, like

    the preaching of the English Church in its robust age, and his sermons

    were delivered without book. People outside his parish went to hear

    him; and, since to fill the church was always the most difficult part

    of a clergyman's function, here was another ground for a careless sense

    of superiority. Besides, he was a likable man: sweet-tempered,

    ready-witted, frank, without grins of suppressed bitterness or other

    conversational flavors which make half of us an affliction to our

    friends. Lydgate liked him heartily, and wished for his friendship.

    With this feeling uppermost, he continued to waive the question of the

    chaplaincy, and to persuade himself that it was not only no proper

    business of his, but likely enough never to vex him with a demand for

    his vote. Lydgate, at Mr. Bulstrode's request, was laying down plans

    for the internal arrangements of the new hospital, and the two were

    often in consultation. The banker was always presupposing that he

    could count in general on Lydgate as a coadjutor, but made no special

    recurrence to the coming decision between Tyke and Farebrother. When

    the General Board of the Infirmary had met, however, and Lydgate had

    notice that the question of the chaplaincy was thrown on a council of

    the directors and medical men, to meet on the following Friday, he had

    a vexed sense that he must make up his mind on this trivial Middlemarch

    business. He could not help hearing within him the distinct

    declaration that Bulstrode was prime minister, and that the Tyke affair

    was a question of office or no office; and he could not help an equally

    pronounced dislike to giving up the prospect of office. For his

    observation was constantly confirming Mr. Farebrother's assurance that

    the banker would not overlook opposition. "Confound their petty

    politics!" was one of his thoughts for three mornings in the meditative

    process of shaving, when he had begun to feel that he must really hold

    a court of conscience on this matter. Certainly there were valid

    things to be said against the election of Mr. Farebrother: he had too

    much on his hands already, especially considering how much time he

    spent on non-clerical occupations. Then again it was a continually

    repeated shock, disturbing Lydgate's esteem, that the Vicar should

    obviously play for the sake of money, liking the play indeed, but

    evidently liking some end which it served. Mr. Farebrother contended

    on theory for the desirability of all games, and said that Englishmen's

    wit was stagnant for want of them; but Lydgate felt certain that he

    would have played very much less but for the money. There was a

    billiard-room at the Green Dragon, which some anxious mothers and wives

    regarded as the chief temptation in Middlemarch. The Vicar was a

    first-rate billiard-player, and though he did not frequent the Green

    Dragon, there were reports that he had sometimes been there in the

    daytime and had won money. And as to the chaplaincy, he did not

    pretend that he cared for it, except for the sake of the forty pounds.

    Lydgate was no Puritan, but he did not care for play, and winning money

    at it had always seemed a meanness to him; besides, he had an ideal of

    life which made this subservience of conduct to the gaining of small

    sums thoroughly hateful to him. Hitherto in his own life his wants had

    been supplied without any trouble to himself, and his first impulse was

    always to be liberal with half-crowns as matters of no importance to a

    gentleman; it had never occurred to him to devise a plan for getting

    half-crowns. He had always known in a general way that he was not

    rich, but he had never felt poor, and he had no power of imagining the

    part which the want of money plays in determining the actions of men.

    Money had never been a motive to him. Hence he was not ready to frame

    excuses for this deliberate pursuit of small gains. It was altogether

    repulsive to him, and he never entered into any calculation of the

    ratio between the Vicar's income and his more or less necessary

    expenditure. It was possible that he would not have made such a

    calculation in his own case.

    And now, when the question of voting had come, this repulsive fact told

    more strongly against Mr. Farebrother than it had done before. One

    would know much better what to do if men's characters were more

    consistent, and especially if one's friends were invariably fit for any

    function they desired to undertake! Lydgate was convinced that if

    there had been no valid objection to Mr. Farebrother, he would have

    voted for him, whatever Bulstrode might have felt on the subject: he

    did not intend to be a vassal of Bulstrode's. On the other hand, there

    was Tyke, a man entirely given to his clerical office, who was simply

    curate at a chapel of ease in St. Peter's parish, and had time for

    extra duty. Nobody had anything to say against Mr. Tyke, except that

    they could not bear him, and suspected him of cant. Really, from his

    point of view, Bulstrode was thoroughly justified.

    But whichever way Lydgate began to incline, there was something to make

    him wince; and being a proud man, he was a little exasperated at being

    obliged to wince. He did not like frustrating his own best purposes by

    getting on bad terms with Bulstrode; he did not like voting against

    Farebrother, and helping to deprive him of function and salary; and the

    question occurred whether the additional forty pounds might not leave

    the Vicar free from that ignoble care about winning at cards.

    Moreover, Lydgate did not like the consciousness that in voting for

    Tyke he should be voting on the side obviously convenient for himself.

    But would the end really be his own convenience? Other people would

    say so, and would allege that he was currying favor with Bulstrode for

    the sake of making himself important and getting on in the world. What

    then? He for his own part knew that if his personal prospects simply

    had been concerned, he would not have cared a rotten nut for the

    banker's friendship or enmity. What he really cared for was a medium

    for his work, a vehicle for his ideas; and after all, was he not bound

    to prefer the object of getting a good hospital, where he could

    demonstrate the specific distinctions of fever and test therapeutic

    results, before anything else connected with this chaplaincy? For the

    first time Lydgate was feeling the hampering threadlike pressure of

    small social conditions, and their frustrating complexity. At the end

    of his inward debate, when he set out for the hospital, his hope was

    really in the chance that discussion might somehow give a new aspect to

    the question, and make the scale dip so as to exclude the necessity for

    voting. I think he trusted a little also to the energy which is

    begotten by circumstances—some feeling rushing warmly and making

    resolve easy, while debate in cool blood had only made it more

    difficult. However it was, he did not distinctly say to himself on

    which side he would vote; and all the while he was inwardly resenting

    the subjection which had been forced upon him. It would have seemed

    beforehand like a ridiculous piece of bad logic that he, with his

    unmixed resolutions of independence and his select purposes, would find

    himself at the very outset in the grasp of petty alternatives, each of

    which was repugnant to him. In his student's chambers, he had

    prearranged his social action quite differently.

    Lydgate was late in setting out, but Dr. Sprague, the two other

    surgeons, and several of the directors had arrived early; Mr.

