Skip To Content
  • Poll badge

Victorians Were Obsessed With A Shade Of Green That Killed Them

Victorians were dying to get their hands on green products– and actually dying because of them!

In the 19th century, a killer was running rampant, but unlike most crimes, there was no real mystery to solve. People were perishing as a sacrifice to beauty...and the color green.

In 1775, a new pigment was developed called Scheele's Green– a bright and attractive hue unlike anything of its kind. In 1814, a new-and-improved version was invented and widely known as Paris green or emerald green. It contained arsenic, a known poison.

Despite its high levels of toxicity, emerald green became so popular it would be used in the production of garments, wallpaper, carpets, paints, and more throughout the century.

Andrea Hickey / BuzzFeed

Production of the dye was booming. Gas was replacing oil and candlelight at the time, and women loved how their bright green dresses glimmered under the lamps.

The Ladies' Monthly Magazine / Via Wikimedia Commons, Bata Shoe Museum

And it didn't help that even Queen Victoria herself chose to wear emerald green fashions.

Franz Xavier Winterhalter

And for the home, British artist William Morris created stunning wallpaper designs that contained the arsenical pigment.

Morris & Co / Via Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Morris & Co

But the most at risk, and yet the most overlooked, were the factory workers who were creating these items and working closely with the pigment.

Andrea Hickey / BuzzFeed

Factory workers had to be in close contact with the poison every day, putting themselves at great risk. Those who were painters licked their brushes to get a fine tip, immediately poisoning their mouths. This dire scenario would play out again with radium painters in the 1920s.

Wellcome Collection

In 1861, Matilda Scheurer was one such factory worker who dusted flowery hairpieces (like those shown below) with the pigment.

The poison infiltrated her body so aggressively that she developed green-tinted eyes and fingernails, she vomited green, and before dying she claimed to see nothing but green. She was only 19.

Andrea Hickey / BuzzFeed

As for the wearers of green dresses and inhabitants of green rooms, it was a dance with death as well, as this cartoon depicts.

The Wellcome Library

But in reality, arsenic was everywhere in Victorian life, not just in anything green.

Andrea Hickey / BuzzFeed

By the 1870s, people had become more wary of the pigment's reputation as a killer, and this prompted new dyes to be manufactured that didn't contain the poison...though some products that explicitly claimed to be arsenic-free were found to still contain it. This only made people want to shy away from emerald green more.

E. Cheffer / Via Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

So it's no surprise the horror of the dye has outlived its own existence. To this day, even though the color green is now the most basic descriptor for eco-friendliness, we also associate the it with images of poison and toxic waste.

Andrea Hickey / BuzzFeed
  1. So...Would YOU take a chance and wear an emerald green dress?

    Wellcome Library
Oops. Something went wrong. Please try again later
Looks like we are having a problem on the server.
So...Would YOU take a chance and wear an emerald green dress?
    vote votes
    Sure, I mean, wearing it once probably wouldn't kill me...right?
    vote votes

Sources: Bitten by Witch Fever: Wallpaper & Arsenic in the Victorian Home by Lucinda Hawksley, Lucinda Hawksley / The Telegraph, Fashion Victims: The Dangers of Dress Past and Present by Alison Matthews David, Alison Matthews David / Pictoral, Allison Meier / Hyperallergic, Grace Elliot, The Pragmatic Costumer, Cherrybomb /, Vic / Jane Austen's World, Jennifer Wright / Racked, Robin Lindley / Crosscut, Michal Meyer / Science History Institute, Lucy Worsley, Marissa Doyle / NineteenTeen

BuzzFeed Daily

Keep up with the latest daily buzz with the BuzzFeed Daily newsletter!

Newsletter signup form