A normal brain is divided into two symmetrical hemispheres by a big central groove. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body, so the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice versa. It’s believed that the left hemisphere is more involved with language and logic, while the right plays a larger role in creativity and intuition.
Corpus callosumAmygdalaHypothalamusMedulla oblongataNothing
The corpus callosum!
The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres of the brain — like a little bridge — so they can communicate and transfer sensory, motor, and cognitive information.
The hippocampus is involved in the formation of long-term memories, making them hard to forget (yeah, including the bad ones). It also helps us memorize our environment so that we don't get lost every time we go outside.
Forebrain, hindbrain, outerbrain, innerbrainGray matter, white matter, yellow matter, red matterRight ventricle, left ventricle, right atrium, left atriumProximal, dorsal, ventral, lateralParietal, temporal, frontal, occipital
Parietal, temporal, frontal, occipital!
Each lobe specializes in different functions. For example, the frontal lobes deal with planning, reasoning, and motor skills; the parietal lobe deals with sensory info like smell and taste, and also helps you read and do math; the occipital lobes deal with vision and image processing; and the temporal lobes deal with hearing, memory, and spatial awareness, among other things.
VisionSpeech productionVoluntary muscle movementSensing pain or pleasureNothing — it isn't a part of the brain
MemoryColor blindnessSense of tasteLanguage comprehensionAll of the above
Wernicke's area deals with language comprehension!
Wernicke's area controls our ability to understand spoken or written language, and its meaning — unlike Broca's area, which deals with speech production. People with aphasia (damage) in this area can speak but they form sentences where the words have no arrangement or meaning — even though they think they’re making sense.
Auditory cortexVisual cortexSensory cortexBroca's area
It's the auditory cortex!
The auditory cortex allows us to process the sounds that enter our ears, like speech or music. It’s highly organized and split into primary and peripheral areas, which work with parts of the ear (like the cochlea) and parts of the brain (like Wernicke’s area) to process a range of frequencies and sounds.
HypothalamusAngular gyrusCerebellumBasal ganglia
It's the cerebellum!
The cerebellum controls balance, coordination, equilibrium, and muscle movements. It receives constant feedback from your sensory systems so it can regulate motor movements and make sure your body moves in a smooth, coordinated fashion.
A.Via GettyB.Via GettyC.Via GettyD.Via GettyE.Via GettyF.Via Getty
E. is where the cerebellum is located!
The cerebellum sits in the posterior (back) of the brain, right behind the top of the brain stem — where the spinal cord meets the brain.
The optic nerves, aka the second cranial nerves, carry visual information and sensory impulses from the retina to the brain's visual cortex so we can process what we see.
Neurons are specialized cells that communicate with electrical signals to process and transmit information to other nerve cells, muscles, and glands — think of them like bundles of fiber-optic cables.
SleepBreathingBody temperatureVomitingAll of the above
All of the above!
The brain stem is the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord — consisting of the midbrain, pons, and medulla. It plays a huge role in vital cardiac and respiratory functions, as well as sleep, consciousness, and facial expressions, among other things.
plicae, villisulci, gyrifissures, fusionsthalami, hypothalami
Sulci and gyri!
These grooves create a bumpy texture that increases the surface area of the cerebrum — the largest region of the brain, at the front of the skull. It deals with conscious thought and intellectual functions, which is why it's important that these folds maximize brain volume.
Sensory cortexVisual cortexFine motor movement cortexEmotional cortex
This is the visual cortex!
The visual cortex, located in the occipital lobe, receives visual input from the retina in the eye, then processes these images so that you can identify where and what things are. Damage to the visual cortex can cause blindness.
AmygdalaPineal glandBasal gangliaPituitary gland
It's the pituitary gland!
The pituitary gland is connected by one of its two lobes to the hypothalamus, which signals it to release hormones. It's known as the "master gland" because it regulates hormonal activity in all of the other glands in the body — thus helping to control vital functions.
Cerebral-spinal systemBasal gangliaLimbic systemAutomatic nervous system
The limbic system!
The limbic system receives stimuli from the environment and regulates emotion, behaviors, pain, pleasure, and more. The hypothalamus receives and sends nerve signals, and triggers the release of hormones for certain functions; the hippocampus deals with memories; and the amygdala plays a role in emotion and motivation.
It keeps our brain moist.It allows for communication between different parts of the brain and between the brain and body.It deals with functions associated with conscious thought, motor skills, and the senses.It's the part of our brain we don't actually use.It's the dead brain tissue leftover after neurons are killed during cranial injury.
It provides us with conscious thought!
The cerebrum is made up of gray matter, which is full of neurons involved in thinking, planning, motor control, hearing, decision-making, and more. White matter lays between gray matter, allowing communication between gray matter in different parts of the brain and gray matter and the body.
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