    Bulstrode, treasurer and chairman, being among those who were still

    absent. The conversation seemed to imply that the issue was

    problematical, and that a majority for Tyke was not so certain as had

    been generally supposed. The two physicians, for a wonder, turned out

    to be unanimous, or rather, though of different minds, they concurred

    in action. Dr. Sprague, the rugged and weighty, was, as every one had

    foreseen, an adherent of Mr. Farebrother. The Doctor was more than

    suspected of having no religion, but somehow Middlemarch tolerated this

    deficiency in him as if he had been a Lord Chancellor; indeed it is

    probable that his professional weight was the more believed in, the

    world-old association of cleverness with the evil principle being still

    potent in the minds even of lady-patients who had the strictest ideas

    of frilling and sentiment. It was perhaps this negation in the Doctor

    which made his neighbors call him hard-headed and dry-witted;

    conditions of texture which were also held favorable to the storing of

    judgments connected with drugs. At all events, it is certain that if

    any medical man had come to Middlemarch with the reputation of having

    very definite religious views, of being given to prayer, and of

    otherwise showing an active piety, there would have been a general

    presumption against his medical skill.

    On this ground it was (professionally speaking) fortunate for Dr.

    Minchin that his religious sympathies were of a general kind, and such

    as gave a distant medical sanction to all serious sentiment, whether of

    Church or Dissent, rather than any adhesion to particular tenets. If

    Mr. Bulstrode insisted, as he was apt to do, on the Lutheran doctrine

    of justification, as that by which a Church must stand or fall, Dr.

    Minchin in return was quite sure that man was not a mere machine or a

    fortuitous conjunction of atoms; if Mrs. Wimple insisted on a

    particular providence in relation to her stomach complaint, Dr. Minchin

    for his part liked to keep the mental windows open and objected to

    fixed limits; if the Unitarian brewer jested about the Athanasian

    Creed, Dr. Minchin quoted Pope's "Essay on Man." He objected to the

    rather free style of anecdote in which Dr. Sprague indulged, preferring

    well-sanctioned quotations, and liking refinement of all kinds: it was

    generally known that he had some kinship to a bishop, and sometimes

    spent his holidays at "the palace."

    Dr. Minchin was soft-handed, pale-complexioned, and of rounded outline,

    not to be distinguished from a mild clergyman in appearance: whereas

    Dr. Sprague was superfluously tall; his trousers got creased at the

    knees, and showed an excess of boot at a time when straps seemed

    necessary to any dignity of bearing; you heard him go in and out, and

    up and down, as if he had come to see after the roofing. In short, he

    had weight, and might be expected to grapple with a disease and throw

    it; while Dr. Minchin might be better able to detect it lurking and to

    circumvent it. They enjoyed about equally the mysterious privilege of

    medical reputation, and concealed with much etiquette their contempt

    for each other's skill. Regarding themselves as Middlemarch

    institutions, they were ready to combine against all innovators, and

    against non-professionals given to interference. On this ground they

    were both in their hearts equally averse to Mr. Bulstrode, though Dr.

    Minchin had never been in open hostility with him, and never differed

    from him without elaborate explanation to Mrs. Bulstrode, who had found

    that Dr. Minchin alone understood her constitution. A layman who pried

    into the professional conduct of medical men, and was always obtruding

    his reforms,—though he was less directly embarrassing to the two

    physicians than to the surgeon-apothecaries who attended paupers by

    contract, was nevertheless offensive to the professional nostril as

    such; and Dr. Minchin shared fully in the new pique against Bulstrode,

    excited by his apparent determination to patronize Lydgate. The

    long-established practitioners, Mr. Wrench and Mr. Toller; were just

    now standing apart and having a friendly colloquy, in which they agreed

    that Lydgate was a jackanapes, just made to serve Bulstrode's purpose.

    To non-medical friends they had already concurred in praising the other

    young practitioner, who had come into the town on Mr. Peacock's

    retirement without further recommendation than his own merits and such

    argument for solid professional acquirement as might be gathered from

    his having apparently wasted no time on other branches of knowledge.

    It was clear that Lydgate, by not dispensing drugs, intended to cast

    imputations on his equals, and also to obscure the limit between his

    own rank as a general practitioner and that of the physicians, who, in

    the interest of the profession, felt bound to maintain its various

    grades,—especially against a man who had not been to either of the

    English universities and enjoyed the absence of anatomical and bedside

    study there, but came with a libellous pretension to experience in

    Edinburgh and Paris, where observation might be abundant indeed, but

    hardly sound.

    Thus it happened that on this occasion Bulstrode became identified with

    Lydgate, and Lydgate with Tyke; and owing to this variety of

    interchangeable names for the chaplaincy question, diverse minds were

    enabled to form the same judgment concerning it.

    Dr. Sprague said at once bluntly to the group assembled when he

    entered, "I go for Farebrother. A salary, with all my heart. But why

    take it from the Vicar? He has none too much—has to insure his life,

    besides keeping house, and doing a vicar's charities. Put forty pounds

    in his pocket and you'll do no harm. He's a good fellow, is

    Farebrother, with as little of the parson about him as will serve to

    carry orders."

    "Ho, ho! Doctor," said old Mr. Powderell, a retired iron-monger of

    some standing—his interjection being something between a laugh and a

    Parliamentary disapproval; "we must let you have your say. But what we

    have to consider is not anybody's income—it's the souls of the poor

    sick people"—here Mr. Powderell's voice and face had a sincere pathos

    in them. "He is a real Gospel preacher, is Mr. Tyke. I should vote

    against my conscience if I voted against Mr. Tyke—I should indeed."

    "Mr. Tyke's opponents have not asked any one to vote against his

    conscience, I believe," said Mr. Hackbutt, a rich tanner of fluent

    speech, whose glittering spectacles and erect hair were turned with

    some severity towards innocent Mr. Powderell. "But in my judgment it

    behoves us, as Directors, to consider whether we will regard it as our

    whole business to carry out propositions emanating from a single

    quarter. Will any member of the committee aver that he would have

    entertained the idea of displacing the gentleman who has always

    discharged the function of chaplain here, if it had not been suggested

    to him by parties whose disposition it is to regard every institution

    of this town as a machinery for carrying out their own views? I tax no

    man's motives: let them lie between himself and a higher Power; but I

    do say, that there are influences at work here which are incompatible

    with genuine independence, and that a crawling servility is usually

    dictated by circumstances which gentlemen so conducting themselves

    could not afford either morally or financially to avow. I myself am a

    layman, but I have given no inconsiderable attention to the divisions

    in the Church and—"

    "Oh, damn the divisions!" burst in Mr. Frank Hawley, lawyer and

    town-clerk, who rarely presented himself at the board, but now looked

    in hurriedly, whip in hand. "We have nothing to do with them here.

