Recidivism seems to me - just a thought - another way of saying “we are releasing people too early.” Step one, IMHO, is to identify which drug crimes are harmful to society in a big way, and which ones are closer to alcohol - maybe screwing up the consumer but pretty much leaving everyone else alone. The people in the “leaving alone” category should be released. The minor drugs - marijuana for instance - should be de-criminalized. Will that cause spikes in the health problems of drug use - probably. Then I’d look at sentencing based on the individual’s probability of turning away from crime as opposed to the specific offense. There are people who serious mental issues for example - the dangerous ones, not the ones who sit on the porch all day and sing to themselves - and they need to be in forever. I’d try to identify those who have the skill set to survive “outside” - some don’t, some find the institutional setting reassuring and their behavor outside is sketchy - and those folks can stay. Third I’d identify the ones with intelligence, attitude and the energy to do well in society and move them to facilities where the psychos and violent freaks are never sent. The “services” that are being proposed for after they are released would instead start while they are inside, including more control over their lives, outside time for some, etc. The concept is to make risk assessments - which crimes merit the costs of jailing someone, which personalities are too dangerous to trust outside, etc. There are, seems to me, too many people in prison but we’re also letting too many prisoners out. Hence recidivism.