Thirty years old
Older than a representative has to be (25) and younger than the president (35).
Standing CommitteeCivil CommitteeJoint CommitteeSelect Committee
Standing, joint, and select committees are where members of Congress consider proposed laws, conduct investigations, and work to focus public attention on specific issues. Hopefully they are all conducted civilly, but the civil committee isn't a thing.
Supreme CourtChief of justiceSecretary of stateAttorney general
The attorney general
Our current attorney general (and the first African American woman to hold the position) is Loretta Lynch.
Employment discriminationVoter discriminationExcessive bailSearch of property without a warrant
Though a number of federal statutes have prohibited discrimination in the workplace — based on race, religion, sex, ability — the Constitution doesn't directly prohibit it.
Vice president, president pro tempore, speaker of the house, secretary of stateVice president, speaker of the house, president pro tempore, secretary of stateVice president, secretary of state, speaker of the house, president pro temporeVice president, speaker of the house, secretary of state, president pro tempore
Vice president > speaker of the house > president pro tempore > secretary of state.
And then, if all of *those* people vacate the office, it goes: secretary of the treasury, secretary of defense, attorney general....until, 11 spots later, the secretary of homeland security.
Even though the 15th Amendment (ratified in 1870) promised to protect the right of all (male) citizens to vote, regardless of race, many black Americans were still kept from polls through things like poll taxes and literacy tests until 1965.
Each state gets a number of representatives proportional to their population, as opposed to its senators (who number just two per state).
The Eighth Amendment, part of the Bill of Rights, prohibits excessive bail, excessive fines, and cruel and unusual punishment.
Department of Health and Human ServicesDepartment of EnergyDepartment of Housing and Urban DevelopmentDepartment of Homeland Security
Department of Homeland Security
Established in 2002, DHS is the youngest cabinet agency. Second youngest is the Department of Health and Human Services, established in 1980 after the "education" part of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare left to become its own cabinet agency.
Franklin D. RooseveltUlysses GrantJames MonroeThomas Jefferson
Franklin D. Roosevelt
George Washington set a precedent of a voluntary two-term limit that no one surpassed — until FDR was elected for both a third and fourth term in the 1940s. After he died months into his fourth term, Congress passed the 22nd Amendment, limiting future presidents to two terms.
House of RepresentativesSenateSupreme Court
House of Representatives
This is just one of the powers exclusive to the House (along with initiating revenue bills).
Only Kentucky, Massachusetts, Virginia, and Pennsylvania are designated "commonwealths" in their official state names — though some other states (like Vermont) use the terms "state" and "commonwealth" interchangeably in their constitutions. Still, there is no legal distinction between the two terms — it's mostly a symbol of the state's dedication to serving the common good of its people.
A majority isn't needed — only four of the nine justices need to vote to accept a case, although five need to vote to enact a stay (of, say, an execution or federal program).
Two yearsFour yearsSix yearsEight years
Senators serve longer terms than both representatives (two years) and presidents (four years).
Enact lawsDeclare warAppoint heads of federal agenciesImpeach the president
Appoint heads of federal agencies
The executive branch holds the power to appoint heads of federal agencies — though Congress has authority to confirm or reject those appointments.
A writ of certiorariA writ of mandamusA writ of habeas corpusA writ of elegit
A writ of certiorari
The world "certiorari" comes from Latin and means "to be more fully informed."
Manipulating the boundaries of a district or electoral constituency to favor one party or classMaking a prolonged speech to obstruct progress in a legislative assemblyDistracting the public from a scandal by offering false or misleading informationSeeking to sway a public official toward making a legislative decision to benefit a special interest group
You're manipulating the boundaries of a district or electoral constituency to favor one party or class.
Which is why the electoral college system isn't as cut-and-dried as one might think.
Thumbnail credits: Pete Souza/Public Domain, tupungato/ThinkStock