    Farebrother has been doing the work—what there was—without pay, and

    if pay is to be given, it should be given to him. I call it a

    confounded job to take the thing away from Farebrother."

    "I think it would be as well for gentlemen not to give their remarks a

    personal bearing," said Mr. Plymdale. "I shall vote for the

    appointment of Mr. Tyke, but I should not have known, if Mr. Hackbutt

    hadn't hinted it, that I was a Servile Crawler."

    "I disclaim any personalities. I expressly said, if I may be allowed

    to repeat, or even to conclude what I was about to say—"

    "Ah, here's Minchin!" said Mr. Frank Hawley; at which everybody turned

    away from Mr. Hackbutt, leaving him to feel the uselessness of superior

    gifts in Middlemarch. "Come, Doctor, I must have you on the right

    side, eh?"

    "I hope so," said Dr. Minchin, nodding and shaking hands here and

    there; "at whatever cost to my feelings."

    "If there's any feeling here, it should be feeling for the man who is

    turned out, I think," said Mr. Frank Hawley.

    "I confess I have feelings on the other side also. I have a divided

    esteem," said Dr. Minchin, rubbing his hands. "I consider Mr. Tyke an

    exemplary man—none more so—and I believe him to be proposed from

    unimpeachable motives. I, for my part, wish that I could give him my

    vote. But I am constrained to take a view of the case which gives the

    preponderance to Mr. Farebrother's claims. He is an amiable man, an

    able preacher, and has been longer among us."

    Old Mr. Powderell looked on, sad and silent. Mr. Plymdale settled his

    cravat, uneasily.

    "You don't set up Farebrother as a pattern of what a clergyman ought to

    be, I hope," said Mr. Larcher, the eminent carrier, who had just come

    in. "I have no ill-will towards him, but I think we owe something to

    the public, not to speak of anything higher, in these appointments. In

    my opinion Farebrother is too lax for a clergyman. I don't wish to

    bring up particulars against him; but he will make a little attendance

    here go as far as he can."

    "And a devilish deal better than too much," said Mr. Hawley, whose bad

    language was notorious in that part of the county. "Sick people can't

    bear so much praying and preaching. And that methodistical sort of

    religion is bad for the spirits—bad for the inside, eh?" he added,

    turning quickly round to the four medical men who were assembled.

    But any answer was dispensed with by the entrance of three gentlemen,

    with whom there were greetings more or less cordial. These were the

    Reverend Edward Thesiger, Rector of St. Peter's, Mr. Bulstrode, and our

    friend Mr. Brooke of Tipton, who had lately allowed himself to be put

    on the board of directors in his turn, but had never before attended,

    his attendance now being due to Mr. Bulstrode's exertions. Lydgate was

    the only person still expected.

    Every one now sat down, Mr. Bulstrode presiding, pale and

    self-restrained as usual. Mr. Thesiger, a moderate evangelical, wished

    for the appointment of his friend Mr. Tyke, a zealous able man, who,

    officiating at a chapel of ease, had not a cure of souls too extensive

    to leave him ample time for the new duty. It was desirable that

    chaplaincies of this kind should be entered on with a fervent

    intention: they were peculiar opportunities for spiritual influence;

    and while it was good that a salary should be allotted, there was the

    more need for scrupulous watching lest the office should be perverted

    into a mere question of salary. Mr. Thesiger's manner had so much

    quiet propriety that objectors could only simmer in silence.

    Mr. Brooke believed that everybody meant well in the matter. He had

    not himself attended to the affairs of the Infirmary, though he had a

    strong interest in whatever was for the benefit of Middlemarch, and was

    most happy to meet the gentlemen present on any public question—"any

    public question, you know," Mr. Brooke repeated, with his nod of

    perfect understanding. "I am a good deal occupied as a magistrate, and

    in the collection of documentary evidence, but I regard my time as

    being at the disposal of the public—and, in short, my friends have

    convinced me that a chaplain with a salary—a salary, you know—is a

    very good thing, and I am happy to be able to come here and vote for

    the appointment of Mr. Tyke, who, I understand, is an unexceptionable

    man, apostolic and eloquent and everything of that kind—and I am the

    last man to withhold my vote—under the circumstances, you know."

    "It seems to me that you have been crammed with one side of the

    question, Mr. Brooke," said Mr. Frank Hawley, who was afraid of nobody,

    and was a Tory suspicious of electioneering intentions. "You don't

    seem to know that one of the worthiest men we have has been doing duty

    as chaplain here for years without pay, and that Mr. Tyke is proposed

    to supersede him."

    "Excuse me, Mr. Hawley," said Mr. Bulstrode. "Mr. Brooke has been

    fully informed of Mr. Farebrother's character and position."

    "By his enemies," flashed out Mr. Hawley.

    "I trust there is no personal hostility concerned here," said Mr.


    "I'll swear there is, though," retorted Mr. Hawley.

    "Gentlemen," said Mr. Bulstrode, in a subdued tone, "the merits of the

    question may be very briefly stated, and if any one present doubts that

    every gentleman who is about to give his vote has not been fully

    informed, I can now recapitulate the considerations that should weigh

    on either side."

    "I don't see the good of that," said Mr. Hawley. "I suppose we all

    know whom we mean to vote for. Any man who wants to do justice does

    not wait till the last minute to hear both sides of the question. I

    have no time to lose, and I propose that the matter be put to the vote

    at once."

    A brief but still hot discussion followed before each person wrote

    "Tyke" or "Farebrother" on a piece of paper and slipped it into a glass

    tumbler; and in the mean time Mr. Bulstrode saw Lydgate enter.

    "I perceive that the votes are equally divided at present," said Mr.

    Bulstrode, in a clear biting voice. Then, looking up at Lydgate—

    "There is a casting-vote still to be given. It is yours, Mr. Lydgate:

    will you be good enough to write?"

    "The thing is settled now," said Mr. Wrench, rising. "We all know how

    Mr. Lydgate will vote."

    "You seem to speak with some peculiar meaning, sir," said Lydgate,

    rather defiantly, and keeping his pencil suspended.

    "I merely mean that you are expected to vote with Mr. Bulstrode. Do

    you regard that meaning as offensive?"

    "It may be offensive to others. But I shall not desist from voting

    with him on that account." Lydgate immediately wrote down "Tyke."

