Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom.
The country's population and political parties can be divided into two groups: those who wish to split from Great Britain (Nationalists and Republicans) and those who want to remain in the United Kingdom (Unionists and Loyalists).
Northern Ireland's political divisions have deep cultural and religious roots. Unionists consider themselves to be British and most are Protestants. Nationalists identify as Irish and tend to be Catholic.
Violence between Loyalist and Republican paramilitary groups plagued the country for years, killing thousands of people. These conflicts ended for the most part with the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998.
Belfast is the capitol of Northern Ireland and is its largest city. In the 2011 elections, Nationalist parties for the first time secured more seats on the Belfast City Council than Unionist parties.
On December 3, 2012, the Belfast City Council voted to end the practice of flying the union (British) flag 365 days a year from the dome of the city hall and fly it only on designated days.
The decision was a compromise between Nationalist councillors who demanded that the flag be permanently grounded and Unionists who insisted that it stay.
When word of the vote reached the streets, a Loyalist mob stormed the grounds of City Hall.
Police rushed to defend the building from the angry crowd. Two officers, a security guard, and various civilians were wounded in the fighting.
U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Northern Ireland on December 7 and condemned the escalating attacks, which by then included more riots, death threats and a car bomb that was discovered before it went off.
Protests over the union flag's removal continued over the following weeks.
Many of these protests descended into violence. By December 21st, approximately 60 Belfast police officers had been injured by flying masonry, bricks, bottles, and petrol bombs.
Some Belfast residents found creative ways to express their disapproval over the council's decision.
Peaceful protests were held in Belfast and across Northern Ireland on December 22nd.
A bomb was discovered under a police officer's car on December 30.
Thousands gathered for a peaceful demonstration outside City Hall on January 5.
The gathering turned violent as darkness fell.
Belfast police used water cannons against more than 100 protesters hurling fireworks, smoke bombs and bricks. Shots were fired and a 38 year-old man was arrested for attempted murder.
The Belfast City Council met for the first time since the controversial flag vote on Monday evening and the violence erupted for the fifth night in a row.
Some of the protestors attacked with sledgehammers and hatchets, forcing police to fire plastic bullets into the crowd.
Angry crowds set up a barricade in the middle of the main road and set it aflame.
Protests continued Tuesday for an unprecedented sixth night.
More than 100 individuals have been arrested since the Belfast City Council's decision in December.
Over 60 police officers have been injured and the city has reportedly spent £7 million combatting the riots.
The Union Flag was flown above Belfast City Hall Wednesday for the first time since December 3 in honor of Kate Middleton aka Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge'sbirthday.
The flag's presence had a noticeable effect on the protestors. For the first time in a week, the peaceful daytime demonstrations ended quietly instead of escalating into violence. Wednesday marked the first of the sixteen days the union flag will fly
More protests are planned for later this week.
An earlier version of this article included a reference to "the Irish fashion," as a joke about the University of Notre Dame mascot, the "fighting Irish." The joke was obscure and gave offense, and has been removed.