Cohen was co-captain of the mathematics team at Dwight Morrow High School in Englewood, New Jersey. The team became state champions in 1984. This picture appeared the same year in his high school yearbook.

The problem concerns reordering a stack of pancakes so that the largest is at the bottom and the smallest at the top. Bill Gates’s only mathematical paper is on this same topic.

Gage Skidmore / en.wikipedia.org

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The name is not just a pun on Herman Melville’s novel *Moby Dick*, but also refers to a one-sided mathematical surface known as a Möbius strip. The episode title is the punch line to the obscure joke: “What's non-orientable and lives in the ocean?”

Comedy Central / Via theinfosphere.org

Bender is more confused than spooked, but when he sees the digits reflected in the mirror as 1010011010 he is immediately terrified. No explanation is given in the dialogue, but those capable of translating binary to decimal would have appreciated that this is 666, the number of the beast.

Fox

This is a tribute to an Indian genius Srinivasa Ramanujan who observed that 1729 is the smallest number that is the sum of two positive cubes in two different ways. (1729 = 10^3 + 9^3 = 12^3 + 1^3.)

Ramanujan first started thinking about the number 1729 when he was visited by the mathematician G. H. Hardy, who had come to see him in a taxi with this number.

Fox / Via theinfosphere.org

Fox / Via theinfosphere.org

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