    So the Rev. Walter Tyke became chaplain to the Infirmary, and Lydgate

    continued to work with Mr. Bulstrode. He was really uncertain whether

    Tyke were not the more suitable candidate, and yet his consciousness

    told him that if he had been quite free from indirect bias he should

    have voted for Mr. Farebrother. The affair of the chaplaincy remained

    a sore point in his memory as a case in which this petty medium of

    Middlemarch had been too strong for him. How could a man be satisfied

    with a decision between such alternatives and under such circumstances?

    No more than he can be satisfied with his hat, which he has chosen from

    among such shapes as the resources of the age offer him, wearing it at

    best with a resignation which is chiefly supported by comparison.

    But Mr. Farebrother met him with the same friendliness as before. The

    character of the publican and sinner is not always practically

    incompatible with that of the modern Pharisee, for the majority of us

    scarcely see more distinctly the faultiness of our own conduct than the

    faultiness of our own arguments, or the dulness of our own jokes. But

    the Vicar of St. Botolph's had certainly escaped the slightest tincture

    of the Pharisee, and by dint of admitting to himself that he was too

    much as other men were, he had become remarkably unlike them in

    this—that he could excuse others for thinking slightly of him, and

    could judge impartially of their conduct even when it told against him.

    "The world has been too strong for me, I know," he said one day to

    Lydgate. "But then I am not a mighty man—I shall never be a man of

    renown. The choice of Hercules is a pretty fable; but Prodicus makes

    it easy work for the hero, as if the first resolves were enough.

    Another story says that he came to hold the distaff, and at last wore

    the Nessus shirt. I suppose one good resolve might keep a man right if

    everybody else's resolve helped him."

    The Vicar's talk was not always inspiriting: he had escaped being a

    Pharisee, but he had not escaped that low estimate of possibilities

    which we rather hastily arrive at as an inference from our own failure.

    Lydgate thought that there was a pitiable infirmity of will in Mr.



    "L' altra vedete ch'ha fatto alla guancia
    Della sua palma, sospirando, letto."
    —Purgatorio, vii.

    When George the Fourth was still reigning over the privacies of

    Windsor, when the Duke of Wellington was Prime Minister, and Mr. Vincy

    was mayor of the old corporation in Middlemarch, Mrs. Casaubon, born

    Dorothea Brooke, had taken her wedding journey to Rome. In those days

    the world in general was more ignorant of good and evil by forty years

    than it is at present. Travellers did not often carry full information

    on Christian art either in their heads or their pockets; and even the

    most brilliant English critic of the day mistook the flower-flushed

    tomb of the ascended Virgin for an ornamental vase due to the painter's

    fancy. Romanticism, which has helped to fill some dull blanks with

    love and knowledge, had not yet penetrated the times with its leaven

    and entered into everybody's food; it was fermenting still as a

    distinguishable vigorous enthusiasm in certain long-haired German

    artists at Rome, and the youth of other nations who worked or idled

    near them were sometimes caught in the spreading movement.

    One fine morning a young man whose hair was not immoderately long, but

    abundant and curly, and who was otherwise English in his equipment, had

    just turned his back on the Belvedere Torso in the Vatican and was

    looking out on the magnificent view of the mountains from the adjoining

    round vestibule. He was sufficiently absorbed not to notice the

    approach of a dark-eyed, animated German who came up to him and placing

    a hand on his shoulder, said with a strong accent, "Come here, quick!

    else she will have changed her pose."

    Quickness was ready at the call, and the two figures passed lightly

    along by the Meleager, towards the hall where the reclining Ariadne,

    then called the Cleopatra, lies in the marble voluptuousness of her

    beauty, the drapery folding around her with a petal-like ease and

    tenderness. They were just in time to see another figure standing

    against a pedestal near the reclining marble: a breathing blooming

    girl, whose form, not shamed by the Ariadne, was clad in Quakerish gray

    drapery; her long cloak, fastened at the neck, was thrown backward from

    her arms, and one beautiful ungloved hand pillowed her cheek, pushing

    somewhat backward the white beaver bonnet which made a sort of halo to

    her face around the simply braided dark-brown hair. She was not

    looking at the sculpture, probably not thinking of it: her large eyes

    were fixed dreamily on a streak of sunlight which fell across the

    floor. But she became conscious of the two strangers who suddenly

    paused as if to contemplate the Cleopatra, and, without looking at

    them, immediately turned away to join a maid-servant and courier who

    were loitering along the hall at a little distance off.

    "What do you think of that for a fine bit of antithesis?" said the

    German, searching in his friend's face for responding admiration, but

    going on volubly without waiting for any other answer. "There lies

    antique beauty, not corpse-like even in death, but arrested in the

    complete contentment of its sensuous perfection: and here stands beauty

    in its breathing life, with the consciousness of Christian centuries in

    its bosom. But she should be dressed as a nun; I think she looks

    almost what you call a Quaker; I would dress her as a nun in my

    picture. However, she is married; I saw her wedding-ring on that

    wonderful left hand, otherwise I should have thought the sallow

    Geistlicher was her father. I saw him parting from her a good while

    ago, and just now I found her in that magnificent pose. Only think! he

    is perhaps rich, and would like to have her portrait taken. Ah! it is

    no use looking after her—there she goes! Let us follow her home!"

    "No, no," said his companion, with a little frown.

    "You are singular, Ladislaw. You look struck together. Do you know


    "I know that she is married to my cousin," said Will Ladislaw,

    sauntering down the hall with a preoccupied air, while his German

    friend kept at his side and watched him eagerly.

    "What! the Geistlicher? He looks more like an uncle—a more useful sort

    of relation."

    "He is not my uncle. I tell you he is my second cousin," said

    Ladislaw, with some irritation.

    "Schon, schon. Don't be snappish. You are not angry with me for

    thinking Mrs. Second-Cousin the most perfect young Madonna I ever saw?"

    "Angry? nonsense. I have only seen her once before, for a couple of

    minutes, when my cousin introduced her to me, just before I left

    England. They were not married then. I didn't know they were coming

    to Rome."

    "But you will go to see them now—you will find out what they have for

    an address—since you know the name. Shall we go to the post? And you

    could speak about the portrait."

    "Confound you, Naumann! I don't know what I shall do. I am not so

    brazen as you."

    "Bah! that is because you are dilettantish and amateurish. If you were

    an artist, you would think of Mistress Second-Cousin as antique form

    animated by Christian sentiment—a sort of Christian Antigone—sensuous

    force controlled by spiritual passion."

    "Yes, and that your painting her was the chief outcome of her

    existence—the divinity passing into higher completeness and all but

    exhausted in the act of covering your bit of canvas. I am amateurish

    if you like: I do not think that all the universe is straining

    towards the obscure significance of your pictures."

    "But it is, my dear!—so far as it is straining through me, Adolf

    Naumann: that stands firm," said the good-natured painter, putting a

    hand on Ladislaw's shoulder, and not in the least disturbed by the

    unaccountable touch of ill-humor in his tone. "See now! My existence

    presupposes the existence of the whole universe—does it not? and my

    function is to paint—and as a painter I have a conception which is

    altogether genialisch, of your great-aunt or second grandmother as a

    subject for a picture; therefore, the universe is straining towards

    that picture through that particular hook or claw which it puts forth

    in the shape of me—not true?"

    "But how if another claw in the shape of me is straining to thwart

    it?—the case is a little less simple then."

    "Not at all: the result of the struggle is the same thing—picture or

    no picture—logically."

    Will could not resist this imperturbable temper, and the cloud in his

    face broke into sunshiny laughter.

    "Come now, my friend—you will help?" said Naumann, in a hopeful tone.

    "No; nonsense, Naumann! English ladies are not at everybody's service

    as models. And you want to express too much with your painting. You

    would only have made a better or worse portrait with a background which

    every connoisseur would give a different reason for or against. And

    what is a portrait of a woman? Your painting and Plastik are poor

    stuff after all. They perturb and dull conceptions instead of raising

    them. Language is a finer medium."

    "Yes, for those who can't paint," said Naumann. "There you have

    perfect right. I did not recommend you to paint, my friend."

    The amiable artist carried his sting, but Ladislaw did not choose to

    appear stung. He went on as if he had not heard.

    "Language gives a fuller image, which is all the better for beings

    vague. After all, the true seeing is within; and painting stares at

    you with an insistent imperfection. I feel that especially about

    representations of women. As if a woman were a mere colored

    superficies! You must wait for movement and tone. There is a

    difference in their very breathing: they change from moment to

    moment.—This woman whom you have just seen, for example: how would you

    paint her voice, pray? But her voice is much diviner than anything you

    have seen of her."

    "I see, I see. You are jealous. No man must presume to think that he

    can paint your ideal. This is serious, my friend! Your great-aunt!

    'Der Neffe als Onkel' in a tragic sense—ungeheuer!"

    "You and I shall quarrel, Naumann, if you call that lady my aunt again."

    "How is she to be called then?"

    "Mrs. Casaubon."

    "Good. Suppose I get acquainted with her in spite of you, and find

    that she very much wishes to be painted?"

    "Yes, suppose!" said Will Ladislaw, in a contemptuous undertone,

    intended to dismiss the subject. He was conscious of being irritated

    by ridiculously small causes, which were half of his own creation. Why

    was he making any fuss about Mrs. Casaubon? And yet he felt as if

    something had happened to him with regard to her. There are characters

    which are continually creating collisions and nodes for themselves in

    dramas which nobody is prepared to act with them. Their

    susceptibilities will clash against objects that remain innocently



    "A child forsaken, waking suddenly,
    Whose gaze afeard on all things round doth rove,
    And seeth only that it cannot see
    The meeting eyes of love."

    Two hours later, Dorothea was seated in an inner room or boudoir of a

    handsome apartment in the Via Sistina.

    I am sorry to add that she was sobbing bitterly, with such abandonment

    to this relief of an oppressed heart as a woman habitually controlled

    by pride on her own account and thoughtfulness for others will

    sometimes allow herself when she feels securely alone. And Mr.

    Casaubon was certain to remain away for some time at the Vatican.

    Yet Dorothea had no distinctly shapen grievance that she could state

    even to herself; and in the midst of her confused thought and passion,

    the mental act that was struggling forth into clearness was a

    self-accusing cry that her feeling of desolation was the fault of her

    own spiritual poverty. She had married the man of her choice, and with

    the advantage over most girls that she had contemplated her marriage

    chiefly as the beginning of new duties: from the very first she had

    thought of Mr. Casaubon as having a mind so much above her own, that he

    must often be claimed by studies which she could not entirely share;

    moreover, after the brief narrow experience of her girlhood she was

    beholding Rome, the city of visible history, where the past of a whole

    hemisphere seems moving in funeral procession with strange ancestral

    images and trophies gathered from afar.

    But this stupendous fragmentariness heightened the dreamlike

    strangeness of her bridal life. Dorothea had now been five weeks in

    Rome, and in the kindly mornings when autumn and winter seemed to go

    hand in hand like a happy aged couple one of whom would presently

    survive in chiller loneliness, she had driven about at first with Mr.

    Casaubon, but of late chiefly with Tantripp and their experienced

    courier. She had been led through the best galleries, had been taken

    to the chief points of view, had been shown the grandest ruins and the

    most glorious churches, and she had ended by oftenest choosing to drive

    out to the Campagna where she could feel alone with the earth and sky,

    away-from the oppressive masquerade of ages, in which her own life too

    seemed to become a masque with enigmatical costumes.

    To those who have looked at Rome with the quickening power of a

    knowledge which breathes a growing soul into all historic shapes, and

    traces out the suppressed transitions which unite all contrasts, Rome

    may still be the spiritual centre and interpreter of the world. But

    let them conceive one more historical contrast: the gigantic broken

    revelations of that Imperial and Papal city thrust abruptly on the

    notions of a girl who had been brought up in English and Swiss

    Puritanism, fed on meagre Protestant histories and on art chiefly of

    the hand-screen sort; a girl whose ardent nature turned all her small

    allowance of knowledge into principles, fusing her actions into their

    mould, and whose quick emotions gave the most abstract things the

    quality of a pleasure or a pain; a girl who had lately become a wife,

    and from the enthusiastic acceptance of untried duty found herself

    plunged in tumultuous preoccupation with her personal lot. The weight

    of unintelligible Rome might lie easily on bright nymphs to whom it

    formed a background for the brilliant picnic of Anglo-foreign society;

    but Dorothea had no such defence against deep impressions. Ruins and

    basilicas, palaces and colossi, set in the midst of a sordid present,

    where all that was living and warm-blooded seemed sunk in the deep

    degeneracy of a superstition divorced from reverence; the dimmer but

    yet eager Titanic life gazing and struggling on walls and ceilings; the

    long vistas of white forms whose marble eyes seemed to hold the

    monotonous light of an alien world: all this vast wreck of ambitious

    ideals, sensuous and spiritual, mixed confusedly with the signs of

    breathing forgetfulness and degradation, at first jarred her as with an

    electric shock, and then urged themselves on her with that ache

    belonging to a glut of confused ideas which check the flow of emotion.

    Forms both pale and glowing took possession of her young sense, and

    fixed themselves in her memory even when she was not thinking of them,

    preparing strange associations which remained through her after-years.

    Our moods are apt to bring with them images which succeed each other

    like the magic-lantern pictures of a doze; and in certain states of

    dull forlornness Dorothea all her life continued to see the vastness of

    St. Peter's, the huge bronze canopy, the excited intention in the

    attitudes and garments of the prophets and evangelists in the mosaics

    above, and the red drapery which was being hung for Christmas spreading

    itself everywhere like a disease of the retina.

    Not that this inward amazement of Dorothea's was anything very

    exceptional: many souls in their young nudity are tumbled out among

    incongruities and left to "find their feet" among them, while their

    elders go about their business. Nor can I suppose that when Mrs.

    Casaubon is discovered in a fit of weeping six weeks after her wedding,

    the situation will be regarded as tragic. Some discouragement, some

    faintness of heart at the new real future which replaces the imaginary,

    is not unusual, and we do not expect people to be deeply moved by what

    is not unusual. That element of tragedy which lies in the very fact of

    frequency, has not yet wrought itself into the coarse emotion of

    mankind; and perhaps our frames could hardly bear much of it. If we

    had a keen vision and feeling of all ordinary human life, it would be

    like hearing the grass grow and the squirrel's heart beat, and we

    should die of that roar which lies on the other side of silence. As it

    is, the quickest of us walk about well wadded with stupidity.

    However, Dorothea was crying, and if she had been required to state the

    cause, she could only have done so in some such general words as I have

    already used: to have been driven to be more particular would have been

    like trying to give a history of the lights and shadows, for that new

    real future which was replacing the imaginary drew its material from

    the endless minutiae by which her view of Mr. Casaubon and her wifely

    relation, now that she was married to him, was gradually changing with

    the secret motion of a watch-hand from what it had been in her maiden

    dream. It was too early yet for her fully to recognize or at least

    admit the change, still more for her to have readjusted that

    devotedness which was so necessary a part of her mental life that she

    was almost sure sooner or later to recover it. Permanent rebellion,

    the disorder of a life without some loving reverent resolve, was not

    possible to her; but she was now in an interval when the very force of

    her nature heightened its confusion. In this way, the early months of

    marriage often are times of critical tumult—whether that of a

    shrimp-pool or of deeper waters—which afterwards subsides into

    cheerful peace.

    But was not Mr. Casaubon just as learned as before? Had his forms of

    expression changed, or his sentiments become less laudable? Oh

    waywardness of womanhood! did his chronology fail him, or his ability

    to state not only a theory but the names of those who held it; or his

    provision for giving the heads of any subject on demand? And was not

    Rome the place in all the world to give free play to such

    accomplishments? Besides, had not Dorothea's enthusiasm especially

    dwelt on the prospect of relieving the weight and perhaps the sadness

    with which great tasks lie on him who has to achieve them?— And that

    such weight pressed on Mr. Casaubon was only plainer than before.

    All these are crushing questions; but whatever else remained the same,

    the light had changed, and you cannot find the pearly dawn at noonday.

    The fact is unalterable, that a fellow-mortal with whose nature you are

    acquainted solely through the brief entrances and exits of a few

    imaginative weeks called courtship, may, when seen in the continuity of

    married companionship, be disclosed as something better or worse than

    what you have preconceived, but will certainly not appear altogether

    the same. And it would be astonishing to find how soon the change is

    felt if we had no kindred changes to compare with it. To share

    lodgings with a brilliant dinner-companion, or to see your favorite

    politician in the Ministry, may bring about changes quite as rapid: in

    these cases too we begin by knowing little and believing much, and we

    sometimes end by inverting the quantities.

    Still, such comparisons might mislead, for no man was more incapable of

    flashy make-believe than Mr. Casaubon: he was as genuine a character as

    any ruminant animal, and he had not actively assisted in creating any

    illusions about himself. How was it that in the weeks since her

    marriage, Dorothea had not distinctly observed but felt with a stifling

    depression, that the large vistas and wide fresh air which she had

    dreamed of finding in her husband's mind were replaced by anterooms and

    winding passages which seemed to lead nowhither? I suppose it was that

    in courtship everything is regarded as provisional and preliminary, and

    the smallest sample of virtue or accomplishment is taken to guarantee

    delightful stores which the broad leisure of marriage will reveal. But

    the door-sill of marriage once crossed, expectation is concentrated on

    the present. Having once embarked on your marital voyage, it is

    impossible not to be aware that you make no way and that the sea is not

    within sight—that, in fact, you are exploring an enclosed basin.

    In their conversation before marriage, Mr. Casaubon had often dwelt on

    some explanation or questionable detail of which Dorothea did not see

    the bearing; but such imperfect coherence seemed due to the brokenness

    of their intercourse, and, supported by her faith in their future, she

    had listened with fervid patience to a recitation of possible arguments

    to be brought against Mr. Casaubon's entirely new view of the

    Philistine god Dagon and other fish-deities, thinking that hereafter

    she should see this subject which touched him so nearly from the same

    high ground whence doubtless it had become so important to him. Again,

    the matter-of-course statement and tone of dismissal with which he

    treated what to her were the most stirring thoughts, was easily

    accounted for as belonging to the sense of haste and preoccupation in

    which she herself shared during their engagement. But now, since they

    had been in Rome, with all the depths of her emotion roused to

    tumultuous activity, and with life made a new problem by new elements,

    she had been becoming more and more aware, with a certain terror, that

    her mind was continually sliding into inward fits of anger and

    repulsion, or else into forlorn weariness. How far the judicious

    Hooker or any other hero of erudition would have been the same at Mr.

    Casaubon's time of life, she had no means of knowing, so that he could

    not have the advantage of comparison; but her husband's way of

    commenting on the strangely impressive objects around them had begun to

    affect her with a sort of mental shiver: he had perhaps the best

    intention of acquitting himself worthily, but only of acquitting

    himself. What was fresh to her mind was worn out to his; and such

    capacity of thought and feeling as had ever been stimulated in him by

    the general life of mankind had long shrunk to a sort of dried

    preparation, a lifeless embalmment of knowledge.

    When he said, "Does this interest you, Dorothea? Shall we stay a

    little longer? I am ready to stay if you wish it,"—it seemed to her

    as if going or staying were alike dreary. Or, "Should you like to go

    to the Farnesina, Dorothea? It contains celebrated frescos designed or

    painted by Raphael, which most persons think it worth while to visit."

    "But do you care about them?" was always Dorothea's question.

    "They are, I believe, highly esteemed. Some of them represent the

    fable of Cupid and Psyche, which is probably the romantic invention of

    a literary period, and cannot, I think, be reckoned as a genuine

    mythical product. But if you like these wall-paintings we can easily

    drive thither; and you will then, I think, have seen the chief works of

    Raphael, any of which it were a pity to omit in a visit to Rome. He is

    the painter who has been held to combine the most complete grace of

    form with sublimity of expression. Such at least I have gathered to be

    the opinion of cognoscenti."

    This kind of answer given in a measured official tone, as of a

    clergyman reading according to the rubric, did not help to justify the

    glories of the Eternal City, or to give her the hope that if she knew

    more about them the world would be joyously illuminated for her. There

    is hardly any contact more depressing to a young ardent creature than

    that of a mind in which years full of knowledge seem to have issued in

    a blank absence of interest or sympathy.

    On other subjects indeed Mr. Casaubon showed a tenacity of occupation

    and an eagerness which are usually regarded as the effect of

    enthusiasm, and Dorothea was anxious to follow this spontaneous

    direction of his thoughts, instead of being made to feel that she

    dragged him away from it. But she was gradually ceasing to expect with

    her former delightful confidence that she should see any wide opening

    where she followed him. Poor Mr. Casaubon himself was lost among small

    closets and winding stairs, and in an agitated dimness about the

    Cabeiri, or in an exposure of other mythologists' ill-considered

    parallels, easily lost sight of any purpose which had prompted him to

    these labors. With his taper stuck before him he forgot the absence of

    windows, and in bitter manuscript remarks on other men's notions about

    the solar deities, he had become indifferent to the sunlight.

    These characteristics, fixed and unchangeable as bone in Mr. Casaubon,

    might have remained longer unfelt by Dorothea if she had been

    encouraged to pour forth her girlish and womanly feeling—if he would

    have held her hands between his and listened with the delight of

    tenderness and understanding to all the little histories which made up

    her experience, and would have given her the same sort of intimacy in

    return, so that the past life of each could be included in their mutual

    knowledge and affection—or if she could have fed her affection with

    those childlike caresses which are the bent of every sweet woman, who

    has begun by showering kisses on the hard pate of her bald doll,

    creating a happy soul within that woodenness from the wealth of her own

    love. That was Dorothea's bent. With all her yearning to know what

    was afar from her and to be widely benignant, she had ardor enough for

    what was near, to have kissed Mr. Casaubon's coat-sleeve, or to have

    caressed his shoe-latchet, if he would have made any other sign of

    acceptance than pronouncing her, with his unfailing propriety, to be of

    a most affectionate and truly feminine nature, indicating at the same

    time by politely reaching a chair for her that he regarded these

    manifestations as rather crude and startling. Having made his clerical

    toilet with due care in the morning, he was prepared only for those

    amenities of life which were suited to the well-adjusted stiff cravat

    of the period, and to a mind weighted with unpublished matter.

    And by a sad contradiction Dorothea's ideas and resolves seemed like

    melting ice floating and lost in the warm flood of which they had been

    but another form. She was humiliated to find herself a mere victim of

    feeling, as if she could know nothing except through that medium: all

    her strength was scattered in fits of agitation, of struggle, of

    despondency, and then again in visions of more complete renunciation,

    transforming all hard conditions into duty. Poor Dorothea! she was

    certainly troublesome—to herself chiefly; but this morning for the

    first time she had been troublesome to Mr. Casaubon.

    She had begun, while they were taking coffee, with a determination to

    shake off what she inwardly called her selfishness, and turned a face

    all cheerful attention to her husband when he said, "My dear Dorothea,

    we must now think of all that is yet left undone, as a preliminary to

    our departure. I would fain have returned home earlier that we might

    have been at Lowick for the Christmas; but my inquiries here have been

    protracted beyond their anticipated period. I trust, however, that the

    time here has not been passed unpleasantly to you. Among the sights of

    Europe, that of Rome has ever been held one of the most striking and in

    some respects edifying. I well remember that I considered it an epoch

    in my life when I visited it for the first time; after the fall of

    Napoleon, an event which opened the Continent to travellers. Indeed I

    think it is one among several cities to which an extreme hyperbole has

    been applied—'See Rome and die:' but in your case I would propose an

    emendation and say, See Rome as a bride, and live henceforth as a happy


    Mr. Casaubon pronounced this little speech with the most conscientious

    intention, blinking a little and swaying his head up and down, and

    concluding with a smile. He had not found marriage a rapturous state,

    but he had no idea of being anything else than an irreproachable

    husband, who would make a charming young woman as happy as she deserved

    to be.

    "I hope you are thoroughly satisfied with our stay—I mean, with the

    result so far as your studies are concerned," said Dorothea, trying to

    keep her mind fixed on what most affected her husband.

    "Yes," said Mr. Casaubon, with that peculiar pitch of voice which makes

    the word half a negative. "I have been led farther than I had

    foreseen, and various subjects for annotation have presented themselves

    which, though I have no direct need of them, I could not pretermit.

    The task, notwithstanding the assistance of my amanuensis, has been a

    somewhat laborious one, but your society has happily prevented me from

    that too continuous prosecution of thought beyond the hours of study

    which has been the snare of my solitary life."

    "I am very glad that my presence has made any difference to you," said

    Dorothea, who had a vivid memory of evenings in which she had supposed

    that Mr. Casaubon's mind had gone too deep during the day to be able to

    get to the surface again. I fear there was a little temper in her

    reply. "I hope when we get to Lowick, I shall be more useful to you,

    and be able to enter a little more into what interests you."

    "Doubtless, my dear," said Mr. Casaubon, with a slight bow. "The notes

    I have here made will want sifting, and you can, if you please, extract

    them under my direction."

    "And all your notes," said Dorothea, whose heart had already burned

    within her on this subject, so that now she could not help speaking

    with her tongue. "All those rows of volumes—will you not now do what

    you used to speak of?—will you not make up your mind what part of them

    you will use, and begin to write the book which will make your vast

    knowledge useful to the world? I will write to your dictation, or I

    will copy and extract what you tell me: I can be of no other use."

    Dorothea, in a most unaccountable, darkly feminine manner, ended with a

    slight sob and eyes full of tears.

    The excessive feeling manifested would alone have been highly

    disturbing to Mr. Casaubon, but there were other reasons why Dorothea's

    words were among the most cutting and irritating to him that she could

    have been impelled to use. She was as blind to his inward troubles as

    he to hers: she had not yet learned those hidden conflicts in her

    husband which claim our pity. She had not yet listened patiently to

    his heartbeats, but only felt that her own was beating violently. In

    Mr. Casaubon's ear, Dorothea's voice gave loud emphatic iteration to

    those muffled suggestions of consciousness which it was possible to

    explain as mere fancy, the illusion of exaggerated sensitiveness:

    always when such suggestions are unmistakably repeated from without,

    they are resisted as cruel and unjust. We are angered even by the full

    acceptance of our humiliating confessions—how much more by hearing in

    hard distinct syllables from the lips of a near observer, those

    confused murmurs which we try to call morbid, and strive against as if

    they were the oncoming of numbness! And this cruel outward accuser was

    there in the shape of a wife—nay, of a young bride, who, instead of

    observing his abundant pen-scratches and amplitude of paper with the

    uncritical awe of an elegant-minded canary-bird, seemed to present

    herself as a spy watching everything with a malign power of inference.

    Here, towards this particular point of the compass, Mr. Casaubon had a

    sensitiveness to match Dorothea's, and an equal quickness to imagine

    more than the fact. He had formerly observed with approbation her

    capacity for worshipping the right object; he now foresaw with sudden

    terror that this capacity might be replaced by presumption, this

    worship by the most exasperating of all criticism,—that which sees

    vaguely a great many fine ends, and has not the least notion what it

    costs to reach them.

    For the first time since Dorothea had known him, Mr. Casaubon's face

    had a quick angry flush upon it.

    "My love," he said, with irritation reined in by propriety, "you may

    rely upon me for knowing the times and the seasons, adapted to the

    different stages of a work which is not to be measured by the facile

    conjectures of ignorant onlookers. It had been easy for me to gain a

    temporary effect by a mirage of baseless opinion; but it is ever the

    trial of the scrupulous explorer to be saluted with the impatient scorn

    of chatterers who attempt only the smallest achievements, being indeed

    equipped for no other. And it were well if all such could be

    admonished to discriminate judgments of which the true subject-matter

    lies entirely beyond their reach, from those of which the elements may

    be compassed by a narrow and superficial survey."

    This speech was delivered with an energy and readiness quite unusual

    with Mr. Casaubon. It was not indeed entirely an improvisation, but

    had taken shape in inward colloquy, and rushed out like the round

    grains from a fruit when sudden heat cracks it. Dorothea was not only

    his wife: she was a personification of that shallow world which

    surrounds the appreciated or desponding author.

    Dorothea was indignant in her turn. Had she not been repressing

    everything in herself except the desire to enter into some fellowship

    with her husband's chief interests?

    "My judgment was a very superficial one—such as I am capable of

    forming," she answered, with a prompt resentment, that needed no

    rehearsal. "You showed me the rows of notebooks—you have often spoken

    of them—you have often said that they wanted digesting. But I never

    heard you speak of the writing that is to be published. Those were

    very simple facts, and my judgment went no farther. I only begged you

    to let me be of some good to you."

    Dorothea rose to leave the table and Mr. Casaubon made no reply, taking

    up a letter which lay beside him as if to reperuse it. Both were

    shocked at their mutual situation—that each should have betrayed anger

    towards the other. If they had been at home, settled at Lowick in

    ordinary life among their neighbors, the clash would have been less

    embarrassing: but on a wedding journey, the express object of which is

    to isolate two people on the ground that they are all the world to each

    other, the sense of disagreement is, to say the least, confounding and

    stultifying. To have changed your longitude extensively and placed

    yourselves in a moral solitude in order to have small explosions, to

    find conversation difficult and to hand a glass of water without

    looking, can hardly be regarded as satisfactory fulfilment even to the

    toughest minds. To Dorothea's inexperienced sensitiveness, it seemed

    like a catastrophe, changing all prospects; and to Mr. Casaubon it was

    a new pain, he never having been on a wedding journey before, or found

    himself in that close union which was more of a subjection than he had

    been able to imagine, since this charming young bride not only obliged

    him to much consideration on her behalf (which he had sedulously

    given), but turned out to be capable of agitating him cruelly just

    where he most needed soothing. Instead of getting a soft fence against

    the cold, shadowy, unapplausive audience of his life, had he only given

    it a more substantial presence?

    Neither of them felt it possible to speak again at present. To have

    reversed a previous arrangement and declined to go out would have been

    a show of persistent anger which Dorothea's conscience shrank from,

    seeing that she already began to feel herself guilty. However just her

    indignation might be, her ideal was not to claim justice, but to give

    tenderness. So when the carriage came to the door, she drove with Mr.

    Casaubon to the Vatican, walked with him through the stony avenue of

    inscriptions, and when she parted with him at the entrance to the

    Library, went on through the Museum out of mere listlessness as to what

    was around her. She had not spirit to turn round and say that she

    would drive anywhere. It was when Mr. Casaubon was quitting her that

    Naumann had first seen her, and he had entered the long gallery of

    sculpture at the same time with her; but here Naumann had to await

    Ladislaw with whom he was to settle a bet of champagne about an

    enigmatical mediaeval-looking figure there. After they had examined

    the figure, and had walked on finishing their dispute, they had parted,

    Ladislaw lingering behind while Naumann had gone into the Hall of

    Statues where he again saw Dorothea, and saw her in that brooding

    abstraction which made her pose remarkable. She did not really see the

    streak of sunlight on the floor more than she saw the statues: she was

    inwardly seeing the light of years to come in her own home and over the

    English fields and elms and hedge-bordered highroads; and feeling that

    the way in which they might be filled with joyful devotedness was not

    so clear to her as it had been. But in Dorothea's mind there was a

    current into which all thought and feeling were apt sooner or later to

    flow—the reaching forward of the whole consciousness towards the

    fullest truth, the least partial good. There was clearly something

    better than anger and despondency.


    "Hire facounde eke full womanly and plain,
    No contrefeted termes had she
    To semen wise."

    It was in that way Dorothea came to be sobbing as soon as she was

    securely alone. But she was presently roused by a knock at the door,

    which made her hastily dry her eyes before saying, "Come in." Tantripp

    had brought a card, and said that there was a gentleman waiting in the

    lobby. The courier had told him that only Mrs. Casaubon was at home,

    but he said he was a relation of Mr. Casaubon's: would she see him?

    "Yes," said Dorothea, without pause; "show him into the salon." Her

    chief impressions about young Ladislaw were that when she had seen him

    at Lowick she had been made aware of Mr. Casaubon's generosity towa